Sanjeev Sabharwal

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, United States

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Publications (55)114.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Study Design. Retrospective uncontrolled case seriesObjective. The purpose of this study was to determine the association, if any, between intraoperative blood loss and need for transfusion with the use of periapical (Ponte) osteotomies, as well as other patient and surgical variables amongst patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) undergoing posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion.Summary of Background Data. Blood loss during posterior spinal fusion for AIS can be substantial. Numerous techniques are used to minimize intraoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic transfusion. However it is unclear which patient and surgeon variables affect blood loss most significantly.Methods. A review was conducted on consecutive AIS patients who had undergone posterior spinal fusion from July 1997 to February 2013 by a single primary surgeon at one institution. The relationship of estimated blood loss (EBL), normalized blood loss (NBL) (NBL = EBL/number levels fused/patient's weight in kilograms), autologous blood retrieved, and allogenic transfusion received, with various patient and procedure related variables were analyzed.Results. EBL, NBL, and autologous blood retrieved were higher in patients who underwent periapical Ponte osteotomies (n = 38) (P<0.0001, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively). The mean major curve correction was 64% in patients without osteotomies, and 65% in patients with osteotomies (p = 0.81). All patients who underwent osteotomies (38/38) received allogenic transfusion versus 26% (19/73) of those without osteotomies (P<0.001). The likelihood of transfusion correlated with increasing number of osteotomies and a lower preoperative hemoglobin level (Odds Ratio 3.34, p = 0.003, and 0.51, p = 0.02 respectively).Conclusions. In patients with AIS undergoing posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation, performing periapical osteotomies increased all measures of intraoperative blood loss and need for transfusion without substantially improving major curve correction. As expected, a lower preoperative hemoglobin level was observed in patients who received a blood transfusion after posterior instrumentation and fusion.
    Spine 05/2014; · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Seung-Ju Kim, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a systematic review of published studies that evaluated the potential risk factors and outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized children. A total of 761 VTE patients from six published studies were identified. The mean prevalence of VTE in children admitted to the hospital was 9.7/10 000 admissions. The presence of a central venous catheter was found to be the single most important predisposing cause of VTE, with a pooled percentage of 29%. Infection was the second most common cause of the disease (20%). Pulmonary embolism occurred in 15% (113/745) of the patients. The overall recurrence rate of VTE was 16% (74/464) and the mortality rate was 8% (59/704). Although uncommon, orthopedic surgeons need to be aware of the unique risk factors for VTE among pediatric inpatients. Hospitalized children and adolescents with known risk factors for VTE should be considered candidates for VTE screening or prophylaxis.
    Journal of pediatric orthopaedics. Part B / European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America 04/2014; · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    Seung-Ju Kim, Wendy Pierce, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose - Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been used to gain height in short statured individuals. However, there have been no studies comparing the clinical outcome of limb lengthening based on the etiology of the short stature. We assessed whether different underlying diagnoses are associated with varied clinical outcomes in these patients. Methods - We performed a systematic review of the literature pertaining to lower limb lengthening using external fixation for short stature. Clinical outcomes including amount of lengthening, healing index (HI), and complications based on the underlying diagnosis for the short stature were documented. Results - 18 clinical studies were included, with 547 patients who underwent 1,581 lower limb segment lengthening procedures. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. The average age at lengthening was less for individuals with achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia (A/H) (14.5 years) than for those with Turner's syndrome (TS) (18.2 years) or with constitutional short stature (CSS) (21.7 years). Mean height gained was greater in patients with A/H (9.5 cm) than in those with TS (7.7 cm) or CSS (6.1 cm) group. The HI was better in A/H (30.8 days/cm) and CSS (32 days/cm) than in TS (45.1 days/cm). The reported complication rate per segment was lower for A/H (0.68) and TS (0.71) than for CSS (1.06). Interpretation - Patients with A/H tolerated larger amounts of lengthening with fewer complications than those with other diagnoses.
