Sinéad M Lougheed

VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (19)79.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autologous tumor cell-based vaccines provide a wide range of tumor antigens and personalized neo-epitopes based on individual tumors unique antigenic mutanome signatures. However, tumor-derived factors may hamper in situ maturation of dendritic cells (DC) and thus interfere with the generation of effective anti-tumor immunity. As the skin is a preferred site for tumor vaccine delivery, we investigated the influence of primary colon carcinoma-derived soluble factors on the maturation state of migrating DC in a human skin explant model. Primary tumor-derived supernatants (TDSN) enhanced the phenotypic maturation state of skin-emigrated DC, resulting in an increased T-cell stimulatory ability in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte response. In case of monocyte-derived DC a similar TDSN-induced maturation induction was found to entirely depend on cyclooxygenase (COX)-regulated prostaglandins. In contrast, the increase in skin-emigrated DC maturation was completely prostaglandin-independent, as evidenced by the inability of the COX inhibitor indomethacin to abrogate this TDSN-induced effect. Although TDSN conditioning effected a drop in IL-12p70 release by the skin-emigrated DC and induced a predominant Th17/Th22 transcriptional profile in subsequently stimulated T-cells, Th cell subset differentiation, as assessed by intracellular cytokine expression upon polyclonal priming and re-stimulation, was not affected. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and transcriptional profiles suggests that the observed maturational effects in skin-derived DC may have been induced by tumor-derived GM-CSF. In conclusion, soluble factors derived from whole-cell colon tumor vaccines will not negatively impact DC migration and maturation in human skin, but rather induce DC maturation that will facilitate the priming of a poly-functional Th cell response.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 04/2014; 10(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-10 is a major cancer-related immunosuppressive factor, exhibiting a unique ability to hamper the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). We have previously reported that IL-10 induces the conversion of activated, migratory CD1a(+) DCs found in the human skin to CD14(+)CD141(+) macrophage-like cells. Here, as a model of tumor-conditioned DC maturation, we functionally assessed CD14(-) and CD14(+) DCs that matured in vitro upon exposure to IL-10. IL-10-induced CD14(+) DCs were phenotypically characterized by a low maturation state as well as by high levels of BDCA3 and DC-SIGN, and as such they closely resembled CD14(+) cells infiltrating melanoma metastases. Compared with DC matured under standard conditions, CD14(+) DCs were found to express high levels of B7-H1 on the cell surface, to secrete low levels of IL-12p70, to preferentially induce TH2 cells, to have a lower allogeneic TH cell and tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell priming capacity and to induce proliferative T-cell anergy. In contrast to their CD14(+) counterparts, CD14(-) monocyte-derived DCs retained allogeneic TH priming capacity but induced a functionally anergic state as they completely abolished the release of effector cytokines. Transcriptional and cytokine release profiling studies indicated a more profound angiogenic and pro-invasive signature of CD14(+) DCs as compared with DCs matured in standard conditions or CD14(-) DCs matured in the presence of IL-10. Importantly, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) depletion by RNA interference prevented the development of the IL-10-associated CD14(+) phenotype, allowing for normal DC maturation and providing a potential means of therapeutic intervention.
    Oncoimmunology. 04/2013; 2(4):e23837.
