Shiwen Xu

Northeast Agricultural University, Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (40)81.52 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 04/2015; 45(2). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2015.04.016 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the expression levels of heat shock proteins genes (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and pesticide residues in the kidney tissue. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 were induced in the kidney of common carp by ATR, CPF, and ATR/CPF mixture. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the kidney tissues exhibited dose-dependency. These results exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that the expression levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 03/2015; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.040 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are involved in different types of stress-induced injuries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Se deficiency on oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis in chicken livers. Chickens (1 day old, n = 180) were randomly divided into two groups: the L group [fed with a Se-deficient (Se 0.033 mg/kg) diet] and the control group [fed with a normal (Se 0.2 mg/kg) diet]. Factor-associated oxidative stress, catalase (CAT) activity, H2O2 production and the inhibition of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in the chicken liver were determined on days 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65, respectively. In addition, ER stress-related genes (GRP78, GRP94, ATF4, ATF6 and IRE) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase3 and Bcl-2) were examined by fluorescence quantitative PCR or western blot analysis. Apoptosis levels were also measured using ultrastructural observations and the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The results showed that CAT activity and ·OH inhibition were decreased and that H2O2 production was increased in the low-Se group, which demonstrated that oxidative stress occurred in the chicken liver. The ER stress-related genes (GRP78, GRP94, ATF4, ATF6 and IRE) and the apoptosis-related gene caspase3 were increased (p < 0.05), while Bcl-2 was decreased (p < 0.05) by Se deficiency. In addition, apoptosis and ER lesions were observed by ultrastructural observations of the chicken liver in the low-Se group. The level of apoptosis and the number of apoptotic cells increased with time. These results indicated that the oxidative-ER stress pathway participates in Se deficiency-induced apoptosis in the chicken liver.
    BioMetals 03/2015; 28(2). DOI:10.1007/s10534-014-9819-3 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428 μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 μg/L) and combined ATR/CPF (1.13, 11.3 and 113 μg/L) on common carp head kidneys and spleens following 40 d exposure and 40 d recovery treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) content, activities of anti hydroxyl radical (AHR), anti superoxide anion (ASA), peroxidase (POD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the mRNA levels of the autophagy genes (LC3-II, dynein, TOR) were determined. The results indicate that the antioxidant enzyme (AHR, ASA, POD and iNOS) activities and NO content in the head kidney and spleen of the common carp increased significantly after a 40 d exposure to ATR and CPF alone or in combination. The mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein in common carp increased significantly after exposure to ATR and CPF alone, or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA levels of LC3-II and dynein decreased significantly after a 40-d recovery. However, the mRNA levels of TOR gene for all decreased significantly at the end of the exposure and the recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the oxidative stress-induced autophagic effects in the common carp by exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination. The information presented in the present study may be helpful to understanding the mechanisms of autophagy induced by ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 01/2015; 44(1). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2015.01.014 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Jianping Qu · Ming Li · Fuqing Zhao · Ci Liu · Ziwei Zhang · Shiwen Xu · Shu Li
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    ABSTRACT: Avermectin (AVM) is used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for the prevention of parasitic diseases; AVM is the active component of some insecticidal and nematicidal products. Residues of AVM drugs or their metabolites in livestock feces have toxic effects on non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In this study, changes in the levels of autophagy related genes and ultrastructure in pigeon brain tissues after subchronic exposure to AVM for 30, 60 and 90 d were investigated. The decrease in the mRNA levels of TORC1 and TORC2 and increase in the mRNA levels of LC3, Beclin 1, Dynein, ATG5 and ATG4B and the increase in the protein levels of LC3, Beclin 1 and Dynein in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the pigeon brain were observed. The number of autophagic vacuoles in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe increased significantly with the concentration of AVM and the exposure time. We found that the changes in the levels of autophagy related genes and the ultrastructure in the cerebrum were more obvious than in the cerebellum and the optic lobe. The results suggest that AVM could induce autophagy in pigeon brain tissues. The information presented in this study is helpful for understanding the mechanism of AVM-induced autophagy in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 12/2014; 113C:159-168. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.12.002 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Under normal conditions, autophagy occurs at basal levels but can be induced rapidly in response to stress conditions and extracellular signals. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that the expression of autophagy-related genes play very important roles in toxicology. Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the liver of common carp. Carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to ATR and CPF, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes in the liver. In addition, we also investigated the change in ultrastructure in the liver. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3B) and dynein were significantly induced in the treated groups compared to the solvent control group. Transmission electron microscope assays indicated that autolysosomes were observed in the exposure and recovery groups. These results indicated that ATR and CPF could induce autophagy in carp liver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to study the autophagy effects caused by sub-chronic exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in common carp. The information presented in the present study may provide new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 12/2014; 113C:52-58. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.11.027 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the role of Selenoprotein W (Sepw1) in modulating the expression of other selenoproteins. In the present study, we silenced and overexpressed the expression of Sepw1 in chicken myoblasts and subsequently treated the myoblasts with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and H2O2. Thereafter, the levels of expression of 25 selenoproteins and the activities of certain antioxidative enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were analyzed. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define the most important parameters that could be used as key factors. The results indicated that as a highly expressed selenoprotein (only lower than Gpx1, Selk, Sels and Sep15), Sepw1 could interact with H2O2 (P < 0.05) and influence the expression of some selenoproteins (Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Selt, Selh, Sepp1, Sels and Sep15, P < 0.05) and the sensitivity of the cells to H2O2. Both the overexpression and silencing of Sepw1 influenced the mRNA levels of selenoproteins. However, the responses of selenoproteins to altered Sepw1 expression were different. The results indicated that Sepw1 played a special role in H2O2 metabolism and may modulate the expression of certain selenoproteins through the redox pathway. Therefore, these results indicate that Sepw1 is an essential antioxidative selenoprotein in chicken myoblasts.
    RSC Advances 11/2014; 4(109):64032-64042. DOI:10.1039/C4RA11502C · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 11/2014; 168. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2014.11.002 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) deficiency induces pancreatic atrophy in chickens, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins and the content of nitric oxide (NO) and examined the relationship between selenoproteins and NO. Chickens (180; 1 day old) were randomly divided into two groups, low (L) group (fed with Se deficient (Se 0.033 mg/kg) diet) and control (C) group (fed with normal (Se 0.2 mg/kg) diet). Then, pancreas was collected at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days, and the content of NO, the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 25 selenoproteins and iNOS were measured. The results showed that 25 selenoproteins were decreased (P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Among them, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), selenoprotein S (SELS), selenoprotein U (SELU), selenoprotein X1 (SEPX1), and selenoprotein synthetase 2 (SPS2) were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens (P < 0.05). Thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), selenoprotein I (SELI), iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), selenoprotein P1 (SEPP1), selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1), selenoprotein O (SELO), selenoprotein T (SELT), selenoprotein M (SELM), selenoprotein X1 (SEPX1), and SPS2 were excessively decreased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, NO content, iNOS activity, and mRNA level were increased strikingly compared with C group (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis suggested that NO had a strong negative correlation with GPX1, glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), GPX3, DIO1, selenoprotein K (SELK), SELI, SEPX1, and SPS2. These results suggested that Se deficiency induced pancreatic injury by influencing NO and selenoproteins in pancreas of chickens. Thus, it offers some information on the mechanism of pancreatic injury induced by Se deficiency.
    Biological Trace Element Research 10/2014; 161(3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0139-9 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on the expressions of heat shock proteins (Hsp90, 70, 60, 40, and 27) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in neutrophils of broilers. One hundred eighty 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into two groups and were fed on a low-Se diet (0.008 mg/kg Se) or a control diet (0.2 mg/kg Se), respectively. Then, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp90, 70, 60, 40, and 27, induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and NO levels were examined. The results showed that Se deficiency increased the mRNA levels of Hsps and iNOS and induced higher level of NO in chicken neutrophils (P < 0.05). It showed that the expression of Hsp40 increased higher than other Hsps in neutrophils, which indicated that it might play the crucial protective role in neutrophils. In addition, correlation analysis showed that iNOS had the biggest correlation with Hsp60, which indicated that Hsp60 might play an important function in inhibiting the production of NO, and the correlation coefficient between Hsp60 and Hsp70 was over 0.9, which indicated that they might have a synergistic effect. These results suggested that the level of NO and Hsp expression levels in neutrophils can be influenced by Se deficiency. And Hsp40 might play the crucial protective role in neutrophils induced by Se deficiency.
