ABSTRACT: The American Heart Association 2010 resuscitation guidelines recommended adding a fifth link (multidisciplinary postresuscitation care in a regional center) to the previous 4 in the chain of survival concept for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our study aimed to determine the effectiveness of this fifth link.
This multicenter prospective cohort study involved all eligible out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in the Aizu region (n=1482, suburban/rural, Fukushima, Japan). Proportions of favorable neurological outcomes were evaluated before (January 2006-April 2008) and after (January 2009-December 2010) the implementation of the fifth link. After implementation, all patients were transported directly from the field to the tertiary-level hospital or secondarily from an outlying hospital to the tertiary-level hospital after restoration of circulation. The tertiary hospital provided intensive postresuscitation care, including appropriate hemodynamic and respiratory management, therapeutic hypothermia, and percutaneous coronary intervention. One-month survival with a favorable neurological outcome among all patients treated by emergency medical services providers improved significantly after implementation (4 of 770 [0.5%] versus 21 of 712 [3.0%]; P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratios of favorable neurological outcome were 0.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.1) for early access to emergency medical care, 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-14.2) for bystander resuscitation, 14.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.2-67.0) for early defibrillation, 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.1) for early advanced life support, and 7.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-39.0) for the fifth link.
The proportion of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with a favorable neurological outcome improved significantly after the implementation of the fifth link, which may be an independent predictor of outcome.
URL: http://www.apps.who.int/trialsearch. Unique identifier: UMIN000001607.
Circulation 07/2012; 126(5):589-97. · 14.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Many survivors of the tsunami that occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, contracted a systemic disorder called "tsunami lung," a series of severe systemic infections following aspiration pneumonia caused by near drowning in the tsunami. Generally, the cause of aspiration pneumonia is polymicrobial, including fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, but Aspergillus infection is rarely reported. Here we report a case of tsunami lung complicated by disseminated aspergillosis, as diagnosed during autopsy.
Respiratory care 03/2012; 57(10):1674-8. · 2.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Little is known about plasma neutrophil elastase (PNE) levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) or high care unit (HCU). In addition, the influence of PNE on pulmonary vascular permeability in a clinical setting has not been investigated. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate PNE levels in patients with CAP and (ii) to explore the relationship between PNE and pulmonary vascular permeability.
Fourteen consecutive CAP patients who were admitted to the HCU (n = 8) or ICU (n = 6) were prospectively investigated over a 6-month period. A group of eight patients with hydrostatic pulmonary oedema without CAP served as a control group (CG). PNE levels were measured at regular intervals. The pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) was monitored in all ICU and CG patients, using the PiCCO system.
PNE levels were higher in the CAP patients (132 (84-261) ng/mL) than in the CG patients (77 (64-107) ng/mL) (P = 0.04), and were highest in the ICU patients (186 (75-466) ng/mL). The PVPI was higher in the ICU patients (2.85 (1.90-4.00)) than in the CG patients (1.15 (0.75-2.35)) (P = 0.02). PNE levels correlated with PVPI in the ICU patients (r = 0.81, P < 0.001) but there was no correlation among the CG patients (r = 0.14, P = 0.73).
Patients with severe CAP had high levels of PNE, which was closely correlated with PVPI. PNE may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe pneumonia.
Respirology 05/2011; 16(6):953-8. · 2.42 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Gravimetric validation of single-indicator extravascular lung water (EVLW) and normal EVLW values has not been well studied in humans thus far. The aims of this study were (1) to validate the accuracy of EVLW measurement by single transpulmonary thermodilution with postmortem lung weight measurement in humans and (2) to define the statistically normal EVLW values.
We evaluated the correlation between pre-mortem EVLW value by single transpulmonary thermodilution and post-mortem lung weight from 30 consecutive autopsies completed within 48 hours following the final thermodilution measurement. A linear regression equation for the correlation was calculated. In order to clarify the normal lung weight value by statistical analysis, we conducted a literature search and obtained the normal reference ranges for post-mortem lung weight. These values were substituted into the equation for the correlation between EVLW and lung weight to estimate the normal EVLW values.
EVLW determined using transpulmonary single thermodilution correlated closely with post-mortem lung weight (r = 0.904, P < 0.001). A linear regression equation was calculated: EVLW (mL) = 0.56 × lung weight (g) - 58.0. The normal EVLW values indexed by predicted body weight were approximately 7.4 ± 3.3 mL/kg (7.5 ± 3.3 mL/kg for males and 7.3 ± 3.3 mL/kg for females).
A definite correlation exists between EVLW measured by the single-indicator transpulmonary thermodilution technique and post-mortem lung weight in humans. The normal EVLW value is approximately 7.4 ± 3.3 mL/kg.
Critical care (London, England) 01/2010; 14(5):R162. · 4.61 Impact Factor