[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is a relationship between aortic plaques and intracranial (IC) atherosclerosis.
We reviewed 922 patients with stroke who had both transesophageal echocardiography and cerebral angiography. The plaques of these patients were classified as either complex aortic plaques (CAP), which protruded > or =4 mm or were present as mobile lesions in the proximal aorta, or simple aortic plaques (SAP), which were <4 mm or present in the descending aorta. Cerebral artery atherosclerosis was classified as either an IC or extracranial (EC) atherosclerosis.
Among the 922 patients, we found aortic plaques in 237 patients (26%). There were 111 (47%) patients of SAP, 74 (31%) patients with CAP, and 52 (22%) patients that had both SAP and CAP. Angiography showed IC or EC atherosclerosis in 511 patients (55%). The presence of aortic plaques was significantly associated with IC or EC atherosclerosis. The significance appeared to be due to the strong association between the presence of SAP and IC atherosclerosis (51% SAP vs 35% no plaques; odds ratio = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.21). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, SAP were independent predictors of IC atherosclerosis
The presence of simple aortic plaques may be a marker of advanced vascular disease. Detection of simple aortic plaques during transesophageal echocardiography may have clinical implications because patients with these plaques frequently had concomitant intracranial atherosclerosis, a risk factor for stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous pericardiocentesis guided by two-dimensional echocardiography was introduced in 1983 as an alternative to electrocardiographically or fluoroscopically guided puncture for the management of pericardial effusion. The objective of this study was to investigate echocardiographically (echo)- guided pericardiocenteses performed at Yonsei Cardiovascular Center from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2003, and also to determine whether patient profiles, etiology, and practice patterns have changed over this 11-year period. The medical records of 272 patients were examined and a follow-up survey was conducted. Patient clinical profiles, etiology, echocardiographic findings, and procedural details were determined for 2 periods: January, 1993 through December, 1997 (period 1); and January 1998 through December, 2003 (period 2). During the 11-year study period, 291 therapeutic, echo-guided pericardiocenteses with pericardial catheter drainage were performed in 272 patients. The number of pericardiocentesis in period 2 was increased compared with period 1 (191 cases vs. 100 cases). The mean age at pericardiocentesis increased from 49 +/- 17 years in period 1 to 55 +/- 16 years in period 2 (p < 0.05). The procedural success rate was 99% overall with a major complication rate of 0.7% (2 cases of right ventricular free wall perforation which required emergency operation). Only one procedure-related mortality (< 30 days) was noted. Malignancy was the leading cause of a pericardial effusion requiring pericardiocentesis (45.6%). The incidence of pericardial effusion following cardiothoracic surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures accounted for nearly 20% of all pericardiocenteses performed. Echo-guided pericardiocentesis has become a safe, standard practice for clinically significant pericardial effusion, in line with the changes of patients profiles over the 11 years of the study.
Yonsei Medical Journal 06/2004; 45(3):462-8. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitral stenosis (MS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) are the most frequent conditions that cause a dilation and dysfunction of the left atrial appendage (LAA). Despite similarly dilated LAA in patients with MS and MR, the incidence of LAA thrombi and the risk of thromboembolism is different between these patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize the filling pattern of LAA by using intravenous administration of perfluorocarbon-exposed dextrose albumin (PESDA) during transesophageal echocardiographic examination in patients with MS and MR. Twenty-four patients with moderate to severe MS, 12 patients with severe MR, and a control group including 30 patients with conditions other than mitral valve disease underwent transesophageal echocardiographic examination with an intravenous bolus injection of PESDA. LAA emptying and filling velocities and maximal and minimal areas of LAA and LAA ejection fraction were measured. Digital gray-scale intensity (GSI) of the left atrial (LA) and LAA cavity after PESDA injection was measured by off-line analysis. Compared with control patients, patients with MS or MR had larger maximal and minimal areas of LAA and reduced LAA ejection fraction. LAA peak emptying flow velocity was significantly lower in patients with MS compared with those of MR or control patients. LAA peak filling velocity was significantly lower in patients with MS compared with that of control patients. However, there was no significant difference of LAA peak filling velocity between the patients with MS and MR. There was no significant difference of GSI ratio of LAA and LA between patients with MR and control patients; however, GSI ratio of LAA and LA was significantly lower in patients with MS compared with that of MR. The incidence of LAA spontaneous echo contrast and LAA thrombi in patients with MS was significantly higher than that of the patients with MR and control subjects (P <.005). Despite similarly dilated LAA area and depressed contractile function of LAA in patients with MS and MR compared with control patients, profoundly impaired LAA filling with resultant flow stasis was demonstrated by contrast echocardiography in patients with MS. These findings may explain the higher incidence of LAA spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus in patients with MS.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 11/2001; 14(11):1100-6. · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When the results of transesophageal echocardiography was regarded as the gold standard for detecting a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 136 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of cardiac source of embolism, transthoracic harmonic imaging using saline contrast was superior to fundamental imaging in accuracy for detecting a PFO (sensitivity, 22.5%; specificity [p < 0.05] and sensitivity, 100%; specificity 100%, respectively.)