    Biological Trace Element Research 10/2014; 161(3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0150-1 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium could induce the damage of endoplasmic reticulum. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Cadmium on messenger RNA expressions of endoplasmic reticulum resident selenoproteins, selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T, in cultured chicken lymphocytes and the antagonistic effect of Selenium. Chicken splenic lymphocytes were treated with 10(-7) mol/L Selenium, 10(-6) mol/L Cadmium, and the mixture of 10(-6) mol/L Selenium and 10(-7) mol/L Cadmium in the culture medium for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively. Then, we detected the messenger RNA expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T by using real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The results indicated that Selenium significantly increased the expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T, which were reduced by Cadmium in chicken splenic lymphocytes. It indicated that endoplasmic reticulum was one target of Cadmium toxication, and Cadmium toxicity might be related to the reduced expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T in chicken lymphocytes. Selenium reserved the protective role by increasing the expressions of selenoprotein K, selenoprotein N, selenoprotein S, and selenoprotein T. The present study provided a useful clue to investigate the possible pathogenesis of Cadmium toxicity.
    Biological Trace Element Research 10/2014; 161(3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0135-0 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary selenium (Se) deficiency induces muscular dystrophy in chicken, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 25 selenoproteins. One-day-old broiler chickens were fed either an Se deficiency diet (0.033 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a diet supplemented with Se (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 55 days. Then, the mRNA levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken muscles were examined, and the principal component was further analyzed. The results showed that antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 were highly and extensively expressed than other types of selenoproteins in chicken muscles. In 25 selenoproteins, Gpxs, Txnrd2, Txnrd 3, Dio1, Dio 3, Selk, Sels, Sepw1, Selh, Sep15, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1, Selo, Sepx1, and SPS2 were downregulated (P < 0.05), and other selenoproteins were not influenced (P > 0.05). Se deficiency decreased the expressions of 19 selenoproteins (P < 0.05), 11 of which were antioxidative selenoproteins. And, principal component analysis (PCA) further indicated that antioxidative selenoproteins, especially Gpx3, Gpx4, and Sepw1, may play crucial roles in chicken muscles. However, compared with these antioxidative selenoproteins, some other lower expressed selenoproteins (Dio1, Selu, Selpb, Sepp1) were excessively decreased (more than 60 %, P < 0.05) by Se deficiency. Thus, it may save the limited Se levels and be beneficial to remain the level of some crucial selenoproteins. These results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expressions of antioxidative selenoproteins in chicken muscles. And, antioxidative selenoproteins especially Gpxs and Sepw1 may play a crucial role in chicken muscles. Thus, it helps us focus on some specific selenoproteins when studying the role of Se in chicken muscles.
    Biological Trace Element Research 10/2014; 161(3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0125-2 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with cancers, although the molecular mechanisms behind this association are largely undetermined. Abnormal DNA methylation plays a key role in the process of some disease. However, little was known about the effect of pesticides on DNA methylation in the common carp. In this study, we investigated the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-CpG-binding protein DNA-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as well as the DNA methylation levels in the liver, kidney and gill of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 40-d exposure to atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone or in combination, and a 40-d recovery period. Juvenile common carp were exposed to various concentrations of ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 μg/L), and an ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 μg/L). The results revealed that the levels of genomic DNA methylation decreased in all tissues after 40 d of exposure to ATR and CPF either individually or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA expression of DNMTs was down-regulated in all treatment groups. In contrast, the mRNA expression of MBD2 was up-regulated. These results demonstrated that long-term exposure to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF mixtures could disrupt genomic DNA. It might imply that DNA methylation is involved in the toxicity caused by ATR and CPF in the common carp.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 10/2014; 108:142–151. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.06.011 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are toxic and subject to long-term in vivo accumulation in different aquatic species throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on cytokines in the head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6fam (IL-6), IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 (TGF-β) in the head kidney and spleen tissues. These results showed that the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in the head kidney and spleen was upregulated following ATR, CPF and mixed ATR/CPF exposure compared with the control group. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-β mRNA was significantly inhibited in both head kidney and spleen of carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. The results suggested that long-term exposure of ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture in aquatic environments can induce the dysregulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on cytokine mRNA expression generated in this study will be important information for pesticides toxicology evaluation.
    Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 09/2014; 114. DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.07.011 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.
    Biological Trace Element Research 08/2014; 161(2). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0092-7 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428μgL(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116μgL(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113μgL(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp.
    Chemosphere 02/2014; 104. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.002 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of Avermectin (AVM) on inflammation damage in king pigeon brain, eighty two-month-old American king pigeons were randomly divided into four groups, and were fed with either commercial diet or AVM-supplemented diet containing 20mgkg(-1)diet, 40mgkg(-1)diet, and 60mgkg(-1)diet AVM for 30, 60 and 90d, respectively. Then, the expression level of inflammatory factors (iNOS, PTGEs, NF-κB), histological damage, and ultra-structural damage were examined. It showed that AVM caused higher expressions (P<0.05) of iNOS, PTGEs, NF-κB with disorganized histological and ultra-structural structures in cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. Meanwhile, inflammatory and histopathological damage were induced by AVM in king pigeon brains. In addition, the main targeted organelle in nervous system was mitochondria, which indicated that mitochondria may be relevant to the process of inflammation induced by AVM. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to study the toxic effect of AVM on inflammatory damage in king pigeon. Thus, the information presented in this study is believed to be helpful in supplementing data for further AVM toxicity study.
    Chemosphere 10/2013; 93(10). DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.058 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common pesticides found in freshwater ecosystems throughout the world. In the present study, the common carps were exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture as describe in Table 1. Then we investigated the HSPs (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) expression in the brain of common carp by western blot and real-time PCR. Results indicated that HSP60 and HSP70 were significantly increased as compared to corresponding controls after 40 d exposure (P < 0.05). While the increased expression levels of HSP90 in exposure groups was only observed at 4.28 μg/L ATR group and 1.16 μg/L CPF group, and after 40 d recovery, the expression levels of HSP90 were higher than most of exposure groups (P < 0.05). It was suggested that the increased gene expression of HSPs was possible to protect injured cell mass caused by ATR, CPF and their mixture exposure. The present results provided new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments.
    Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 10/2013; 107(2):277–283. DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2013.09.002 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the immune organs of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 20-d recovery to measurethe acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In addition, we also investigated histopathological changes and pesticide residues in the spleen and head kidney. The results revealed that the responses of SOD, MDA, ALP, ACP, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to ATR, CPF and ATR/CPF combination exposure presented in a dose-dependent manner. The ACP activity and MDA content were significantly induced with increasing concentrations of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF. However, the enzyme activities (SOD, ALP, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) were reduced under exposure to increasing concentrations of these compounds. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the spleens and head kidneys tissues exhibited dose-dependency. Pathological changes included tissue damage that was more severe with increasing exposure doses. SOD activity negatively correlated with MDA accumulation. The biochemical parameters exhibited sensitivity to ATR and CPF, suggesting that they may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 08/2013; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.044 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrobenzene (NB) has become an important pollutant in the environment, but its potential effects on non-target species such as drake remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress response, the CYP450 system and histopathological changes of the liver of NB-treated drakes for 40d. Our results indicated that NB induced significant changes in antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT and GSH-Px) activities and the MDA content in the liver of the drakes. NB caused a condition-dependent increase in APND, EROD and ECOD isoenzyme activities and CYP450 content with increased exposure dose. Significant histological alternations were observed in the liver of NB-treated drakes and the pathological changes revealed tissue damage that was more severe with increasing of exposure dose. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the chronic effects of NB on oxidative stress, the CYP450 system and histopathology in the drakes. These significant effects caused by NB reveal that these indices can be used as biomarker for monitoring NB as an environmental pollutant. Thus, future studies are needed to fully understand the exact mechanisms of these findings.
    Research in Veterinary Science 08/2013; 95(3). DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.08.002 · 1.51 Impact Factor