[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a broad role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism making it a promising target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We therefore sought to characterise for the first time the effects of chronic AMPK activation on skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism in carriers of the rare gain-of-function mutation of the gene encoding AMPKgamma(3) subunit, PRKAG3 R225W.
Aspects of fuel metabolism were studied in vitro in myocytes isolated from vastus lateralis of PRKAG3 R225W carriers and matched control participants. In vivo, muscular strength and fatigue were evaluated by isokinetic dynamometer and surface electromyography, respectively. Glucose uptake in exercising quadriceps was determined using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography.
Myotubes from PRKAG3 R225W carriers had threefold higher mitochondrial content (p < 0.01) and oxidative capacity, higher leak-dependent respiration (1.6-fold, p < 0.05), higher basal glucose uptake (twofold, p < 0.01) and higher glycogen synthesis rates (twofold, p < 0.05) than control myotubes. They also had higher levels of intracellular glycogen (p < 0.01) and a trend for lower intramuscular triacylglycerol stores. R225W carriers showed remarkable resistance to muscular fatigue and a trend for increased glucose uptake in exercising muscle in vivo.
Through the enhancement of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and increased mitochondrial content, the R225W mutation may significantly enhance exercise performance. These findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that the gamma(3) subunit of AMPK is a promising tissue-specific target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a condition in which glucose uptake and mitochondrial function are impaired.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, but not all obese individuals develop this complication. The clinical signs of type 2 diabetes can often be reversed with weight loss; however, it is unknown whether the skeletal muscle oxidative stress associated with type 2 diabetes remains after weight loss. We hypothesised that chronic exposure to high glucose and insulin would re-elicit impaired metabolism in primary myotubes from patients with a history of type 2 diabetes.
Obese participants with or without type 2 diabetes completed a standardised weight loss protocol, following which all participants were euglycaemic and had similar indices of insulin sensitivity. Satellite cells were isolated from muscle biopsies and differentiated under low or high glucose and insulin conditions (HGI).
Cells from participants with no history of type 2 diabetes showed robust increases in mitochondrial content, citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activities when exposed to HGI. This increase in oxidative capacity was absent in cells from patients with a history of type 2 diabetes. High glucose and insulin caused increased oxidative damage in cells from the latter, despite higher superoxide dismutase expression. Cells from patients with a history of type 2 diabetes were unable to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential in response to HGI, potentially due to lower levels of uncoupling protein-3.
This is the first report to note that primary myotubes from patients with a history of type 2 diabetes are unable to adapt to a hyperglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic challenge. We have demonstrated that impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and an inability to manage oxidative stress define a muscle phenotype at risk of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle. While UCP3's function is still unknown, it has been hypothesized to act as a fatty acid (FA) anion exporter, protecting mitochondria against lipid peroxidation and/or facilitating FA oxidation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term feeding of a 45% fat diet on whole body indicators of muscle metabolism in congenic C57BL/6 mice that were either lacking UCP3 (Ucp3(-/-)) or had a transgenically induced approximately twofold increase in UCP3 levels (UCP3tg). Mice were fed the high-fat (HF) diet for a period of either 4 or 8 mo immediately following weaning. After long-term HF feeding, UCP3tg mice weighed an average of 15% less than wild-type mice (P < 0.05) and were 20% less metabolically efficient than both wild-type and Ucp3(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). Additionally, wild-type mice had 21% lower, whereas UCP3tg mice had 36% lower, levels of adiposity compared with Ucp3(-/-) mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively), indicating a protective effect of UCP3 against fat gain. No differences in whole body oxygen consumption were detected following long-term HF feeding. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests revealed that both the UCP3tg and Ucp3(-/-) mice were more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive compared with wild-type mice after short-term HF feeding, but this protection was not maintained in the long term. Findings indicate that UCP3 is involved in protection from fat gain induced by long-term HF feeding, but not in protection from insulin resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(3):e1759. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0001759 · 3.23 Impact Factor