[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The o-carboxylic acid substituted bisanilinopyrimidine 1 was identified as a potent hit (Aurora A IC(50) = 6.1 ± 1.0 nM) from in-house screening. Detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies indicated that polar substituents at the para position of the B-ring are critical for potent activity. X-ray crystallography studies revealed that compound 1 is a type I inhibitor that binds the Aurora kinase active site in a DFG-in conformation. Structure-activity guided replacement of the A-ring carboxylic acid with halogens and incorporation of fluorine at the pyrimidine 5-position led to highly potent inhibitors of Aurora A that bind in a DFG-out conformation. B-Ring modifications were undertaken to improve the solubility and cell permeability. Compounds such as 9m with water-solubilizing moieties at the para position of the B-ring inhibited the autophosphorylation of Aurora A in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening of the NCI Diversity Set-1 identified PI-083 (NSC-45382) a proteasome inhibitor selective for cancer over normal cells. Focused libraries of novel compounds based on PI-083 chloronaphthoquinone and sulfonamide moieties were synthesized to gain a better understanding of the structure-activity relationship responsible for chymotrypsin-like proteasome inhibitory activity. This led to the demonstration that the chloronaphthoquinone and the sulfonamide moieties are critical for inhibitory activity. The pyridyl group in PI-083 can be replaced with other heterocyclic groups without significant loss of activity. Molecular modeling studies were also performed to explore the detailed interactions of PI-083 and its derivatives with the beta5 and beta6 subunits of the 20S proteasome. The refined model showed an H-bond interaction between the Asp-114 and the sulfonamide moiety of the PI-083 in the beta6 subunit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidyl alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) functions in vivo towards the biosynthesis of alpha-amidated peptide hormones in mammals and insects. PHM is a potential target for the development of inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of human disease and as insecticides for the management of insect pests. We show here that relatively simple ground state analogs of the PHM substrate hippuric acid (C(6)H(5)-CO-NH-CH(2)-COOH) inhibit the enzyme with K(i) values as low as 0.5microM. Substitution of sulfur atom(s) into the hippuric acid analog increases the affinity of PHM for the inhibitor. Replacement of the acetylglycine moiety, -CO-NH-CH(2)-COOH with an S-(thioacetyl)thioglycolic acid moiety, -CS-S-CH(2)-COOH, yields compounds with the highest PHM affinity. Both S-(2-phenylthioacetyl)thioglycolate and S-(4-ethylthiobenzoyl)thioglycolic acid inhibit the proliferation of cultured human prostate cancer cells at concentrations >100-fold excess of their respective K(i) values. Comparison of K(i) values between mammalian PHM and insect PHM shows differences in potency suggesting that a PHM-based insecticide with limited human toxicity can be developed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that the NKR repertoire is profoundly disrupted by SHIP deficiency. This repertoire disruption is characterized by receptor dominance where inhibitory signals from 2B4 repress killing of complex targets expressing MHC class I and activating ligands. In this study, we examine the molecular basis of receptor dominance in SHIP-/- NK cells. In this study, we show that in SHIP-/- NK cells there is a pronounced bias toward the 2B4 long isoform. We have also characterized signaling molecules recruited to 2B4 in SHIP-/- NK cells. Interestingly, we find that approximately 10- to 16-fold more Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP1) is recruited to 2B4 in SHIP-/- NK cells when compared with wild type. Consistent with SHP1 overrecruitment, treatment with sodium orthovanadate or a novel inhibitor with micromolar activity against SHP1 restores the ability of SHIP-/- NK cells to kill Rae1+ RMA and M157+ targets. These findings define the molecular basis for hyporesponsiveness by SHIP-deficient NK cells.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2008; 179(12):8009-15. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.179.12.8009 · 4.92 Impact Factor