Samuel Salot

Innate Pharma S.A., Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (5)18.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Interest in gamma9delta2 T cells has increased greatly in the past decade. While several protocols allowed the amplification of a large proportion of these cells in vitro, the purity of the final preparation is usually heterogeneous between different donors. Functional studies of this population are often controversial due to the presence of other populations such as NK cells which share a wide range of characteristics. Here, the gamma9delta2 T cells labelled-fraction is purified and mixed with the irradiated unlabelled fraction followed by a single stimulation with phosphoantigen, in turn followed by a classical step of amplification in the presence of interleukin 2. In this study, we describe a straightforward protocol to amplify pure populations of gamma9delta2 T cells which could be useful in fundamental research or in the development of a new generation of gammadelta cell therapy protocol.
    Journal of immunological methods 06/2009; 347(1-2):12-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes can be activated by nonpeptidic antigens such as the mevalonate pathway-derived isopentenyl pyrophosphate or synthetic phosphoantigen such as bromohydrin pyrophosphate. They display a strong cytotoxic activity against several tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Little is known about the mechanisms underlying Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell recognition of tumor cells, but there is strong evidence that activating NK receptors play a role in gammadelta T-cell cytotoxicity. In this study, we showed that the two NK receptors DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) and CD96 were expressed by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. The ligands Nectin-like-5 specific of both DNAM-1 and CD96, and also Nectin-2, an additional ligand of DNAM-1, were present on all HCC cell lines analyzed. Furthermore, we demonstrated by mAb-mediated masking experiments that cytotoxicity against HCC cells as well as IFN-gamma production in gammadelta T cells were dependent on DNAM-1. Our experiments indicated that Nectin-like-5 but not Nectin-2 was involved in DNAM-1-dependent gammadelta T-cell functions. We did not reveal a role for CD96 in the killing of HCC cells. Finally, we showed by combined mAb-mediated blockade that DNAM-1 and NKG2D could cooperate in the cell lysis of HCC.
    European Journal of Immunology 05/2009; 39(5):1361-8. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are a major human gammadelta T cell subset that react against a wide array of tumor cells, through recognition of phosphorylated isoprenoid pathway metabolites called phosphoantigens. Immunotherapeutic protocols targeting Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells have yielded promising, yet limited, signs of antitumor efficacy. To improve these approaches, we analyzed the effects on gammadelta T cells of IL-21, a cytokine known to enhance proliferation and effector functions of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells. IL-21 induced limited division of phosphoantigen-stimulated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells, but did not modulate their sustained expansion induced by exogenous IL-2. Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells expanded in the presence of IL-21 and IL-2 showed enhanced antitumor cytolytic responses, associated with increased expression of CD56 and several lytic molecules, and increased tumor-induced degranulation capacity. IL-21 plus IL-2-expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells expressed higher levels of inhibitory receptors (e.g., ILT2 and NKG2A) and lower levels of the costimulatory molecule NKG2D. Importantly, these changes were rapidly and reversibly induced after short-term culture with IL-21. Finally, IL-21 irreversibly enhanced the proinflammatory Th1 polarization of expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells when added at the beginning of the culture. These data suggest a new role played by IL-21 in the cytotoxic and Th1 programming of precommitted Ag-stimulated gammadelta T cells. On a more applied standpoint, IL-21 could be combined to IL-2 to enhance gammadelta T cell-mediated antitumor responses, and thus represents a promising way to optimize immunotherapies targeting this cell subset.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2009; 182(6):3423-31. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes have been shown to be directly cytotoxic against renal carcinoma cells. Lymphocytes T gammadelta can be selectively expanded in vivo with BrHPP (IPH1101, Phosphostim) and interleukin 2 (IL-2). A phase I Study was conducted in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) to determine the maximum-tolerated dose and safety of Innacell gammadelta, an autologous cell-therapy product based on gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes, in patients with mRCC. A 1-h intravenous infusion of gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes was administered alone during treatment cycle 1 and combined with a low dose of subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2, 2 MIU/m2 from Day 1 to Day 7) in the two subsequent cycles (at 3-week intervals). The dose of gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes was escalated from 1 up to 8 x 10(9) cells. Ten patients underwent a total of 27 treatment cycles. Immunomonitoring data demonstrate that gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes are initially cleared from the blood to reappear at the end of IL-2 administration. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in one patient at the dose of 8 x 10(9) cells (disseminated intravascular coagulation). Other treatment-related adverse events (AEs) included mainly gastrointestinal disorders and flu-like symptoms (fatigue, pyrexia, rigors). Hypotension and tachycardia also occurred, especially with co-administered IL-2. Six patients showed stabilized disease. Time to progression was 25.7 weeks. The data collected in ten patients with mRCC indicate that repeated infusions of Innacell gammadelta at different dose levels (up to 8 x 10(9) total cells), either alone or with IL-2 is well tolerated. These results are in favor of the therapeutic value of cell therapy with Innacell gammadelta for the treatment of cancers.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 03/2008; 57(11):1599-609. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes are non-conventional lymphocytes presenting a direct cytotoxic effect against a broad range of tumour targets. These cells also secrete inflammatory cytokines that can boost the other components of the immune system. In contrast to conventional CD8(+) T cells, the cytotoxic effect of gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes does not depend on the expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules by target tumour cells. INNACELL gammadeltatrade mark is a cell therapy product obtained by ex vivo amplification of mononuclear cells. The stimulation is achieved by a specific synthetic agonist of gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes, bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP). After a single stimulation with BrHPP, gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes are expanded for 2 weeks in a closed system in culture medium with interleukin-2 (IL-2). On day 15, cells are washed and harvested in 4% human serum albumin. In this manufacturing process, the total cell population is expanded by approximately 10-fold and gamma9delta2 T lymphocytes undergo a specific 1000-fold expansion, corresponding to a gamma9delta2 T lymphocyte enrichment of more than 70% at the end of the culture. This manufacturing process is much simpler than most current cellular therapy approaches using conventional CD8(+) T-cell lines or clones: there is no final or initial separation, no purification step and no use of feeder cells; the specific T-cell receptor-mediated signal provided by BrHPP is sufficient to trigger the IL-2-dependent expansion of the gamma9delta2 subset, which then becomes predominant in the cell culture in large amounts.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 10/2007; 326(1-2):63-75. · 2.23 Impact Factor