Shaleta Havard

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States

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Publications (14)29.58 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: A major limitation of studies reporting a lower prevalence rate of human papilloma virus (HPV) in African American (AA) oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC) patients than Caucasian Americans (CA), with corresponding worse outcomes, was adequate representation of HPV positive AA patients. This study examined survival outcomes in HPV positive and HPV negative AA with OPSCC EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The study cohort of 121 primary OPSCC had 42% AA. Variables of interest included age, race, gender, HPV status, stage, marital status, smoking, treatment, and date of diagnosis. RESULTS: CA are more likely to be HPV positive (OR=3.28, p=0.035), as are younger age (age <50 OR=7.14, p=0.023 compared to age >65) or being married (OR=3.44, p= 0.016). HPV positivity and being unmarried were associated with being late stage (OR=3.10, p=0.047 and OR=3.23, p=0.038, respectively). HPV negative patients had 2.7 times the risk of death as HPV positive patients (p=0.004). Overall, the HPV-race groups differed (log-rank p<0.001), with significantly worse survival for HPV negative AA vs 1) HPV positive AA (HR=3.44, p=0.0012); 2) HPV positive CA (HR=3.11, p=<0.049); and 3) HPV negative CA (HR=2.21, p=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: HPV has a substantial impact on overall survival in AA OPSCC. Among AA OPSCC, HPV positive patients had better survival than HPV negative. HPV negative AA also did worse than both, HPV positive CA and HPV negative CA. This study adds to the mounting evidence of HPV as a racially-linked sexual behavior life style risk factor impacting survival outcomes for both AA and CA OPSCC patients.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of p16(INK4A) (p16 positive) is highly correlated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), however, p16-positivity is not limited to HPV positive tumors and therefore, not a perfect surrogate for HPV. p16 survival outcomes are best documented for the oropharyngeal site (OP); non-OP sites such as the oral cavity (OC), larynx, and hypopharynx (HP) are understudied. The goal of this study was to evaluate p16 in the context of HPV16 and examine p16 survival outcomes in HPV16 positive and HPV16 negative site-specific HNSCC. p16 and HPV16 status were determined by immunohistochemistry and qPCR respectively, on 80 primary HNSCC from four sites: OC, OP, larynx and HP. p16 expression was different across sites (p<0.001), was more frequent in OP than non-OP sites (p<0.0001), and was different between Caucasian Americans (CA) and African Americans (AA) (p=0.031), similar to HPV (p=0.013). p16 was associated with marital status (p=0.008) and smoking (p=0.014). p16 positive patients had improved survival (similar to HPV16 positive cases). Patients with p16 negative/HPV16 negative status had the worst survival for all sites combined as well as for OP. p16 status is an important prognostic indicator in both OPSCC and non-OPSCC and the p16 positive/HPV16 negative group is likely a distinct subgroup lacking any HPV genotype. Cohorts with larger representations of non-OP sites examining multiple molecular markers will be key to deciphering and dissecting out p16's role as a useful prognostic indicator when assessed in combination with HPV status.
    Cancer and clinical oncology. 01/2013; 2(1):51-61.
  • International Journal of Head and Neck Surgery. 05/2012; 3:76-81.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of consensus regarding the causes of the differences in the higher incidence of and the mortality from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in African Americans (AA) versus Caucasian Americans (CA). We examined a comprehensive array of risk factors influencing health and disease in an access-to-care, racially diverse, primary HNSCC cohort. Cross-sectional study. Primary care academic health care system. The cohort of 673 patients comprised 391 CA and 282 AA (42%). Risk variables included demographic, histopathology, and clinical/epidemiologic factors. Tumor DNA was interrogated for loss and gain of 113 genes with known involvement in HNSCC/cancer. Logistic regression for univariate analysis was followed by multivariate modeling with determination of model predictability (c-index). Of the 39 univariate differences between AA and CA, multivariate modeling (c-index = 0.81) retained 7 differences (P < .05). AA were less likely to be married and more likely to have tumor lymphocytic response, undergo radiation treatment, and smoke. Insurance type was a significant predictor of race. AA were more likely to have Medicaid, Medicare, and other HMO types. AA tumors were more likely to have loss of CDKN2A and gain of SCYA3 versus CA. Multivariate modeling indicated significant differences between AA and CA HNSCC for histopathology, treatment, smoking, marital status, type of insurance, and tumor gene copy number alterations. Our data reiterate that for HNSCC, as in the case of other complex diseases, tumor genetics or biology is only one of many potential contributors to differences among racial groups.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 03/2012; 147(2):281-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A tissue field of somatic genetic alterations precedes the histopathological phenotypic changes of carcinoma. Genomic changes could be of potential use in the diagnosis and prognosis of pre-invasive squamous head and neck carcinoma (HNSCC) lesions and as markers for cancer risk assessment. Studies of sequential molecular alterations and genetic progression of pre-invasive HNSCC have not been clearly defined. Studies have shown recurring alterations at chromosome 9p21 (location of the CDKN2A) and TP53 mutations in the early stages of HNSCC. However, gene silencing via hypermethylation is still a relatively new idea in the development of HNSCC and little is known about the contribution of epigenetics to the development of neoplasia, its transformation, progression, and recurrence in HNSCC. This review examines the role of promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in the progression continuum from benign papillomas to malignancy in HNSCC.