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    ABSTRACT: TLR agonists are attractive candidate adjuvants for therapeutic cancer vaccines as they can induce a balanced humoral and T cell-mediated immune response. With a dense network of dendritic cells (DCs) and draining lymphatics, the skin provides an ideal portal for vaccine delivery. Beside direct DC activation, TLR agonists may also induce DC activation through triggering the release of inflammatory mediators by accessory cells in the skin microenvironment. Therefore, a human skin explant model was used to explore the in vivo potential of intradermally delivered TLR agonists to stimulate Langerhans cells and dermal DCs in their natural complex tissue environment. The skin-emigrated DCs were phenotyped and analyzed for T cell stimulatory capacity. We report that, of six tested TLR-agonists, the TLR2 and -3 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN) and polyribosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C) were uniquely able to enhance the T cell-priming ability of skin-emigrated DCs, which, in the case of PGN, was accompanied by Th1 polarization. The enhanced priming capacity of Poly I:C-stimulated DCs was associated with a strong upregulation of appropriate costimulatory molecules, including CD70, whereas that of PGN-stimulated DCs was associated with the release of a broad array of proinflammatory cytokines. Transcriptional profiling further supported the notion that the PGN- and Poly I:C-induced effects were mediated through binding to TLR2/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 and TLR3/MDA5, respectively. These data warrant further exploration of PGN and Poly I:C, alone or in combination, as DC-targeted adjuvants for intradermal cancer vaccines.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC) and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14(+)CD141(+)DC-SIGN(+) DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a(+) subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells, migration of immature CD14(+) DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70237. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoint blockade enhances antitumor responses, but can also lead to severe immune-related adverse events (IRAE). To avoid unnecessary exposure to these potentially hazardous agents, it is important to identify biomarkers that correlate with clinical activity and can be used to select patients that will benefit from immune checkpoint blockade. To understand the consequences of CTLA-4 blockade and identify biomarkers for clinical efficacy and/or survival, an exploratory T cell monitoring study was performed in a phase I/II dose escalation/expansion trial (n = 28) of combined Prostate GVAX/ipilimumab immunotherapy. Phenotypic T cell monitoring in peripheral blood before and after Prostate GVAX/ipilimumab treatment revealed striking differences between patients who benefited from therapy and patients that did not. Treatment-induced rises in absolute lymphocyte counts, CD4(+) T cell differentiation, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation were all associated with clinical benefit. Moreover, significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) was observed for patients with high pre-treatment frequencies of CD4(+)CTLA-4(+), CD4(+)PD-1(+), or differentiated (i.e., non-naive) CD8(+) T cells or low pre-treatment frequencies of differentiated CD4(+) or regulatory T cells. Unsupervised clustering of these immune biomarkers revealed cancer-related expression of CTLA-4(+) in CD4(+) T cells to be a dominant predictor for survival after Prostate GVAX/ipilimumab therapy and to thus provide a putative and much-needed biomarker for patient selection prior to therapeutic CTLA4 blockade.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting dendritic cells (DC) through the release of suppressive factors is an effective means for tumors to escape immune control. We assessed the involvement of downstream signaling through the JAK2/STAT3 and p38 MAPK pathways in tumor-induced suppression of human DC development. Whereas the JAK2/STAT3 pathway has been pinpointed in mouse studies as a key regulator of myeloid suppression, in human DC this is less well established. We studied the effects of STAT3 inhibition on the suppression of monocyte-derived DC differentiation mediated by a short-list of four predominant suppressive factors and found that pharmacological STAT3 inhibition could only counteract the effects of IL-6. Accordingly, in testing a panel of supernatants derived from 11 cell lines representing various types of solid tumors, STAT3 inhibition only modestly affected the suppressive effects of a minority of supernatants. Importantly, combined interference in the STAT3 and p38 pathways completely prevented inhibition of DC differentiation by all tested supernatants and effected superior DC function, evidenced by increased allogeneic T cell reactivity with elevated IL-12p70/IL-10 ratios and Th1 skewing. Combined STAT3 and p38 inhibition also afforded superior protection against the suppressive effects of primary glioma and melanoma supernatants and induced a shift from CD14(+) cells to CD1a(+) cells in metastatic melanoma single-cell suspensions, indicating a potential for improved DC differentiation in the tumor microenvironment. We conclude that combined interference in the STAT3 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways is a promising approach to overcome tumor-induced inhibitory signaling in DC precursors and will likely support clinical immunotherapeutic strategies.
    Oncoimmunology. 08/2012; 1(5):649-658.
