Sandra Schmidhofer

University Hospital Regensburg, Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (5)27.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is one of the two signalling receptors of adiponectin with multiple beneficial effects in metabolic diseases. AdipoR1 C-terminal peptide is concordant with the consensus sequence of class I PSD-95, disc large, ZO-1 (PDZ) proteins, and screening of a liver yeast two hybrid library identified binding to β2-syntrophin (SNTB2). Hybridization of a PDZ domain array with AdipoR1 C-terminal peptide shows association with PDZ-domains of further proteins including β1-and α-syntrophin (SNTA). Interaction of PDZ proteins and C-terminal peptides requires a free carboxy terminus next to the PDZ-binding region and is blocked by carboxy terminal added tags. N-terminal tagged AdipoR1 is more highly expressed than C-terminal tagged receptor suggesting that the free carboxy terminus may form a complex with PDZ proteins to regulate cellular AdipoR1 levels. The C- and N-terminal tagged AdipoR1 proteins are mainly localized in the cytoplasma. N-terminal but not C-terminal tagged AdipoR1 colocalizes with syntrophins in adiponectin incubated Huh7 cells. Adiponectin induced hepatic phosphorylation of AMPK and p38 MAPK which are targets of AdipoR1 is, however, not blocked in SNTA and SNTB2 deficient mice. Further, AdipoR1 protein is similarly abundant in the liver of knock-out and wild type mice when kept on a standard chow or a high fat diet. In summary these data suggest that AdipoR1 protein levels are regulated by so far uncharacterized class I PDZ proteins which are distinct from SNTA and SNTB2.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 07/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cytosine methylation is a frequent epigenetic modification restricting the activity of gene regulatory elements. While DNA methylation patterns are generally inherited during replication, both embryonic and somatic differentiation processes require the removal of cytosine methylation at specific gene loci to activate lineage-restricted elements. However, the exact mechanisms facilitating the erasure of DNA methylation remain unclear in many cases. RESULTS: We previously established human post-proliferative monocytes as a model to study active DNA demethylation. We now show for several previously identified genomic sites that the loss of DNA methylation during the differentiation of primary, post-proliferative human monocytes into dendritic cells is preceded by the local appearance of 5-hydroxy-methylcytosine. Monocytes were found to express the methylcytosine dioxygenase Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) 2, which is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of this enzyme in primary monocytes prevented active DNA demethylation, suggesting that TET2 is essential for the proper execution of this process in human monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides definite evidence that TET2-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxy-methylcytosine initiates the targeted, active DNA demethylation process in a mature postmitotic myeloid cell type.
    Genome biology 05/2013; 14(5):R46. · 10.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor PU.1 is crucial for the development of many hematopoietic lineages and its binding patterns significantly change during differentiation processes. However, the 'rules' for binding or not-binding of potential binding sites are only partially understood. To unveil basic characteristics of PU.1 binding site selection in different cell types, we studied the binding properties of PU.1 during human macrophage differentiation. Using in vivo and in vitro binding assays, as well as computational prediction, we show that PU.1 selects its binding sites primarily based on sequence affinity, which results in the frequent autonomous binding of high affinity sites in DNase I inaccessible regions (25-45% of all occupied sites). Increasing PU.1 concentrations and the availability of cooperative transcription factor interactions during lineage differentiation both decrease affinity thresholds for in vivo binding and fine-tune cell type-specific PU.1 binding, which seems to be largely independent of DNA methylation. Occupied sites were predominantly detected in active chromatin domains, which are characterized by higher densities of PU.1 recognition sites and neighboring motifs for cooperative transcription factors. Our study supports a model of PU.1 binding control that involves motif-binding affinity, PU.1 concentration, cooperativeness with neighboring transcription factor sites and chromatin domain accessibility, which likely applies to all PU.1 expressing cells.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are elevated in patients with liver cirrhosis, and impaired hepatic uptake of IL-6 was suggested to contribute to higher levels in these patients. To test this hypothesis IL-6 was measured in portal venous serum (PVS), hepatic venous serum (HVS) and systemic venous serum (SVS) of 41 patients with liver cirrhosis and four patients with normal liver function. IL-6 was higher in PVS than HVS of all blood donors and about 43% of portal vein derived IL-6 was extracted by the healthy liver, and 6.3% by the cirrhotic liver demonstrating markedly impaired removal of IL-6 by the latter. Whereas in patients with CHILD-PUGH stage A IL-6 in HVS was almost 25% lower than in PVS, in patients with CHILD-PUGH stage C IL-6 was similarly abundant in the two blood compartments. Ascites is a common complication in cirrhotic patients and was associated with higher IL-6 levels in all blood compartments without significant differences in hepatic excretion. Hepatic venous pressure gradient did not correlate with the degree of hepatic IL-6 removal excluding hepatic shunting as the principal cause of impaired IL-6 uptake. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis had higher IL-6 in all blood compartments than patients with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. Aetiology of liver cirrhosis did not affect hepatic removal rate indicating higher IL-6 synthesis in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In summary, the current data provide evidence that impaired hepatic removal of IL-6 is explained by hepatic shunting and liver dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis partly explaining higher systemic levels.
    Cytokine 02/2011; 53(2):178-83. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemerin is an adipokine whose systemic concentration and adipose tissue expression is increased in obesity. Chemerin is highly abundant in adipocytes, yet the molecular mechanisms mediating its further induction in obesity have not been clarified. Adipocyte hypertrophy contributes to dysregulated adipokine synthesis, and we hypothesized that excess loading with free fatty acids (FFA) stimulates chemerin synthesis. Chemerin was expressed in mature adipocytes, and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of FFA further increased its level. TNF and IL-6 were induced by FFA, but concentrations were too low to up-regulate chemerin. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) was activated in these cells, indicative for cholesterol shortage. Suppression of cholesterol synthesis by lovastatin led to activation of SREBP2 and increased chemerin, and supplementation with mevalonate reversed this effect. Knockdown of SREBP2 reduced basal and FFA-induced chemerin. EMSA confirmed binding of 3T3-L1 adipocyte nuclear proteins to a SREBP site in the chemerin promotor. SREBP2 was activated and chemerin was induced in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet, and higher systemic levels seem to be derived from adipocytes. Lipopolysaccharide-mediated elevation of chemerin was similarly effective as induction by FFA, indicating that both mechanisms are equally important. Chemokine-like receptor 1 was not altered by the incubations mentioned above, and higher expression in fat of mice fed a high-fat diet may reflect increased number of adipose tissue-resident macrophages in obesity. In conclusion, the current data show that adipocyte hypertrophy and chronic inflammation are equally important in inducing chemerin synthesis.
    Endocrinology 11/2010; 152(1):26-35. · 4.72 Impact Factor