    Acta Orthopaedica 04/2014; 85(2):181-6. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The radial nerve is at risk for iatrogenic injury during placement of pins, screws, or wires around the distal humerus. Unlike adults, detailed anatomic information about the relationship of the nerve to the distal humerus is lacking in children. This study evaluates the relationship of the radial nerve to the distal humerus in a pediatric population on conventional MRI and proposes an anatomic safe zone using easily identifiable bony landmarks on an AP elbow radiograph. To determine the course of the radial nerve at the lateral distal humerus, we reviewed 23 elbow radiographs and MRIs of 22 children (mean age, 9 ± 4 years; range, 3-12 years) obtained as part of their workup for various elbow conditions. We described a technique using distance ratios calculated as a percentage of the patient's own transepicondylar distance, defined as the distance measured between the apices of the medial and lateral epicondyles, on the AP elbow radiograph and the midcoronal MR image. The cross-reference tool on a Picture Archiving and Communication System was then used to identify axial MR image at the level where the transepicondylar distance was measured. On this axial image, a line was drawn connecting the medial and lateral epicondyles (the transepicondylar axis) and its midpoint was determined. The radial nerve angle was measured by a line from the radial nerve to the midpoint of the transepicondylar axis and a line along the lateral half of the transepicondylar axis. On this axial slice, the closest distance from the nerve to the underlying cortex of the distal humerus was measured. To further localize the nerve along the distal humerus, predetermined percentages of the transepicondylar distance were projected proximally from the level of the transepicondylar axis along the longitudinal axis of the humerus on the midcoronal MR image. At these designated heights, the corresponding axial MR image was identified using the cross-reference tool and the nerve was mapped in a similar fashion. We then proposed a simpler method using a best-fit line drawn along the lateral supracondylar ridge on the AP radiograph to define the safe zone for lateral pin entry. On axial MR images, the radial nerve was located in the anterolateral quadrant with a mean radial nerve angle of 54° (range, 35°-87) at 0% transepicondylar distance (23 MRIs), 41° (range, 24°-63°) at 50% transepicondylar distance (23 MRIs), and ≥ 10° at 75% transepicondylar distance (on the 13 MRIs that extended this far cephalad). The mean closest distance between the radial nerve and the underlying humeral cortex was 10 mm (range, 3-26 mm) at 0% transepicondylar distance and 7 mm (3-16 mm) at 50% transepicondylar distance. On the AP elbow radiograph, the height of the lateral supracondylar ridge, determined by a best-fit line drawn along the lateral cortex of the ridge, diverged from the most proximal extent of the ridge at a point located at 60% transepicondylar distance (range, 51%-76%). At the corresponding location on the axial MR image, the nerve was located anterolaterally with a mean radial nerve angle of 39° (range, 15°-61°) and a mean distance of 6 mm (range, 2-10 mm) from the underlying humerus. Our data suggest that percutaneous direct lateral entry Kirschner wires and half-pins can be safely inserted in the distal humerus in children along the transepicondylar axis, either at or slightly posterior to the lateral supracondylar ridge, when placed caudal to the point located where the lateral supracondylar ridge line diverges from the proximal extent of the supracondylar ridge on AP elbow radiograph.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 02/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Seung-Ju Kim, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: A procurvatum deformity of the proximal tibia often is seen in patients with Blount's disease. If left untreated, it can lead to progressive angulation in the sagittal plane and altered contact stresses across the knee. We asked the following questions: (1) Is the mean angle of procurvatum measured from full-length lateral radiographs of the tibia greater than that of procurvatum measured from clinical photographs of the affected lower extremity? (2) Is there a linear relationship between radiographically measured procurvatum and radiographically measured procurvatum? We treated 72 patients surgically for Blount's disease between 1997 and 2012; of those, 29 patients were excluded from this analysis because they did not have adequate photographs or radiographs, leaving 43 patients (60% of the patients treated surgically; 47 limbs total), mean age of 13 years (range, 6-25 years), who underwent surgical realignment for Blount's disease were retrospectively evaluated at a median of 97 months after surgery (range, 24-170 months). Genu procurvatum was measured from full-length lateral radiographs of the tibia and clinical photographs of the affected lower extremity. We then assessed the relationship between radiographically measured procurvatum and clinically measured procurvatum using linear regression analysis. The mean preoperative radiographically measured procurvatum (12.3°; range -3.1° to 55.2°) was larger than the clinically measured procurvatum (6.0°; range, -1° to 45°; p = 0.024). The mean postoperative