[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether cytokines can modulate the fate of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) through successive in vitro cell divisions has not been established. Single human marrow CD34+CD38-/lo cells in the G0 phase of cell cycle were cultured under 7 different cytokine combinations, monitored for proliferation on days 3, 5, and 7, then assayed for long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) function on day 7. LTC-IC function was then retrospectively correlated with prior number of in vitro cell divisions to determine whether maintenance of LTC-IC function after in vitro cell division is dependent on cytokine exposure. In the presence of proliferation progression signals, initial cell division was independent of cytokine stimulation, suggesting that entry of primitive HPCs into the cell cycle is a stochastic property. However, kinetics of proliferation beyond day 3 and maintenance of LTC-IC function were sensitive to cytokine stimulation, such that LTC-IC underwent an initial long cell cycle, followed by more synchronized shorter cycles varying in length depending on the cytokine combination. Nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) transplantation studies revealed analogous results to those obtained with LTC-ICs. These data suggest that although exit from quiescence and commitment to proliferation might be stochastic, kinetics of proliferation, and possibly fate of primitive HPCs, might be modulated by extrinsic factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is likely to be dependent on several factors including expression of certain adhesion molecules (AMs) and degree of mitotic quiescence. The authors investigated the functional properties and engraftment potential of Sca-1(+)lin(-) cells subfractionated on the basis of expression, or lack thereof, of CD11a, CD43, CD49d, CD49e, or CD62L and correlated that expression with cell cycle status and proliferative potential of engrafting fractions. Donor-derived chimerism in mice receiving CD49e(+) or CD43(+) Sca-1(+)lin(-) cells was greater than that in mice receiving cells lacking these 2 markers, while Sca-1(+)lin(-) cells positive for CD11a and CD62L and bright for CD49d expression mediated minimal engraftment. AM phenotypes enriched for engraftment potential contained the majority of high proliferative potential-colony forming cells, low proliferative potential-colony forming cells, and cells providing rapid in vitro expansion. Cell cycle analysis of AM subpopulations revealed that, regardless of their bone marrow repopulating potential, Sca-1(+)lin(-) AM(-) cells contained a higher percentage of cells in G(0)/G(1) than their AM(+) counterparts. Interestingly, engrafting phenotypes, regardless of the status of their AM expression, were quicker to exit G(0)/G(1) following in vitro cytokine stimulation than their opposing phenotypes. When engrafting phenotypes of Sca-1(+)lin(-) AM(+) or AM(-) cells were further fractionated by Hoechst 33342 into G(0)/G(1) or S/G(2)+M, cells providing long-term engraftment were predominantly contained within the quiescent fraction. These results define a theoretical phenotype of a Sca-1(+)lin(-) engrafting cell as one that is mitotically quiescent, CD43(+), CD49e(+), CD11a(-), CD49d(dim), and CD62L(-). Furthermore, these data suggest that kinetics of in vitro proliferation may be a good predictor of engraftment potential of candidate populations of HSCs. (Blood. 2000;96:1380-1387)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms behind the leukaemic expansion of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), we examined the cell cycle status and activation kinetics of purified subpopulations of CD34+ cells from normal and CML bone marrow (BM). Propidium iodide staining was used to assess cell cycle status of fresh cells or those stimulated with cytokines. Although the cell cycle status of fresh low-density cells from CML and normal BM was similar, a larger percentage of CML CD34+ cells were cycling than those from normal BM. The HLA-DR compartment of CML CD34+ cells, a fraction enriched for normal, non-leukaemic progenitors, contained a higher percentage of quiescent cells than the CD34+ HLA-DR+ fraction. When the activation of CD34+ cells was examined in response to SCF or IL-3 alone, or SCF+IL-3+IL-6, CML CD34+ cells exited GO/G1 more rapidly than normal CD34+ cells. Interestingly, although normal BM CD34+ cells failed to cycle in response to IL-6 alone, or in the absence of exogenous cytokines, 30% of CML cells cycled under these conditions. No differences in the degree of apoptosis were documented among CML and normal CD34+ cells in these cultures. These data suggest that enhanced cell cycle activation of CML CD34+ cells, by either autocrine stimuli or via enhanced sensitivity to exogenous stimuli, may be partially responsible for the pronounced cellular expansion characteristic of CML.