    Cancer letters 02/2012; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, is a causative agent for 25% of head and neck squamous cell cancer, including laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC). HPV-positive (HPV+ve) patients, particularly those with oropharyngeal SCC, have improved prognosis. For LSCC patients, this remains to be established. The goal was to determine stage and survival outcomes in LSCC in the context of HPV infection. Historical cohort study. Primary care academic health system. In 79 patients with primary LSCC, HPV was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. χ(2) or Fisher exact test was used to test the association of HPV+ve with 21 risk factors including race, stage, gender, age, smoking, alcohol, treatment, and health insurance. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to study the association of HPV and LSCC survival outcome. HPV16 was detected in 27% of LSCC patients. Caucasian American (CA) patients had higher HPV prevalence (33%) than did African American (AA) LSCC patients (16%; P = .058). HPV was significantly associated with gender (P = .016) and insurance type (P = .001). There were no differences in survival between HPV+ve and HPV-negative (HPV-ve) patients. There was no association with HPV and other risk factors including stage (early vs late). We found a high prevalence of HPV in men and a lower prevalence of HPV infection in AA compared with CA. Despite the strikingly better survival of patients with HPV+ve oropharyngeal tumors, even when adjusted for smoking, this correlation does not seem to hold true in the larynx. Larger multiethnic LSCC cohorts are needed to more clearly delineate HPV-related survival across ethnicities.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 01/2012; 146(5):730-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to genetic alterations of gains and losses, epigenetic events of promoter methylation appear to further undermine a destabilized genomic repertoire in squamous head and neck carcinoma (HNSCC). This chapter provides an overview of frequently methylated tumor suppressor genes in benign head and neck papillomas, primary HNSCC tumors, and HNSCC cell lines and their relevance as epigenetic markers in head and neck tumorigenesis.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 863:187-206. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic events specific to the pathogenesis of malignancy can offer clues to the tumorigenesis process. The objective of this study was to identify gene alterations that differentiate tumor and nontumor lesions in squamous head and neck cancer (HNSCC). DNA from 220 primary HNSCC with concurrently present tumor and nontumor lesions from the same patient was interrogated for genomic alterations of loss or gain of copy. Conditional logistic regression dealt with tumor and non-tumor records within a patient. Of 113 genes, 53 had univariate effects (P < 0.01), of which 16 genes remained in the multivariable model with P < 0.01. The model had a C-index (ROC) of 0.93. Loss of CDKN2B and gain of BCL6, FGF3, and PTP4A3 predicted tumor. Loss of BAK1 and CCND1 and gain of STCH predicted nontumor. This highly powered model assigned alterations in 16 genes specific for malignant versus nonmalignant lesions, supporting their contribution to the pathogenesis of HNSCC as well as their potential utility as relevant targets for further evaluation as markers of early detection and progression.
    Journal of Oncology 01/2012; 2012:752860.
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    ABSTRACT: In a study of genetic alterations, the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay was used to measure gain or loss of 113 gene-probes in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples collected from each of the 220 patients with squamous head and neck cancer (HNSCC). Conditional and marginal models were available; both models account for correlated data but have different aspects. The conditional logistic regression model was proposed to estimate the subject-specific risk of tumor based on the paired tumor and non-tumor data collection, which was in contrast with the marginal model to estimate population-average risk.The modeling process included rigorous variable selection, an initial multivariable model, a final model selection, and model validation. Genes with individual effect (p<0.01) were considered as candidates for the initial multivariable model for tumor. The final model included gene-probes with p<0.01 and estimations of odds ratios (OR) 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) and the model's predictive ability, measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). A 10-fold cross-validation was performed to validate the model. Of 113 gene-probes, using the conditional approach, 16 genes in 7 chromosomes, remained in the final multivariable model with p<0.01 and an ROC score of 0.94. The cross-validation showed ROC mean (SD) score of 0.96(0.04). The marginal model, in contrast, ended with 8 gene-probes and had an observed ROC of 0.81. CONCLUSION: The conditional approach appears to be the model of choice when assessing gene-probe risks of subjects with paired data collection and fewer missing covariates, compared to the marginal approach. This multiple gene model demonstrated excellent ability to discriminate tumor from non-tumor, and supports its contribution to the pathogenesis of HNSCC as well as their potential utility for further markers of early tumor detection.
    Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy 12/2011; S1:1.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal was to determine recurrent or second primary status for late stomal malignancies, 16 and 17 years post-total laryngectomy in two laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients, based on DNA methylation signatures and HPV typing. Adopting a literature review based definition of late stomal recurrences as new primaries at the site of the stoma or neopharynx occurring >5 years after total laryngectomy, we employed a multi-gene candidate approach to examine promoter methylation in 24 tumor suppressor genes and PCR-based assays for HPV status offered additional insights into whether the late stomal tumors post-total laryngectomy were related or not. The primary tumor for Patient 1 was negative for HPV but had aberrant hypermethylation of APC, MLH1 and BRCA1. The stomal biopsy 17-years later showed presence of HPV-16 without any methylated genes. In Patient 2, HPV-11 and promoter methylation of APC identified in the primary tumor was also observed in the stomal malignancy 16 years post-total laryngectomy. Additional information provided by molecular typing for HPV and methylation markers underscored Patient 1's and 2's late stomal presentation as most likely a second primary and recurrence, respectively. DNA methylation markers are particularly advantageous because DNA methylation is an early event in tumorigenesis, and the epigenetic modification, 5-methylcytosine, is a stable marker. Molecular marks to discern genetic heterogeneity or relatedness of stomal malignancies several years post-total laryngectomy can provide clues to their status as either second primaries or likely recurrences. Our results support the hypothesis that a subset of stomal recurrences after total laryngectomy represents second primary tumors.
    Oncology Reports 03/2011; 25(3):669-76. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined molecular (DNA hypermethylation), clinical, histopathological, demographical, smoking, and alcohol variables to assess diagnosis (early versus late stage) and prognosis (survival) outcomes in a retrospective primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cohort. The study cohort of 79 primary LSCC was drawn from a multi-ethnic (37% African American), primary care patient population, diagnosed by surgical biopsies in the Henry Ford Health System from 1991-2004, and followed from 5-18 years (through 2009). Of the 41 variables, univariate risk factors of p<0.10 were tested in multivariate models (logistic regression {diagnosis} and Cox {survival} models {p<0.05}). Aberrant methylation of ESR1 (p=0.01), race as African American (p=0.04), and tumor necrosis (extensive) (p=0.02) were independent predictors of late stage LSCC. Independent predictors of poor survival included presence of vascular invasion (p=0.0009), late stage disease (p=0.03) and methylation of the HIC1 gene (p=0.0002). Aberrant methylation of ESR1 and HIC1 signified independent markers of poorer outcome. In this multi-ethnic, primary LSCC cohort, race remained a predictor of late stage disease supporting disparate diagnosis outcomes for African American patients with LSCC.
    Clinical Epigenetics 09/2010; 1(1-2):61-69. · 6.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promoter hypermethylation is emerging as a promising molecular strategy for early detection of cancer. We examined promoter methylation status of 1143 cancer-associated genes to perform a global but unbiased inspection of methylated regions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Laboratory-based study. Integrated health care system. Five samples, two frozen primary HNSCC biopsies and three HNSCC cell lines, were examined. Whole genomic DNA was interrogated using a combination of DNA immunoprecipitation (IP) and Affymetrix whole-genome tiling arrays. Of the 1143 unique cancer genes on the array, 265 were recorded across five samples. Of the 265 genes, 55 were present in all five samples, and 36 were common to four of five samples, 46 to three of five, 56 to two of five, and 72 to one of five samples. Hypermethylated genes in the five samples were cross-examined against those in PubMeth, a cancer methylation database combining text mining and expert annotation (http://www.pubmeth.org). Of the 441 genes in PubMeth, only 33 are referenced to HNSCC. We matched 34 genes in our samples to the 441 genes in the PubMeth database. Of the 34 genes, eight are reported in PubMeth as HNSCC associated. This pilot study examined the contribution of global DNA hypermethylation to the pathogenesis of HNSCC. The whole-genome methylation approach indicated 231 new genes with methylated promoter regions not yet reported in HNSCC. Examination of this comprehensive gene panel in a larger HNSCC cohort should advance selection of HNSCC-specific candidate genes for further validation as biomarkers in HNSCC.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 07/2010; 143(1):116-21, 121.e1-19. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Maria J. Worsham, Mei Lu, Alissa Kapke, Shaleta E. Havard
    Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery - OTOLARYNGOL HEAD NECK SURG. 01/2008; 139(2).
  • Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 08/2007; 137(2). · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Maria J. Worsham, Mei Lu, Alissa Kapke, Shaleta E. Havard
    Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery - OTOLARYNGOL HEAD NECK SURG. 01/2007; 137(2).

Publication Stats

37 Citations
29.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • Henry Ford Health System
      • Department of Public Health Sciences
      Detroit, Michigan, United States