radiographically measured procurvatum (4.2°; range -4.8° to 30.3°) was larger than the clinically measured procurvatum (2.1°; range, -2° to 20°; p = 0.041). Preoperatively and postoperatively, radiographically measured procurvatum and clinically measured procurvatum were well correlated (linear regression p < 0.001). After surgical realignment, the mean improvement in radiographically measured procurvatum (8.2°) was larger than that measured for clinically measured procurvatum (3.8°) (p = 0.018). In patients with Blount's disease, visual inspection of the extremity can underestimate the procurvatum deformity of the proximal tibia relative to the measurable deformity on radiographs. Furthermore, surgical correction of proximal tibial procurvatum does not lead to clinical hyperextension of the knee. Level IV, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 01/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Sanjeev Sabharwal, Alpesh Mehta, Cornelia Wenokor
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    ABSTRACT: A 12-year-old boy fell on his flexed knee and was unable to actively extend the injured knee. Radiographs demonstrated a small osseous fragment at the superior pole of the patella and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the periosteal sleeve to be detached from the superior pole of the patella involving approximately three fourths of the undersurface of the quadriceps tendon footprint. This unusual variant of a patellar sleeve fracture was repaired using bioabsorbable suture anchors. Four months postoperatively, he had regained full mobility and strength of the injured knee. Prompt diagnosis aided with magnetic resonance imaging can help delineate the extent of injury. Surgical repair using a parapatellar arthrotomy without disrupting the most superficial fibers of the quadriceps mechanism is feasible and allows the patient to return to their functional activities in a short period.
    Techniques in Orthopaedics 01/2014; 29(1):33-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Children with Blount disease are typically obese. The goal of our study was to assess whether children with Blount disease had lower body mass index (BMI) after surgical correction of their lower limb deformity. A surgical data base was used to identify children with Blount disease. Demographic information including age of disease onset, ethnicity, health insurance status, and laterality was noted. Preoperative and most recent BMI values were documented. Using full-length standing radiographs, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD) and leg length discrepancy (LLD) were measured preoperatively and at latest follow-up. The relationship of the change in BMI with various demographic and radiologic parameters was evaluated. Fifty-one children (32 males, 19 females) with Blount disease (23 early onset, 28 late onset) affecting 70 lower extremities (32 unilateral and 19 bilateral) underwent a variety of surgical procedures. All 47 children who underwent gradual correction with external fixation also underwent nutritional counseling while receiving inpatient rehabilitation. At an average follow-up of 48 months, MAD improved from 80.5 mm medial to 16.1 mm medial (P<0.0001) and LLD improved from 19.6 to 10.9 mm (P=0.0002). During the same time period, the BMI increased from 35 (95% confidence interval, 32-37) to 38 (95% confidence interval, 35-41; P=0.0006). Compared with their preoperative BMI, 76% of the children had an increase in their BMI at the latest follow-up. There was no association of the change in the patient's BMI with their age of disease onset, sex, ethnicity, health insurance status, final MAD, or LLD. There was a tendency for the patient's BMI to increase with longer follow-up (P=0.002). Using multivariate analysis, only the length of follow-up was associated with an increase in BMI (P=0.026). Despite improvement in limb alignment and LLD after surgery, the BMI of the majority of children with Blount disease increased over time. Other strategies for addressing obesity amongst these children are warranted. Level IV-case series.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 07/2013; · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Sanjeev Sabharwal, Caixia Zhao, Marian Passanante
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    ABSTRACT: On the basis of a recent survey of Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America members, 59% of the respondents acknowledged having encountered at least 1 child with the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The current survey sought further information including patient demographics, underlying diagnosis, presence of certain risk factors for VTE, and the clinical outcome. A follow-up web-based questionnaire was sent to 121 active members of Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America who had provided their contact information in the prior survey. Thirty-eight respondents provided clinical details on 46 children. The mean age of the affected patients was 14.3 (95% confidence interval, 13.3-15.3) years and 61% were males. The average body mass index was 28 (95% confidence interval, 25-31). Forty-four percent of the patients were diagnosed with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, 26% with pulmonary embolism (PE) only, and 30% with both DVT and PE. Majority of the