British Journal of Haematology 09/1998; 102(3):759-67. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exit of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from the G0 phase of the cell cycle in response to in vitro cytokine stimulation is a limiting step in successful ex vivo expansion. Simultaneous DNA/RNA staining with Hoechst 33342 and pyronin Y was used to separate human bone marrow CD34+ cells residing in G0 (G0CD34+) from those cycling in G1 and S/G2+M. Compared with CD34+ cells isolated in G1, G0CD34+ cells were characterized by a delayed response to cytokine stimulation and were enriched for long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cells. We next compared the activation kinetics of individually sorted G0CD34+ cells stimulated with stem cell factor (SCF), flt3-ligand (FL), or interleukin-3 (IL-3) as single factors. In a novel clonal proliferation assay, the functional status of cells that had remained quiescent after an initial 7-day period and of those that had completed successive division cycles under each of these three factors was evaluated by assessment of subsequent proliferative capacity and maintenance of colony-forming cell precursor (pre-CFC) activity. All three cytokines were equally able to support the survival of primitive HPCs in the absence of cell division. Cells that did not respond to any cytokine stimulation for 7 days retained higher proliferative and pre-CFC activities than dividing cells. The hematopoietic function of cells that divided in response to SCF, FL, or IL-3 decreased after each division cycle. However, G0CD34+ cells displayed a heterogeneous response pattern to cytokine stimulation whereby SCF appeared to have a superior ability to promote the cycling of cells with high proliferative and pre-CFC activities. These results indicate that HPCs reside in opposing hierarchies of hematopoietic potential and responsiveness to cytokine stimulation. The data also begin to indicate relationships between cellular division in response to different stimuli and maintenance of hematopoietic function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the mechanisms behind the leukaemic expansion of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), we examined the cell cycle status and activation kinetics of purified subpopulations of CD34+ cells from normal and CML bone marrow (BM). Propidium iodide staining was used to assess cell cycle status of fresh cells or those stimulated with cytokines. Although the cell cycle status of fresh low-density cells from CML and normal BM was similar, a larger percentage of CML CD34+ cells were cycling than those from normal BM. The HLA-DR− compartment of CML CD34+ cells, a fraction enriched for normal, non-leukaemic progenitors, contained a higher percentage of quiescent cells than the CD34+ HLA-DR+ fraction. When the activation of CD34+ cells was examined in response to SCF or IL-3 alone, or SCF+IL-3+IL-6, CML CD34+ cells exited G0/G1 more rapidly than normal CD34+ cells. Interestingly, although normal BM CD34+ cells failed to cycle in response to IL-6 alone, or in the absence of exogenous cytokines, 30% of CML cells cycled under these conditions. No differences in the degree of apoptosis were documented among CML and normal CD34+ cells in these cultures. These data suggest that enhanced cell cycle activation of CML CD34+ cells, by either autocrine stimuli or via enhanced sensitivity to exogenous stimuli, may be partially responsible for the pronounced cellular expansion characteristic of CML.
British Journal of Haematology 07/1998; 102(3):759 - 767. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The myeloid zinc finger gene, MZF-1, is a hematopoietic transcription factor expressed in developing myeloid cells. To characterize further the role of MZF-1 in myelopoiesis, we used retroviral gene transduction to overexpress MZF-1 in HL-60 cells to produce HL-60-MZF-1 cells. HL-60 cells respond to retinoic acid (RA) with growth inhibition, granulocytic differentiation and apoptosis. However, HL-60-MZF-1 cells exposed to RA continue to proliferate in response to RA as evidenced by a higher percentage of cells in S phase, higher peak cell counts, and later peak cell counts. Morphologic differentiation of the RA-induced HL-60-MZF-1 cells is delayed with half as many of the HL-60-MZF-1 cells compared to the wild-type HL-60 cells that are differentiated after 3 days of RA, although both cells types responded with 80-95% mature granulocytes after 6 days of RA. Apoptosis was delayed in the MZF-1 transduced cells as measured by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation patterns, the terminal transferase end labeling reaction (TUNEL), and quantitation of fragmented DNA by the diphenylamine reaction. Several markers of differentiation were identical in both HL-60 and HL-60-MZF-1 cells including CD11b, CD33, CD34, CD13, CD16 and CD14. However, following 6 days of RA, only half as many HL-60-MZF-1 cells expressed CD18 compared to the wild-type HL-60 cells. Expression of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene transcript and protein was higher in the HL-60-MZF-1 cells compared to wild-type HL-60s and