The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2001; 87(5):669-71, A11. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mitral stenosis (MS), left atrial (LA) pressure is commonly elevated because of increased LA afterload. There is a wide spectrum of LA pressure in patients with MS, however, despite a similar mitral valve orifice area. LA compliance is an important determinant of both cardiovascular performance and pathological physiology. Few data are available, however, regarding the effects of LA compliance on LA pressure. We hypothesized that LA pressure may be higher in patients with decreased LA compliance. We analyzed the right heart and transseptal catheterization data in 47 patients (41 female, mean age 40 +/- 10 years) with pure MS and sinus rhythm. The magnitude of LA a and v waves was measured from transseptal catheterization. Fick's method was used to determine cardiac output. LA compliance was calculated by dividing the systolic rise in LA pressure (DeltaP(LA) = P(LA(v)) - P(LA(x))) into the stroke volume. LA size, mitral valve area (MVA), mean diastolic pressure gradient (MG), left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions were obtained by using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify independent factors determining LA pressure. The mean MVA was 0.95 +/- 0.22 cm(2). MG and LA dimension were 11.2 +/- 5.2 mm Hg and 50.6 +/- 5.2 mm, respectively. The mean LA pressure and cardiac output obtained by cardiac catheterization were 23.4 +/- 8.4 mm Hg and 4.3 +/- 1.5 L/min, respectively. The calculated LA compliance was 4.9 +/- 2.8 cm(3)/mm Hg. Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with increased LA pressure were smaller MVA (r = -0.33, P < 0.05), higher MG (r = 0.69, P < 0.01) and lower LA compliance (r = -0.55, P < 0.01); among them, MG (beta coefficient 0.59, SE 0.19, P < 0.01) and LA compliance (beta coefficient -0.26, standard error 0.34, P < 0.05) were the strongest predictors of LA pressure. In conclusion, LA compliance, along with MG that reflects the severity of MS, is an important contributing factor determining LA pressure in patients with pure MS and sinus rhythm.
