S Banerjee

King's College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (18)38.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The detrimental impact of dementia upon patient health-related quality of life (HRQL) is well established, as is the importance of improving HRQL. However, relatively little is known about the natural history of HRQL in dementia and those factors influencing it. This limited knowledge potentially restricts the evaluation of the efficacy of interventions designed to improve HRQL. One such area concerns the relationship between HRQL and patient insight. It remains unclear what impact, if any, impaired insight has upon a patient's HRQL. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between insight and HRQL in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their carers. 256 patients with AD were recruited as part of AddNeuroMed, a multicentre European AD biomarkers study. Of these, 174 completed a quality-of-life measure in addition to a comprehensive battery of clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Insight was found to be differentially related to patient perceptions of HRQL in mild and moderate dementia. Within moderate dementia, impaired insight was associated with better perceived HRQL. Conversely, cognition, but not insight, was associated with impaired HRQL in mild dementia. Insight was not found to be associated with carer perceptions of patient HRQL. Impairment of insight is associated with better HRQL in moderate dementia. This finding has implications for interventions which focus on increasing patient awareness and orientation, as impairment of insight appears to have a positive impact upon HRQL.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 10/2009; 81(3):331-6. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EURO-D, a12-item self-report questionnaire for depression, was developed with the aim of facilitating cross-cultural research into late-life depression in Europe. To describe the national variation in depression symptoms and syndrome prevalence across ten European countries. The EURO-D was administered to cross-sectional nationally representative samples of non-institutionalised persons aged > or =50 years (n=22 777). The effects of age, gender, education and cognitive functioning on individual symptoms and EURO-D factor scores were estimated. Country-specific depression prevalence rates and mean factor scores were re-estimated, adjusted for these compositional effects. The prevalence of all symptoms was higher in the Latin ethno-lingual group of countries, especially symptoms related to motivation. Women scored higher on affective suffering; older people and those with impaired verbal fluency scored higher on motivation. The prevalence of individual EURO-D symptoms and of probable depression (cut-off score > or =4) varied consistently between countries. Standardising for effects of age, gender, education and cognitive function suggested that these compositional factors did not account for the observed variation.
    The British Journal of Psychiatry 11/2007; 191:393-401. · 6.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified the need to develop a scientifically rigorous measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in dementia that would be appropriate for use at all stages of dementia severity and would be available in both self- and proxy-report versions. We used standard psychometric methods to eliminate items with poor psychometric properties (item-reduction field test) and to assess the acceptability, reliability and validity of the item-reduced instruments (psychometric evaluation field test). We developed and validated two versions of DEMQOL: a 28-item interviewer-administered questionnaire that is self-reported by the person with dementia (DEMQOL) and a 31-item interviewer-administered questionnaire that is proxy-reported by a caregiver (DEMQOL-Proxy). DEMQOL shows high reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and moderate validity in people with mild/moderate dementia. DEMQOL-Proxy shows good acceptability and internal consistency and moderate evidence of validity in people with mild/moderate and severe dementia. Test-retest reliability and performance in people with severe dementia need further testing. DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy show psychometric properties that are comparable with the best available dementia-specific measures of HRQL. We recommend that DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy are used together. Reliability and validity need to be confirmed in independent samples and responsiveness needs to be evaluated.