children had DVT involving the popliteal area or thigh (16 cases each). Lower extremity surgery (29 cases, including proximal femoral/tibial osteotomies, internal fixation of long bone fractures, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and resection of osteochondroma around the knee) and adolescence (28 cases) were the 2 most commonly cited associations. Other cases were noted with spinal surgery (8 children) and musculoskeletal infections (7 children). Three patients developed a postphlebitic syndrome, 1 had recurrent DVT and 2 children died. Both deceased children were diagnosed with DVT and PE including a 9-year-old child with a positive family history of antithrombin-3 deficiency that was not noted preoperatively. Although uncommon, potentially fatal VTE can occur among children with a variety of musculoskeletal ailments. Obtaining a family history suggestive of thrombophilia preoperatively should be encouraged. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain the role of prophylaxis against VTE among children in an orthopaedic practice. Level IV-case series.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 06/2013; · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Seung-Ju Kim, Tamir Bloom, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Leg-length discrepancy (LLD) can be a sequela of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). We tried to identify factors that affect the development of LLD following SCFE. Patients and method We evaluated 85 patients who had been treated using percutaneous screw fixation. The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 12 (8-16) years. The relationship of LLD and various clinical and radiographic parameters was evaluated: the degree of slip, articulotrochanteric distance (ATD), and articulotrochanteric distance difference (ATDD) (healthy side minus the side with SCFE). We assessed the relationship between ATDD and LLD based on scanogram. Results The average LLD was 1.4 (0.1-3.8) cm at 6 (2-15) years postoperatively. 48 of 85 patients had an LLD of greater than 1 cm and 10 patients had an LLD of greater than 2 cm. There was a correlation between the magnitude of LLD and the severity of the slip. There was no statistically significant correlation between LLD and the stability of the slip, age, BMI, sex, or race. There was a significant correlation between LLD and ATDD. Interpretation Patients with a high degree of slip are prone to develop clinically significant LLD. Although ATDD does not give the exact LLD, it can be used as a primary measurement, which should be supplemented with scanogram in cases of clinically significant differences in length.
    Acta Orthopaedica 04/2013; 84(3). · 2.45 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although several systems exist for classifying specific limb deformities, there currently are no validated rating scales for evaluating the complexity of general lower limb deformities. Accurate assessment of the complexity of a limb deformity is essential for successful treatment. A committee of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (LLRS) therefore developed the LLRS AIM Index to quantify the severity of a broad range of lower extremity deformities in seven domains. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We addressed two questions: (1) Does the LLRS AIM Index show construct validity by correlating with rankings of case complexity? (2) Does the LLRS AIM Index show sufficient interrater and intrarater reliabilities? METHODS: We had eight surgeons evaluate 10 fictionalized patients with various lower limb deformities. First, they ranked the cases from simplest to most complex, and then they rated the cases using the LLRS AIM Index. Two or more weeks later, they rated the cases again. We assessed reliability using the Kendall's W test. RESULTS: Raters were consistent in their rankings of case complexity (W = 0.33). Patient rankings also correlated with both sets of LLRS AIM ratings (r(2) = 0.25; r(2) = 0.23). The LLRS AIM Index showed interrater reliability with an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.97 for Trial 1 and 0.98 for Trial 2 and intrarater reliability with an ICC of 0.94. The LLRS AIM Index ratings also were highly consistent between the attending surgeons and surgeons-in-training (ICC = 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminarily observations suggest that the LLRS AIM Index reliably classifies the complexity of lower limb deformities in and between observers.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 10/2012; 471(2). · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Sanjeev Sabharwal, Michael Z Root