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 04/2001; 52(3):328-33. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have described the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with acoustic quantification (AQ) in assessing aortic elastic properties. We hypothesized that patients with a prior history of stroke (ST) may have a higher risk of atherosclerotic change in great vessels compared to nonstroke subjects (NST) and thus have decreased elastic properties. We assessed the elastic properties of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) by TEE in ST patients and compared them with data in NST patients. Subjects included 31 with ST without any evidence of emboli originating from the heart (age 51 +/- 10 years, M:F = 20:11) and 25 age-matched NST (M:F = 8:17). Patients with significant valvular heart disease including aortic and mitral regurgitation, left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 55%), and congenital heart disease were excluded. Compliance (C), distensibility (D), and stiffness index (SI) were measured using AQ and M-mode measurement at a level of the left atrium. We scored atherosclerotic risk factors (ARF) such as a history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and the presence of atheroma of DTA. There was no evidence of atheroma of DTA in NST. There were no significant differences in heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between ST and NST patients. Fractional area change (FAC) of DTA was significantly lower in ST than in NST patients (3.2 +/- 1.6 vs 5.4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.000). ST patients had significantly lower C (1.2 +/- 0.4 vs 1.5 +/- 0.7 x 10(-3) cm2 mmHg(-1), P = 0.039), lower D (0.8 +/- 0.3 vs 1.5 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) mmHg(-1), P = 0.000), and higher SI (10.3 +/- 8.8 vs 5.3 +/- 2.9, P = 0.006) than NST patients. ST patients without atheroma of DTA (n = 21) also had significantly lower C (1.1 +/- 0.4 vs 1.5 +/- 0.7 x 10(-3) cm2 mmHg(-1), P = 0.038) and lower D (3.5 +/- 1.4 vs 4.8 +/- 2.4 x 10(-3) mmHg(-1), P = 0.021) than NST patients. There was a significant positive correlation between SI and the score of ARF (r = 0.51, P = 0.000). The regional elastic properties of DTA measured by TEE with AQ and M-mode method were abnormal in ST. Therefore, TEE with AQ technique may have a possible clinical application for the detection of early atherosclerotic changes such as alteration of elastic properties in morphological normal DTA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) of the left atrium is associated with increased risk of thromboembolism in patients with mitral stenosis (MS). The determination of the presence and severity of left atrial (LA) SEC is of prognostic importance in these patients. Harmonic imaging (HI), a novel echocardiographic technique that differs from conventional fundamental imaging (FI) in that it involves transmitting ultrasound at one frequency and receiving at twice the transmitted frequency, produces better endocardial border definition and myocardial opacification. However, there are no data about its value for the detection of LA SEC. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of transthoracic noncontrast tissue HI in the detection of LA SEC in patients with MS.
Seventy-four consecutive patients with MS (49 women, mean age 51 years) underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in both HI and FI modes and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to determine the presence and severity of LA SEC. Left atrial SEC was graded by TEE as either mild (only seen at high gain) or severe (visible in the entire left atrium at normal gain control of the equipment). The control group comprised 30 patients randomly selected from patients who did not have LA SEC at the TEE examination.
Atrial fibrillation was found in 46 patients (62.2%). The mean mitral valve area and mean mitral gradient were 1.0+/-0.3 cm(2) and 8.2+/-4.1 mm Hg, respectively. Nine patients (12.2%) had episodes of systemic embolism; 8 had stroke, and 1 had peripheral embolism. Left atrial thrombus was found in 11 patients (14.9%) by TEE. Left atrial SEC was present in all but one patient by TEE (mild in 35 patients, severe in 38). Fundamental imaging with TTE, however, revealed LA SEC in only 5 (6.8%) of the 73 patients. In contrast, with HI, LA SEC could be detected in 63 (86.3%) patients. In the detection of severe LA SEC, the sensitivities of FI and HI were 13.2% (5/38) and 100% (38/38), respectively. Left atrial SEC was not observed in control subjects by either FI or HI.
Transthoracic HI significantly enhances the detection of LA SEC in patients with MS.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 10/2000; 13(9):849-54. · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large left atrial (LA) v. wave can be observed in patients with pure mitral stenosis (MS) because of decreased LA compliance. Few data are available regarding the relation between the magnitude of the LA v wave and pulmonary artery pressure in MS. We hypothesized that pulmonary artery pressure may be higher in patients with decreased LA compliance and thus a large v. wave. We analyzed the right-sided cardiac and transseptal catheterization data in 113 patients (16 men and 97 women, mean age 39 years) with pure rheumatic MS in sinus rhythm. Peak systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary artery pressures were measured with right-sided cardiac catheterization. The magnitude of LA a and v. waves were measured through transseptal catheterization. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were also performed to measure LA size, mitral valve area, mean mitral gradient, and valvular regurgitation. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the most important factor in the determination of pulmonary artery pressure. A large v wave, defined if peak v wave height exceeded the mean LA pressure by > or =10 mm Hg, was observed in 43 of 113 patients (38%). Increased pulmonary artery systolic pressure (> or =50 mm Hg) was observed in 38 patients (34%). Univariate analysis showed that the factors associated with increased pulmonary artery systolic pressure were smaller mitral valve area, higher mean mitral gradient, higher mean LA pressure, and higher LA v. wave; among them, LA v wave (p <0. 001) and mean mitral gradient (p<0.001) were significant independent factors for pulmonary artery systolic pressure in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, in patients with pure MS and sinus rhythm, the magnitude of the LA v. wave is strongly associated with pulmonary artery pressure. This finding may suggest that LA compliance is a major contributing factor determining pulmonary artery pressure in pure MS.