    Psychological Medicine 06/2007; 37(5):737-46. · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • Article: Dementia UK
    London: Alzheimer's Society. 01/2007;
  • 01/2007; King's College London and London School of Economics.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the extent to which commonly used measures of specific outcomes in dementia are an appropriate proxy for quality of life in dementia. This was a cross sectional study set in communities in London and Nottingham, comprising 101 people with dementia and their 99 main family caregivers. The main outcome measures were health related quality of life in dementia (measured by the DEMQOL-Proxy), cognition (Mini Mental State Examination), functional impairment (Barthel Index), behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (Neuropsychiatric Inventory; NPI), and carer mental health (General Health Questionnaire). On univariate analysis, decreased quality of life was statistically significantly correlated with higher levels of behavioural and psychological disturbance (NPI total score and its agitation, depression, anxiety, disinhibition, and irritability subscales); younger age of the person with dementia; and poorer mental health of the carer. Quality of life was not statistically significantly associated with cognition or carer age. In a multivariate model, psychological and behavioural disturbance and patient age remained statistically significantly associated with quality of life. Carer mental health was no longer statistically significantly associated, and cognition and functional limitation remained statistically insignificant. These data suggest that quality of life in dementia is complex, and that simple proxy substitutions of discrete measures such as cognition or function are likely to miss important factors.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery &amp Psychiatry 03/2006; 77(2):146-8. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop and validate a psychometrically rigorous measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for people with dementia: DEMQOL. Literature review. Expert opinion. Interviews and questionnaires. Gold standard psychometric techniques were used to develop DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy. A conceptual framework was generated from a review of the literature, qualitative interviews with people with dementia and their carers, expert opinion and team discussion. Items for each component of the conceptual framework were drafted and piloted to produce questionnaires for the person with dementia (DEMQOL) and carer (DEMQOL-Proxy). An extensive two-stage field-testing was then undertaken of both measures in large samples of people with dementia (n = 130) and their carers (n = 126) representing a range of severity and care arrangements. In the first field test, items with poor psychometric performance were eliminated separately for DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy to produce two shorter, more scientifically robust instruments. In the second field test, the item-reduced questionnaires were evaluated along with other validating measures (n = 101 people with dementia, n = 99 carers) to assess acceptability, reliability and validity. Rigorous evaluation in two-stage field testing with 241 people with dementia and 225 carers demonstrated that in psychometric terms: (1) DEMQOL is comparable to the best available dementia-specific HRQoL measures in mild to moderate dementia, but is not appropriate for use in severe dementia [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) <10]; and (2) DEMQOL-Proxy is comparable to the best available proxy measure in mild to moderate dementia, and shows promise in severe dementia. In addition, the DEMQOL system has been validated in the UK in a large sample of people with dementia and their carers, and it provides separate measures for self-report and proxy report, which allows outcomes assessment across a wide range of severity in dementia. The 28-item DEMQOL and 31-item DEMQOL-Proxy provide a method for evaluating HRQoL in dementia. The new measures show comparable psychometric properties to the best available dementia-specific measures, provide both self- and proxy-report versions for people with dementia and their carers, are appropriate for use in mild/moderate dementia (MMSE >/= 10) and are suitable for use in the UK. DEMQOL-Proxy also shows promise in severe dementia. As DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy give different but complementary perspectives on quality of life in dementia, the use of both measures together is recommended. In severe dementia, only DEMQOL-Proxy should be used. Further research with DEMQOL is needed to confirm these findings in an independent sample, evaluate responsiveness, investigate the feasibility of use in specific subgroups and in economic evaluation, and develop population norms. Additional research is needed to address the psychometric challenges of self-report in dementia and validating new dementia-specific HRQoL measures.
    Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 03/2005; 9(10):1-93, iii-iv. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify what patient and carer characteristics influence transition into residential care for people with dementia. Longitudinal study of a cohort of people with dementia and their carers in contact with old age psychiatric services in south London. 100 people with dementia and their main family carer were recruited. At six month follow up 22 were in residential care, 63 in the community, 8 had died, and for 7 there were missing data. Between six and 12 months, 7 of the 63 in the community went into residential care, 4 died, and 12 were lost to follow up. The most striking finding is the 20-fold protective effect of having a co-resident carer (odds ratio 0.05, 95% confidence intervals 0.01 to 0.42, p=0.006). Higher ratings of behavioural problems in the person with dementia were also statistically significantly associated with transition into residential care as was the psychological domain of quality of life of the carer. These findings powerfully illustrate the pivotal role carried out by carers of people with dementia; interventions directly targeted at helping them to maintain this role would be supported by these data. These data also suggest that strategies directed at improving carer quality of life and at the resolution of behavioural disorder in the person with dementia may also have particular value.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery &amp Psychiatry 10/2003; 74(9):1315-6. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Details of service receipt by 132 people diagnosed with dementia and their carers were collected in South London (boroughs of Lewisham, Camberwell, Southwark and Croydon), a geographical area served by several health and social care providers. The data collected included the Caregiver Activity Survey, which details the informal care given. This paper reports the formal and informal services received by the people with dementia at entry to the study. The amount of time spent on specific caring tasks by all informal carers of people with dementia averaged seven hours per week, but was significantly higher for co-resident carers, even when controlling for the level of dependency of the person cared-for. The odds ratios of receipt of formal services are given, according to where people were living: in the community or residential care, with co-resident carers or alone.