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that homocysteine (Hcy) induces phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, apoptosis and necrosis in human endothelial cells. Since it has been suggested that S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) is the main causative factor in Hcy-induced pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, we evaluate here whether the cytotoxic Hcy effect in endothelial cells is also SAH dependent. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to the following conditions: (1) non-treated control (resulting in 2.8 nM intracellular SAH and 3.1 μM extracellular l-Hcy); and incubation with (2) 50 μM adenosine-2,3-dialdehyde (ADA; resulting in 17.7 nM intracellular SAH and 3.1 μM extracellular l-Hcy), (3) 2.5 mM Hcy (resulting in 20.9 nM intracellular SAH and 1.8 mM extracellular l-Hcy), and (4) 1, 10 and 100 μM SAH. We then determined the effect of treatment on annexin V-positivity, caspase-3 activity, cytochrome c release (sub)cellular expression of NOX2, NOX4, p47(phox) and nitrotyrosine, and H(2)O(2). Both Hcy and ADA significantly increased PS exposure (n=5), caspase-3 activity (n=6) and cytochrome c release (n=3). Incubation with extracellular SAH alone did not affect cell viability. Both Hcy and ADA also induced similar increases in nuclear NOX2 and (peri)nuclear NOX4, coinciding with (peri)nuclear p47(phox) expression and local reactive oxygen species (ROS) (n=3). Inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS by the flavoenzyme inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) significantly decreased apoptosis induction (n=3) and ROS production (n=3). SAH induces PS exposure and apoptosis in endothelial cells independently of Hcy. Our study therefore shows that Hcy-mediated endothelial dysfunction, as determined in the cell model used, is mainly due to SAH accumulation.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2011; 221(1):48-54. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Langerhans cell (LC) infiltration has been observed in glioblastoma, but the glioblastoma microenvironment may be conditioned to resist antitumor immune responses. As little is known about how glioblastoma may affect dendritic cell differentiation, here we set out to delineate the effects of glioblastoma-derived soluble factors on LC differentiation. CD34(+) precursor cells of the human myeloid cell line MUTZ-3 were differentiated into LC in the presence of conditioned media of the human glioblastoma cell lines U251 or U373 and phenotypically and functionally characterized. Glioblastoma-conditioned media inhibited LC differentiation, resulting in functional impairment, as determined by allogeneic mixed leukocyte reactivity, and induction of STAT3 activation. IL-6 blockade completely abrogated these glioblastoma-induced immunosuppressive effects and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. However, neither addition of JSI-124 (cucurbitacin-I; a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor), nor of GW5074 (a Raf-1 inhibitor), both of which interfere with signaling pathways reported to act downstream of the IL-6 receptor, prevented the observed inhibitory effects on LC differentiation. Glioblastoma-derived IL-6 is responsible for the observed suppression of LC differentiation from CD34(+) precursors but appears to exert this effect in a STAT3 and Raf-1 independent fashion.
    Immunotherapy 09/2011; 3(9):1051-61. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To increase (tumor) vaccine efficacy, there is an urgent need for phenotypic and functional characterization of human dendritic cell (DC) subsets residing in lymphoid tissues. In this study we identified and functionally tested 4 human conventional DC (cDC) subsets within skin-draining sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) from early-stage melanoma patients. These SLNs were all tumor negative and were removed on average 44 days after excision of the primary melanoma. As such, they were considered representative of steady-state conditions. On comparison with skin-migrated cDC, 2 CD1a(+) subsets were identified as most likely skin-derived CD11c(int) Langerhans cells (LC) with intracellular langerin and E-cadherin expression or as CD11c(hi) dermal DCs with variable expression of langerin. Two other CD1a(-) LN-residing cDC subsets were characterized as CD14(-)BDCA3(hi)CD103(-) and CD14(+)BDCA3(lo)CD103(+), respectively. Whereas the CD1a(+) skin-derived subsets displayed greater levels of phenotypic maturation, they were associated with lower levels of inflammatory cytokine release and were inferior in terms of allogeneic T-cell priming and IFNγ induction. Thus, despite their higher maturation state, skin-derived cDCs (and LCs in particular) proved inferior T-cell activators compared with the CD1a(-) cDC subsets residing in melanoma-draining LNs. These observations should be considered in the design of DC-targeting immunotherapies.