expression persisted for 5 days following RA in the HL-60-MZF-1 cells compared to only 3 days in the parental HL-60 cells suggesting that bcl-2 may contribute to the inhibition of apoptosis. Overexpression of MZF-1 had no effect on PMA-induced monocyte/macrophage differentiation of HL-60 cells. Together these findings indicate that MZF-1 can stimulate cell proliferation and delay RA-induced differentiation and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. MZF-1 may function in a similar role in myelopoiesis allowing myeloid precursors to expand their numbers before going on to terminally differentiate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are potential targets for treatment of numerous hematopoietic diseases using retroviral-mediated gene transfer (RMGT). To achieve high efficiency of gene transfer into primitive HPCs, a delicate balance between cellular activation and proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic potential must be established. We have demonstrated that a subpopulation of human bone marrow (BM) CD34(+) cells, highly enriched for primitive HPCs, persists in culture in a mitotically quiescent state due to their cytokine-nonresponsive (CNR) nature, a characteristic that may prevent efficient RMGT of these cells. To evaluate and possibly circumvent this, we designed a two-step transduction protocol using neoR-containing vectors coupled with flow cytometric cell sorting to isolate and examine transduction efficiency in different fractions of cultured CD34(+) cells. BM CD34(+) cells stained on day 0 (d0) with the membrane dye PKH2 were prestimulated for 24 hours with stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and IL-6, and then transduced on fibronectin with the retroviral vector LNL6 on d1. On d5, half of the cultured cells were transduced with the retroviral vector G1Na and sorted on d6 into cytokine-responsive (d6 CR) cells (detected via their loss of PKH2 fluorescence relative to d0 sample) and d6 CNR cells that had not divided since d0. The other half of the cultured cells were first sorted on d5 into d5 CR and d5 CNR cells and then infected separately with G1Na. Both sets of d5 and d6 CR and CNR cells were cultured in secondary long-term cultures (LTCs) and assayed weekly for transduced progenitor cells. Significantly higher numbers of G418-resistant colonies were produced in cultures initiated with d5 and d6 CNR cells compared with respective CR fractions (P < .05). At week 2, transduction efficiency was comparable between d5 and d6 transduced CR and CNR cells (P > .05). However, at weeks 3 and 4, d5 and d6 CNR fractions generated significantly higher numbers of neoR progenitor cells relative to the respective CR fractions (P < .05), while no difference in transduction efficiency between d5 and d6 CNR cells could be demonstrated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the origin of transduced neoR gene in clonogenic cells demonstrated that mature progenitors (CR fractions) contained predominantly LNL6 sequences, while more primitive progenitor cells (CNR fractions) were transduced with G1Na. These results demonstrate that prolonged stimulation of primitive HPCs is essential for achieving efficient RMGT into cells capable of sustaining long-term in vitro hematopoiesis. These findings may have significant implications for the development of clinical gene therapy protocols.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the decline in hematopoietic potential observed when human CD34+ cells are cultured in vitro by evaluating the association between proliferation history and the fate of long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cells (LTHC-ICs) as well as the onset of programmed cell death. The membrane dye PKH2 was used to track ex vivo expanded human CD34+ cells from bone marrow, cord blood, and mobilized peripheral blood, and to identify and isolate CD34+ cells that had divided once, twice, three, or four times or more, as well as cells that had remained cytokine nonresponsive and therefore failed to proliferate. These isolated groups of cells were assayed for their hematopoietic potential, cell cycle status, and percentage of apoptotic cells. A gradual decline in the content of LTHC-ICs, as well as in their ability to initiate and sustain in vitro hematopoiesis, was found to correlate with the number of in vitro cellular divisions, such that the hematopoietic potential of CD34+ cells dividing four or more times was nearly depleted. DNA analysis revealed that cells dividing more than three times resided predominantly in G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle. In addition, the percentage of CD34+ cells undergoing apoptosis was found to increase concomitantly with the number of in vitro cellular divisions; less than 10% of cells dividing once were apoptotic, whereas more than 25% of CD34+ cells dividing four or more times underwent programmed cell death. Together, these data suggest that a proliferation-associated, and possibly activation-induced, loss of hematopoietic potential among