    Aging and Mental Health 09/2002; 6(3):255-65. · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • J Schneider, J Murray, S Banerjee, A Mann
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    ABSTRACT: The challenges presented by the increasing public health and social impact of caring for people with dementia have become clear in recent years. Previous research has identified that, while there are positive as well as negative elements to the caring role, carers are at high risk of mental health problems and that the comprehensive burden of caring has social, economic and health based elements. Co-resident carers, especially spouses, are of primary importance in maintaining people with dementia in their own homes in the community rather than in institutional settings which may be both more costly and have greater environmental poverty. There have, however, been few studies which have sought to investigate factors associated with carer burden and differences and similarities between countries. In this study we aimed to produce a cross-national profile of co-resident spouse carers across the European Community, with particular attention to: living arrangements; formal and informal support; service satisfaction; perceived burden; and psychological well-being. Twenty co-resident spouse carers of people with NINCDS-ADRDA probable dementia, who had been diagnosed as such within the past 12-36 months, were recruited from service contacts in each of 14 out of the 15 countries of the EU. All completed a semi-structured interview which included: sociodemographic data; data on health and social service use; the Carer Burden Inventory (CBI); the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12); and open-ended qualitative questions about the experience of caring. Two hundred and eighty couples were recruited. There was marked variation in all variables of interest between countries, but there were consistently high ratings of carer burden (mean CBI scores between 28 and 52) and psychological distress (between 40% and 75% scoring 4 or more on the GHQ-12). Using multivariate analyses (generalized linear modelling) to estimate the individual associations of variables of interest with carer burden, controlling for the effects of all other variables in the model, the following results were obtained: 11.4% (p = 0.003) of the variance was accounted for by between-country variation; 4.9% (p < 0.001) by expressed financial dissatisfaction; 4.5% (p = 0.001) by lower carer age; 3.2% (p = 0.004) by difficulties with spouse behavioural deficits; and 2.0% (p = 0.024) by perceived negative social reactions. There was a low level of contact with support groups and Alzheimer's disease societies despite the samples having been of service contacts. This study confirms the high level of burden and mental distress in spouse carers for people with Alzheimer's disease in the European Community. It suggests that there are elements of burden which may vary by country but also elements which have a common effect in all. These data suggest avenues for the primary and secondary prevention of burden by addressing clinical issues (e.g. behavioural disturbance); public attitudes and education (e.g. negative social reactions); economic support for carers (e.g. financial dissatisfaction); and higher risk groups (e.g. younger spouse carers).
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 09/1999; 14(8):651-61. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • J Murray, J Schneider, S Banerjee, A Mann
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    ABSTRACT: Spouses caring for a partner with dementia are subject to physical, psychological and social stresses. In view of the part played by spouse carers in preventing admission to institutional care, a fuller understanding of the subjective experience of caring is an important area of enquiry. Qualitative analysis of their accounts of the difficulties and rewards in looking after their partners may indicate strategies to support them and to alleviate the stresses that they experience. Twenty co-resident spouses of people with NINCDS-ADRDA probable dementia of the Alzheimer's type, who had been diagnosed as such within the past 12-36 months, were recruited from service contacts in each of 14 out of the 15 countries of the EU. All completed a semi-structured interview that included open-ended questions about the experience of caring. Overall, the most commonly expressed difficulties reflected: loss of companionship through diminished quality of communication; loss of reciprocity as carers experienced their partners' growing dependency; and deterioration in their partners' social behaviour. Satisfaction from caring stemmed from: a feeling of job satisfaction; continued reciprocity and mutual affection; companionship; and the fulfillment of a sense of duty. Spouse carers in the 14 countries described the difficulties and rewards of caring in similar terms. This suggests commonality of experience, in spite of diversity in informal and statutory provision of care for older people between different countries.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 09/1999; 14(8):662-7. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • THE FULL REPORT.
  • Article: Dementia UK
  • Alzheimer's Society: London.
  • Article: Dementia UK
    London: Alzheimer’s Society.
  • London: Alzheimer’s Society.
  • Kings College London and London School of Economics.