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity among children and adults is increasing worldwide. There are substantial health risks and financial costs associated with the obesity epidemic that impact the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Patients with increased body mass index are more prone to sustaining distal extremity injuries than are those with a normal body mass index. Obese individuals are more likely than nonobese individuals to seek treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 06/2012; 94(11):1045-52. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical and radiographic abnormalities of the lower limb in children with Blount disease are well known. However, there is controversy regarding the intra-articular morphologic changes in the involved knee joint. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the meniscal and articular surface morphology in children with Blount disease with use of magnetic resonance imaging and to compare these findings with similar measurements in a control group. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans of the knee of children with Blount disease were compared with those of a control group. Coronal and sagittal morphometric parameters including the height and width of the menisci, thickness of the unossified proximal tibial epiphysis, tibial condylar and meniscal inclination, and presence of signal changes and/or tears of the menisci were documented. Twenty-six children (thirty-three) knees with Blount disease (mean age, 10.5 years) and twenty children without Blount disease (mean age, 9.6 years) were identified. The midcoronal medial meniscal height and width were greater in the Blount disease group (p < 0.0001). Abnormal signal changes were noted in the medial meniscus in twelve limbs (39%) in the Blount group and one limb (5%) in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean thickness of the unossified cartilage of the proximal medial tibial epiphysis was also greater in the Blount disease group (p = 0.0005). The morphology of the menisci and unossified cartilage in the lateral compartment did not differ between the two groups. The mean tibial condylar and bimeniscal inclinations in the coronal and sagittal planes were also similar in both groups. In a multivariate regression analysis, only body mass index correlated with the height of the medial meniscus in the coronal plane (p = 0.0035) and of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in the sagittal plane (p = 0.0037) in children with Blount disease. Children with Blount disease have increased thickness of the chondroepiphysis of the proximal medial aspect of the tibia, increased height and width of the medial meniscus, and greater frequency of abnormal signals in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. These morphologic changes may compensate for the diminished height of the ossified portion of the medial proximal aspect of the tibia in patients with Blount disease.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 05/2012; 94(10):883-90. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    Sanjeev Sabharwal, S Robert Rozbruch
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 12/2011; 93(24):2323-32. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    Daniil L Polishchuk, Jenifer Hashem, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: Recommended readability of patient education materials is sixth-grade level or lower. Readability of 212 patient education materials pertaining to adult reconstruction topics available from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons, and 3 other specialty and private practitioner Web sites was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid grade formula. The mean Flesch-Kincaid score was 11.1 (range, 3-26.5). Only 5 (2%) articles had a readability level of sixth grade or lower. Readability of most of the articles for patient education on adult reconstruction Web sites evaluated may be too advanced for a substantial portion of patients. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal readability level of health information on the Internet.
    The Journal of arthroplasty 10/2011; 27(5):716-9. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Sanjeev Sabharwal, Robert MacLeod
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    ABSTRACT: With advances in chemotherapy, long-term survival for childhood leukemia is improving. However, chemotherapy-induced osteonecrosis of the proximal femur remains a challenging problem. We present a case of an adolescent female with advanced osteonecrosis of the proximal femur after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. She underwent an Ilizarov hip reconstruction with a subtrochanteric valgus extension osteotomy and distal femoral lengthening with varus angulation using an external fixator. At a 3-year follow-up, her symptoms and gait had markedly improved. On the basis of this preliminary report, Ilizarov hip reconstruction is a viable alternative for advanced osteonecrosis of the proximal femur in an adolescent.
    Journal of pediatric orthopaedics. Part B / European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America 07/2011; 21(3):252-9. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The utility of intraoperative radiographs after posterior spinal segmental instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is debatable. A retrospective review of 74 patients with moderately severe AIS revealed the main thoracic Cobb measurements of 57° preoperatively, 17° intraoperatively, 18° on initial postoperative, and 20° on final postoperative radiographs. On the basis of the extent and type of instrumentation (pedicle screws vs. hybrid construct), there was no clinically significant difference in curve magnitude between intraoperative and postoperative radiographs. After posterior segmental instrumentation for moderate AIS, frontal plane correction measured on intraoperative supine radiographs are comparable with similar measurements made on full-length postoperative standing radiographs.