    Blood 07/2011; 118(9):2502-10. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have been studying the re-activation of tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-specific CD8(+) T cells in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) of melanoma patients upon intradermal administration of the CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotide PF-3512676. To facilitate functional testing of T cells from small SLN samples, high-efficiency polyclonal T cell expansion is required. In this study, SLN cells were expanded via classic methodologies with plate- or bead-bound anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and with the K562/CD32/4-1BBL artificial APC system (K32/4-1BBL aAPC) and analyzed for responsiveness to common recall or TAA-derived peptides. K32/4-1BBL-expanded T cell populations contained significantly more effector/memory CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, recall and melanoma antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells were more frequently detected in K32/4-1BBL-expanded samples as compared with anti-CD3/CD28-expanded samples. We conclude that K32/4-1BBL aAPC are superior to anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies for the expansion of in vivo-primed specific CD8(+) T cells and that their use facilitates the sensitive monitoring of functional anti-tumor T cell immunity in SLN.
    Clinical Immunology 11/2010; 137(2):221-33. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD1d restricted, alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGC) responsive invariant (i)NKT cells positively regulate immune responses. Both intravenous and intradermal administered alphaGC are known to activate iNKT cells. iNKT cells become unresponsive to a second intravenous alphaGC injection, whereas no data are available regarding potential anergy upon intradermal administration. Here, comparative analysis of two intradermal versus two intravenous injections in mice demonstrated that iNKT cell anergy was prevented by intradermal injection and when combined with a vaccine, superior tumor protection afforded by intradermally administered alphaGC. Moreover, human skin dendritic cells (DC) took up intradermally injected alphaGC and activated iNKT cells upon migration, while iNKT cells in human skin-draining lymph nodes expanded in response to alphaGC presented either by exogenously added DC or by CD1d positive antigen presenting cells in the lymph nodes. In conclusion, glycolipids such as alphaGC may greatly improve the efficacy of skin immunization strategies, targeting cutaneous and lymph node DC.
    Clinical Immunology 09/2010; 136(3):364-74. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study of early events in dendritic cell (DC) differentiation is hampered by the lack of homogeneous primary cell systems that allow the study of cytokine-driven, transitional DC differentiation steps. The CD34(+) acute myeloid leukemia cell line MUTZ-3 displays a unique ability to differentiate into interstitial DC (IDC) and Langerhans cells (LC) in a cytokine-dependent manner. Phenotypic characterization revealed MUTZ-3 to consist of three distinct subpopulations. Small CD34(+)CD14(-)CD11b(-) progenitors constitute the proliferative compartment of the cell line with the ability to differentiate through a CD34(-)CD14(-)CD11b(+) stage to ultimately give rise to a morphologically large, nonproliferating CD14(+)CD11b(hi) progeny. These CD14(+)CD11b(hi) cells were identified as common, immediate myeloid DC precursors with the ability to differentiate into LC and IDC, exhibiting characteristic and mutually exclusive expression of Langerin and DC-specific ICAM-grabbing nonintegrin, respectively. The identity of the MUTZ-3-derived LC subset was confirmed further by the presence of Birbeck granules. We conclude that the MUTZ-3 cell line provides a ready and continuous supply of common myeloid precursors, which should facilitate further study of the ontogeny of myeloid DC lineages.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 01/2007; 80(6):1337-44. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adoptive transfer of in vitro-induced and expanded tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) presents a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. The in vitro induction of tumor-reactive CTL requires repeated stimulation of CTL precursors with dendritic cells (DC). To circumvent problems like scarcity of blood DC precursors and donor variability, it would be attractive to use DC from a non-autologous, unlimited source. DCs derived from the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line MUTZ-3 are attractive candidates since these DCs closely resemble monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) in terms of phenotype and T cell stimulatory capacity. Here we demonstrate that functional CTL clones could be generated against multiple tumor-associated antigens, i.e., human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), ErbB3-binding