[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been found in Arctic wildlife, lake sediment, and air. To identify the atmospheric BFR deposition history on Svalbard, Norway, we analyzed 19 BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDE) in the upper 34 m of an ice core (representing 1953-2005) from Holtedahlfonna, the western-most ice sheet on Svalbard. All of the non-PBDE compounds were detected in nearly continuous profiles in the core. Seven PBDEs were not observed above background (28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 154, 153), while 4 were found in 1 or 2 of 6 segments (17, 85, 138, 183). BDEs-49, 71, 190, 209 had nearly continuous profiles but only BDE-209 in large amounts. The greatest inputs were HBCD and BDE-209, 910, and 320 pg cm(-2) yr(-1) from 1995-2005. DBDPE, BTBPE, and PBEB show nearly continuous input growth in recent core segments, but all were <6 pg cm(-2) yr(-1). Long-range atmospheric processes may have moved these particle-bound BFRs to the site, probably during the Arctic haze season. Average air mass trajectories over 10 years show >75% of atmospheric flow to Holtedahlfonna coming from Eurasia during haze periods (March and April).
Environmental Science & Technology 10/2010; 44(19):7405-10. · 5.26 Impact Factor