    Journal of pediatric orthopaedics. Part B / European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America 06/2011; 20(6):389-96. · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Tamir Bloom, Linda Y Chen, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum pin configuration and the number of pins needed to stabilize the Milch type II lateral humeral condyle fractures in a pediatric bone model. Forty synthetic pediatric humeri were sectioned through the lateral distal humerus to simulate a Milch type II lateral condyle fracture. Each fracture was stabilized with 0.062-in K-wires in 1 of 5 configurations: 2 convergent pins, 2 parallel pins, 2 divergent 30-degree pins, 2 divergent 60-degree pins, and 3 divergent pins (n=8/group). Models were tested in extension, flexion, varus, and valgus by applying a translational force through the distal fragment at 0.5 mm/sec oscillating between 5 N and 50 N for 10 cycles. For internal and external rotation, constructs were tested at 0.5 degree/sec between ±1 Nm more than 10 cycles. The maximum force and torque values were also recorded. For bending loads, stiffness was calculated between 0.5 and 5 mm of displacement, whereas torsional stiffness was calculated between 1 degree and 10 degrees of rotation. Data for stiffness were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance and a 2-sample t test (P<0.05). Among 2-pin configurations, divergent (60 degrees) pins provided statistically greater stability than less divergent pins in torsional loading, and greater stability than parallel pins in valgus loading. Three divergent pins had statistically greater stability than all the 2-pin configurations in valgus and torsional loading, and tended to provide more secure fixation in varus loading. For 2-pin constructs, maximizing pin divergence at the fracture site provided greater stability in torsional loading and valgus loading. The addition of a third pin in a divergent orientation increases stability compared with 2-pin constructs in valgus, internal, and external rotation loading. Bicortical pins placed with maximum divergence and spread at the fracture site maximizes stability for 2-pin constructs in Milch type II lateral condyle fractures. If the stability of the fracture is questionable after 2 pins are inserted, the addition of a divergent third pin enhances the stability.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 03/2011; 31(2):130-7. · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed bone healing during distraction osteogenesis negatively affects clinical outcome. In addition to autologous bone grafting, several mechanical, chemical, biologic, and external treatment modalities may be employed to promote bone growth during distraction osteogenesis in the pediatric patient. Mechanical approaches include compressive loading of the distraction regenerate, increased frequency of small increments of distraction, and compression-distraction. Intramedullary nailing and submuscular plating can reduce the time in external fixation; however, these techniques are associated with technical difficulties and complications. Exogenous application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound or pulsed electromagnetic fields may shorten the duration of external fixation. Other promising modalities include diphosphonates, physician-directed use (off-label use) of bone morphogenetic proteins, and local injection of bone marrow aspirate and platelet gel at the osteotomy site. Well-designed clinical studies are needed to establish safe and effective guidelines for various modalities to enhance new bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in children.
    The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 02/2011; 19(2):101-11. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 01/2011; 93(2):213-21. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    Sameer Badarudeen, Sanjeev Sabharwal
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Health literacy is the single best predictor of an individual's health status. It is important to customize health-related education material to the individual patient's level of reading skills. Readability of a given text is the objective measurement of the reading skills one should possess to understand the written material. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this article, some of the commonly used readability assessment tools are discussed and guidelines to improve the comprehension of patient education handouts are provided. Where are we now? Several healthcare organizations have recommended the readability of patient education materials be no higher than sixth- to eighth-grade level. However, most of the patient education materials currently available on major orthopaedic Web sites are written at a reading level that may be too advanced for comprehension by a substantial proportion of the population. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: There are several readily available and validated tools for assessing the readability of written materials. While use of audiovisual aids such as video clips, line drawings, models, and charts can enhance the comprehension of a health-related topic, standard readability tools cannot construe such enhancements. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Given the variability in the capacity to comprehend health-related materials among individuals seeking orthopaedic care, stratifying the contents of patient education materials at different levels of complexity will likely improve health literacy and enhance patient-centered communication.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 05/2010; 468(10):2572-80. · 2.79 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

582 Citations
114.63 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2013
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Orthopaedics
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (RWJ Medical School)
      Newark, NJ, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States