ABSTRACT: Neonatal upper airway obstruction demands urgent attention. Tracheostomy can prove to be lifesaving but has morbidities. Recently, the authors found reduced morbidity/mortality when using a distraction decision tree model compared with conventional "case-by-case" management. In this current study, the authors assess the long-term costs of (1) a decision tree model versus conventional treatment and (2) tracheostomy versus distraction osteogenesis.
An inpatient cost-matrix analysis study on neonates with upper airway obstruction and micrognathia was performed (n=149). In Part I, conventionally treated neonates managed on a case-by-case basis received home monitoring or a tracheostomy. Decision tree model-managed newborns had specialist consultations and diagnostic testing to determine whether home monitoring, tracheostomy, or distraction osteogenesis would be implemented. In Part II, tracheostomy treatment was compared directly to distraction osteogenesis.
In Part I (conventional versus decision tree model), taking into account the costs of the distraction, tracheostomy, hospital stay, diagnostic studies, physician fees, and emergency department visits, the total per patient treatment cost was 1.5 greater in the conventional treatment group ($332,673) compared with the decision tree model ($225,998) (p<0.05). In Part II (tracheostomy versus distraction osteogenesis), the total per-patient treatment cost in the tracheostomy group was two times greater than in the distraction group ($382,246 versus $193,128) (p<0.05).
In treating newborns with micrognathia and upper airway obstruction, a decision tree model with mandibular distraction decreases long-term health care costs compared with conventional treatment. Furthermore, when comparing distraction to tracheostomy, similar decreases in long-term health care costs occurred.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery 11/2010; 126(5):1652-64. · 2.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Auscultation of breath sounds is used routinely to confirm tracheal placement of endotracheal tubes (ETT). In infants and children, this method is limited by the conduction of breath sounds bilaterally, despite endobronchial intubation. Although several methods of detecting endobronchial intubation have been described, none is both simple and reliable. In this investigation, we determined whether changes in pulmonary compliance and airway pressures, measured using continuous side stream spirometry, can reliably detect endobronchial intubation in pediatric patients.
Forty patients aged 1 month to 6 years were included. After endotracheal intubation the ETT was incrementally advanced as two observers monitored breath sounds and spirometry (Pressure-Volume Loops). Changes in pulmonary compliance, peak inspiratory pressure, or auscultation were reported, at which point ETT position was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy.
Endobronchial intubation decreased measured pulmonary compliance by 45 +/- 11% (mean +/- sd; P < 0.001, Range 26%-66%) and increased peak airway pressures by 26 +/- 17% (mean +/- sd; P < 0.001, Range 0-87). Changes in peak airway pressures were smaller and more variable when compared to changes in compliance. Breath-sound auscultation failed to detect endobronchial intubation in 7.5% of cases.
Pulmonary compliance changes are a sensitive and an accurate indicator of endobronchial intubation in infants and children. Both increased peak airway pressures and changes in breath sounds are less sensitive indicators of endobronchial intubation.
Anesthesia and analgesia 08/2007; 105(1):51-6. · 3.08 Impact Factor
Simulation in healthcare: journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare 02/2007; 2(3):194-8. · 1.83 Impact Factor