dividing CD34+ cells may result from an increase in programmed cell death among dividing primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometric cell sorting. In both bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34(+) cells, primitive long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cell (LTHC-IC) activity was higher in CD34(+) cells isolated in G0 (G0CD34(+) cells) than in those residing in G1 (G1CD34(+) cells). However, as MPB CD34(+) cells displayed a more homogeneous cell-cycle status within the G0 /G1 phase and a relative absence of cells in late G1 , DNA/RNA fractionation was less effective in segregating LTHC-IC in MPB than in BM. BM CD34(+) cells belonging to four subcompartments of increasing RNA content within the G0 /G1 phase were evaluated in functional assays. The persistence of CD34 expression in suspension culture was inversely correlated with the initial RNA content of test cells. Multipotential progenitors were present in G0 or early G1 subcompartments, while lineage-restricted granulomonocytic progenitors were more abundant in late G1 . In vitro hematopoiesis was maintained for up to 6 weeks with G0CD34(+) cells, whereas production of clonogenic progenitors was more limited in cultures initiated with G1CD34(+) cells. To test the hypothesis that primitive LTHC-ICs would reenter a state of relative quiescence after in vitro division, BM CD34(+) cells proliferating in ex vivo cultures were identified from their quiescent counterparts by a relative loss of membrane intercalating dye PKH2, and were further fractionated with Hst and PY. The same functional hierarchy was documented within the PKH2(dim) population whereby LTHC-IC frequency was higher for CD34(+) cells reselected in G0 after in vitro division than for CD34(+) cells reisolated in G1 or in S/G2 + M. However, the highest LTHC-IC frequency was found in quiescent PKH2(bright) CD34(+) cells. Together, these results support the concept that cells with distinct hematopoietic capabilities follow different pathways during the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle both in vivo and during ex vivo culture.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells residing in the G0 phase of cell cycle may be the most suited candidates for the examination of cell cycle activation and proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). We designed a double simultaneous labeling technique using both DNA and RNA staining with Hoechst 33342 and Pyronin Y, respectively, to isolate CD34+ cells residing in G0(G0CD34+). Using long-term BM cultures and limiting dilution analysis, G0CD34+ cells were found to be enriched for primitive HPCs. In vitro proliferation of G0CD34+ cells in response to sequential cytokine stimulation was examined in a two-step assay. In the first step, cells received a primary stimulation consisting of either stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3-ligand (FL), interleukin-3 (IL-3), or IL-6 for 7 days. In the second step, cells from each group were washed and split into four or more groups, each of which was cultured again for another week with one of the four primary cytokines individually, or in combination. Tracking of progeny cells was accomplished by staining cells with PKH2 on day 0 and with PKH26 on day 7. Overall examination of proliferation patterns over 2 weeks showed that cells could progress into four phases of proliferation. Phase I contained cytokine nonresponsive cells that failed to proliferate. Phase II contained cells dividing up to three times within the first 7 days. Phases III and IV consisted of cells dividing up to five divisions and greater than six divisions, respectively, by the end of the 14-day period. Regardless of the cytokine used for primary stimulation, G0CD34+ cells moved only to phase II by day 7, whereas a substantial percentage of cells incubated with SCF or FL remained in phase I. Cells cultured in SCF or FL for the entire 14-day period did not progress beyond phase III but proliferated into phase IV (with <20% of cells remaining in phases I and II) if IL-3, but not IL-6, was substituted for either cytokine on day 7. G0CD34+ cells incubated with IL-3 for 14 days proliferated the most and progressed into phase IV; however, when SCF was substituted on day 7, cells failed to proliferate into phase IV. Most intriguing was a group of cells, many of which were CD34+, detected in cultures initially stimulated with IL-3, which remained as a distinct population, mostly in G0/G1, unable to progress out of phase II regardless of the nature of the second stimulus received on day 7. A small percentage of these cells expressed cyclin E, suggesting that their proliferation arrest may have been mediated by a cyclin-related disruption in cell cycle. These results suggest that a programmed response to sequential cytokine stimulation may be part of a control mechanism required for maintenance of proliferation of primitive HPCs and that unscheduled stimulation of CD34+ cells residing in G0 may result in disruption of cell-cycle regulation.