protein-1 (Ebp1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Her-2/neu, by stimulating CD8beta(+) CTL precursors with peptide-loaded allogeneic, HLA-A2-matched MUTZ-3-derived DC. A consistent induction capacity, as determined by MHC tetramer-binding, was found in multiple donors and comparable to autologous peptide-loaded MoDC. Functional characterization at the clonal level revealed the priming of CTL that recognized endogenously processed epitopes on tumor cell lines in an HLA-A2-restricted fashion. Our data indicate that MUTZ-3-derived DC can be used as stimulator cells for in vitro priming and expansion of functional TAA-specific effector CTL. MUTZ-3-derived DCs thus represent a ready and standardized source of allogeneic DC to generate CTL for therapeutic adoptive transfer strategies.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 01/2007; 55(12):1480-90. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) type 35 (rAd35) shows great promise as vaccine carrier with the advantage of low pre-existing immunity in human populations, in contrast to the more commonly used rAd5 vector. The rAd35 vector uses CD46 as a high-affinity receptor, which, unlike the rAd5 receptor, is expressed on human dendritic cells (DC), the most powerful APCs identified to date. In this study, we show that in contrast to rAd5, rAd35 infects migrated and mature CD83+ cutaneous DC with high efficiency (up to 80%), when delivered intradermally in an established human skin explant model. The high transduction efficiency is in line with high expression levels of CD46 detected on migratory cutaneous DC, which proved to be further increased upon intradermal administration of GM-CSF and IL-4. As compared with Ad5, these Ad35 infection characteristics translate into higher absolute numbers of skin-emigrated DC per explant that both express the transgene and are phenotypically mature. Finally, we demonstrate that upon intracutaneous delivery of a rAd35 vaccine encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum, emigrated DC functionally express and process CS-derived epitopes and are capable of activating specific CD8+ effector T cells, as evidenced by activation of an HLA-A2-restricted CS-specific CD8+ T cell clone. Collectively, these data demonstrate the utility of rAd35 vectors for efficient in vivo human DC transduction.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 177(4):2208-15. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Migration of dendritic cells (DC) to secondary lymphoid organs under proinflammatory conditions coincides with their maturation and acquisition of T cell stimulatory abilities. In contrast, impaired activation of DC, e.g., in tumor-conditioned environments, may hamper their activation and possibly their subsequent migration to lymph nodes, leading to either immunological tolerance or ignorance, respectively. In this study, the influence of cytokines in the peripheral skin microenvironment on the activation state of migrating cutaneous DC was assessed using an ex vivo human skin explant model. We observed a phenotypic shift from mature CD83(+) DC to immature CD14(+) macrophage-like cells within 7 days subsequent to migration from unconditioned skin. These macrophage-like cells displayed a poor T cell stimulatory ability and lacked expression of CCR7, thus precluding their migration to paracortical T cell areas in the lymph nodes. The balance of suppressive and stimulatory cytokines during the initiation of migration decided the postmigrational fate of DC with IL-10 accelerating and GM-CSF and IL-4 preventing the phenotypic switch, which proved irreversible once established. These observations indicate that, in immunosuppressed environments, a postmigrational DC-to-macrophage shift may hinder T cell activation, but also that it may be prevented by prior conditioning of the tissue microenvironment by GM-CSF and/or IL-4.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2006; 176(12):7232-42. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoviral (Ad) transduction of dendritic cells (DC) is a promising vaccination strategy. However, clinical applicability of Ad vectors is hampered by the necessity to use high titers of infectious Ad particles for efficient DC transduction. Here, we report on the production of a bacterially expressed bispecific conjugate, consisting of a fusion of recombinant single-chain (sc) mAb Fv fragments, which bind and neutralize the Ad fiber knob (through the S11 mAb scFv) and retarget Ad to CD40 on the DC surface (through the G28-5 mAb scFv). We show that this bispecific scFv fusion protein significantly enhances transduction efficiency of monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), reduces the amount of virus needed for a given level of transduction, and increases the ability of MoDC to activate CTL in an antigen specific manner. This single-component conjugate may prove to be a valuable immunotherapeutic tool for the targeting of Ad to DC in vivo.