The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2000; 85(8):986-91. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the relation between the echocardiographic morphology of cardiac myxoma and systemic embolism in 25 patients. Two distinct types of myxoma could be identified by echocardiography: round type characterized by solid and round shape with nonmobile surface (n = 13, 52%), and polypoid type characterized by soft and irregular shape with mobile surface (n = 12, 48%); multiple regression analysis revealed the polypoid type of tumor was the only independent predictor of systemic embolism (p = 0.0029).
The American Journal of Cardiology 07/1999; 83(11):1579-82, A8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake and left ventricular systolic and diastolic functional parameters, both of which are known as predictors of prognosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Echocardiography and iodine-123-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy were performed in 35 patients of dilated cardiomyopathy with normal sinus rhythm. Mean myocardial MIBG uptake in the patient group at early and delayed images were significantly lower than those in normal control subjects (10.6 +/- 1.1, 9.8 +/- 1.2 vs 12.4 +/- 1.0, 12.1 +/- 1.0, p < 0.01). There were, however, no significant differences of mean MIBG uptake in the lung and mediastinum between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between myocardial MIBG uptake, expressed as the ratio of heart/mediastinum MIBG activity at delayed image, and left ventricular systolic and diastolic functional parameters [left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, peak velocity of early diastolic filling (E velocity), deceleration time of E wave, cardiac output, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure]. In conclusion, the myocardial uptake of MIBG is decreased in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. There were, however, no significant correlations between myocardial MIBG uptake and left ventricular systolic and diastolic functional parameters derived from echocardiography.
Yonsei Medical Journal 06/1999; 40(3):199-206. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed Doppler echocardiographic data in 120 subjects with normal sinus rhythm; normals (NL, n = 60, ages 54.1 +/- 15.1) and essential hypertensive patients (HT, n = 60, ages 57.3 +/- 10.2). The IMP was calculated as follows: IMP = (ICT + IRT)/ET, ICT; isovolumic contraction time, IRT; isovolumic relaxation time, ET; ejection time. There were no significant differences in ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume index (SVI), cardiac index (CI), ET and ICT between NL and HT. There were, however, significant differences in deceleration time (DT), E/A ratio, IRT and the IMP between the two groups (199.5 +/- 45.6 msec vs 222.3 +/- 54.3 msec, p < 0.01; 1.4 +/- 0.7 vs 0.9 +/- 0.2, p < 0.01; 113.6 +/- 30.2 msec vs 134.2 +/- 29.6 msec, p < 0.01; 0.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.8 +/- 0.3, p < 0.05). In HT, there were no differences in EF, SVI, CI, E/A ratio and DT between the NYHA I (Gp I, n = 36) and II (Gp II, n = 24) groups. However, ET of Gp II was significantly shorter than that of Gp I (259.4 +/- 43.5 msec vs 297.8 +/- 33.6 msec, p < 0.01). ICT, IRT and the IMP were significantly increased in Gp II, compared to those of Gp I (64.4 +/- 23.9 msec vs 89.4 +/- 46.2 msec, p < 0.05; 120.3 +/- 21.0 msec vs 155.2 +/- 28.5 msec, p < 0.001; 0.6 +/- 0.2 vs 1.0 +/- 0.4, p < 0.001). There were no differences in heart rate and mean blood pressure between Gp I and Gp II (70.9 +/- 11.4/min vs 66.3 +/- 11.4/min, p > 0.05; 138.4 +/- 21.2 mmHg vs 131.3 +/- 19.9 mmHg, p > 0.05). These data suggest that the IMP may be a useful parameter and an early indicator of left ventricular dysfunction in essential hypertensive patients with normal systolic function.
Yonsei Medical Journal 11/1998; 39(5):446-52. · 1.31 Impact Factor