[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify susceptibility genes for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 506 individuals with sporadic ALS and 1,859 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Ninety top SNPs suggested by the current GWAS and 6 SNPs identified by previous GWAS were analyzed in an independent cohort of 706 individuals with ALS and 1,777 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. We discovered two new susceptibility loci for ALS at 1q32 (CAMK1G, rs6703183, Pcombined = 2.92 × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR) = 1.31) and 22p11 (CABIN1 and SUSD2, rs8141797, Pcombined = 2.35 × 10(-9), OR = 1.52). These two loci explain 12.48% of the overall variance in disease risk in the Han Chinese population. We found no association evidence for the previously reported loci in the Han Chinese population, suggesting genetic heterogeneity of disease susceptibility for ALS between ancestry groups. Our study identifies two new susceptibility loci and suggests new pathogenic mechanisms of ALS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, research on attention has focused on 3 networks that are linked to separate brain regions, i.e. orienting, alerting, and executive control. The attention network test (ANT) is one of the methods to measure the three attention functions. However, neuropsychological investigations have not examined the anatomical disassociation of different attention networks with the same task. We compared the efficiencies of the 3 networks between brain-damaged patients (27 frontal lesions, 20 temporal lesions, and 21 parietal lesions) and healthy controls (N=58) with ANT. Comparing the brain damaged groupwith the normal controls, a reduced efficiency of the executive network was found in patients with frontal lobe and parietal lobe injuries, and there was also a deficit in the orienting network in patients with parietal lobe injuries. Analysis of lateralization indicated the right hemisphere superiority to the alerting system. The present study found that the three attentional networks were selectively impaired following brain damage which affected different areas in the brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impaired performance on visuospatial attentional tasks. The objective of the study was to examine the attentional function of PD patients performing the attentional network test (ANT). We used the ANT to compare PD patients with healthy controls with respect to the efficiency of 3 anatomically defined attentional networks: the alerting, orienting, and executive control networks. We found that PD patients showed a selective abnormality in the orienting network. Although the alerting and executive control networks apparently remained unaffected, the efficiencies of these networks in patients with PD negatively correlated with the Hoehn-Yahr stage. The results supported the idea that the orienting processes may be more dynamic in PD than in non-PD individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attention deficit is one of the most frequent symptoms in children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). However, it is unknown whether this is a global attention deficit or a deficit in a specific attention network. We used the attention network test (ANT) in children with IGE, who were not being treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), to determine the efficiencies of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). Children with IGE showed a significant deficit in their executive control network and in overall reaction time. However, they did not show any deficit in their alerting or orienting networks. These results suggest that IGE specifically affects the executive control network.