    Vaccine 07/2003; 21(19-20):2268-72. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic tumor vaccination with viral vectors or naked DNA, carrying the genetic code for tumor-associated Ags, critically depends on the in vivo transduction of dendritic cells (DC). Transfection of predominantly nonprofessional APC and only small numbers of DC may hamper proper T cell activation. Aim of this study was, therefore, the targeted, selective, and enhanced in situ transduction of DC. A human skin explant model was used to explore targeted transduction of cutaneous DC after intradermal injection of a bispecific Ab conjugate to link adenoviral (Ad) vectors directly to CD40 on the DC surface. A significantly enhanced transduction efficiency and selectivity, and an increased activation state of migrating DC were thus achieved. Moreover, DC transduced by CD40-targeted Ad maintained their Ag-specific CTL-stimulatory ability for up to 1 wk after the start of migration, in contrast to DC transduced by untargeted Ad, which had lost this capacity by that time. Because DC targeting in vivo might obviate the need for the in vitro culture of autologous DC for adoptive transfer, CD40-targeted Ad vectors constitute a promising new vaccine modality for tumor immunotherapy.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2002; 169(9):5322-31. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many human myeloid leukemia-derived cell lines possess the ability to acquire a dendritic cell (DC) phenotype. However, cytokine responsiveness is generally poor, requiring direct manipulation of intracellular signaling mechanisms for differentiation. In contrast, the CD34+ human acute myeloid leukemia cell line MUTZ-3 responds to granulocyte macrophage- colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), cytokines known to be pivotal both in vivo and in vitro for DC generation from monocytes and CD34+ stem cells. In all respects, MUTZ-3 cells behave as the immortalized equivalent of CD34+ DC precursors. Upon stimulation with specific cytokine cocktails, they acquire a phenotype consistent with either interstitial- or Langerhans-like DCs and upon maturation (mDC), express CD83. MUTZ-3 DC display the full range of functional antigen processing and presentation pathways. These findings demonstrate the unique suitability of MUTZ-3 cells as an unlimited source of CD34+ DC progenitors for the study of cytokine-induced DC differentiation.
    Blood 08/2002; 100(2):701-3. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Production of immunosuppressive factors is one of the mechanisms by which tumors evade immunosurveillance. Soluble factors hampering dendritic cell (DC) development have recently been identified in culture supernatants derived from tumor cell lines. In this study, we investigated the presence of such factors in 24-h culture supernatants from freshly excised solid human tumors (colon, breast, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma). While primary tumor-derived supernatant (TDSN) profoundly hampered the in vitro DC differentiation from CD14(+) plastic-adherent monocytes or CD34(+) precursors (based on morphology and CD1a/CD14 phenotype), the effects of tested tumor cell line-derived supernatants were minor. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1- and COX-2-regulated prostanoids present in the primary TDSN were found to be solely responsible for the observed hampered differentiation of monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). In contrast, both prostanoids and IL-6 were found to contribute to the TDSN-induced inhibition of DC differentiation from CD34(+) precursor cells. While the addition of TDSN during differentiation interfered with the ability of CD34-derived DC to stimulate a primary allogeneic T cell response, it actually increased this ability of MoDC. These opposite effects were correlated to different effects of the TDSN on the expression levels of CD86 and HLA-DR on the DC from the different precursor origins. Although TDSN increased the T cell-stimulatory capacity of MoDC, TDSN inhibited the IL-12 production and increased the IL-10 production of MoDC, thus skewing them to a type-2 T cell-inducing phenotype. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that primary tumors negatively impact DC development and function through COX-1 and -2 regulated factors, whereas tumor-derived cell lines may lose this ability upon in vitro propagation.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2002; 168(9):4333-43. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

430 Citations
79.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2013
    • VU University Medical Center
      • • Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2011
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands