[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of interleukin-10 (IL-10) to suppress accessory cell functions required for optimal T-cell activation makes it an important inhibitor of cell-mediated immunity. Thus, after infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, IL-10 knockout (KO) mice develop a CD4(+)-T-cell-dependent shock-like reaction with high levels of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in serum, leading to death of mice during the acute phase of infection. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that simultaneous blockade of CD28 and CD40 can prevent this lethal reaction by inhibiting the production of IFN-gamma. However, the blockade of costimulation did not affect systemic levels of IL-12. To better understand the relationship between IL-12 and the CD28 and CD40 pathways in mediating immune hyperactivity, antagonists of these factors were used to determine their effects on the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice. Blockade of IL-12 or the CD28/B7 interaction alone did not affect survival; however, the combined blockade of both pathways resulted in decreased production of IFN-gamma and the survival of IL-10 KO mice. To assess the role of the two ligands for CD28, B7.1 and B7.2, IL-10 KO mice were treated with alphaIL-12 plus alphaB7.1 or alphaB7.2 or the combination of all three antibodies. These studies revealed that blockade of both B7 molecules is required for decreased production of IFN-gamma and survival of infected IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that B7.1 and B7.2 can contribute to the lethal shock-like reaction in IL-10 KO mice. In contrast, neutralization of IL-12 and blockade of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction in vivo did not alter the production of IFN-gamma and only resulted in a small delay in time to death of mice. Together, these data suggest that the CD28/B7 interaction has a central role in the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice, which is distinct from the role of the CD40/CD40L and IL-12 pathways.
Infection and Immunity 01/2003; 70(12):6940-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term resistance to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the development of parasite-specific T cells that produce IFN-gamma. CD28 is a costimulatory molecule important for optimal activation of T cells, but CD28(-/-) mice are resistant to T. gondii, demonstrating that CD28-independent mechanisms regulate T cell responses during toxoplasmosis. The identification of the B7-related protein 1/inducible costimulator protein (ICOS) pathway and its ability to regulate the production of IFN-gamma suggested that this pathway may be involved in the CD28-independent activation of T cells required for resistance to T. gondii. In support of this hypothesis, infection of wild-type or CD28(-/-) mice with T. gondii resulted in the increased expression of ICOS by activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, both costimulatory pathways contributed to the in vitro production of IFN-gamma by parasite-specific T cells and when both pathways were blocked, there was an additive effect that resulted in almost complete inhibition of IFN-gamma production. Although in vivo blockade of the ICOS costimulatory pathway did not result in the early mortality of wild-type mice infected with T. gondii, it did lead to increased susceptibility of CD28(-/-) mice to T. gondi associated with reduced serum levels of IFN-gamma, increased parasite burden, and increased mortality compared with the control group. Together, these results identify a critical role for ICOS in the protective Th1-type response required for resistance to T. gondii and suggest that ICOS and CD28 are parallel costimulatory pathways, either of which is sufficient to mediate resistance to this intracellular pathogen.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2002; 169(2):937-43. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address whether a functional dichotomy exists between CD80 and CD86 in naive T cell activation in vivo, we administered anti-CD80 or CD86 blocking mAb alone or in combination to mice with parent-into-F(1) graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). In this model, the injection of naive parental T cells into unirradiated F(1) mice results in either a Th1 cytokine-driven, cell-mediated immune response (acute GVHD) or a Th2 cytokine-driven, Ab-mediated response (chronic GVHD) in the same F(1) recipient. Combined CD80/CD86 blockade beginning at the time of donor cell transfer mimicked previous results seen with CTLA4Ig and completely abrogated either acute or chronic GVHD by preventing the activation and maturation of donor CD4(+) T cells as measured by a block in acquisition of memory marker phenotype and cytokine production. Similar results were seen with selective CD86 blockade; however, the degree of CD4 inhibition was always less than that seen with combined CD80/CD86 blockade. A more striking effect was seen with selective CD80 blockade in that chronic GVHD was converted to acute GVHD. This effect was associated with the induction of Th1 cytokine production, donor CD8(+) T cell activation, and development of antihost CTL. The similarity of this effect to that reported for selective CTLA4 blockade suggests that CD80 is a critical ligand for CTLA4 in mediating the down-regulation of Th1 responses and CD8(+) T cell activation. In contrast, CD86 is critical for the activation of naive CD4(+) T cells in either a Th1 or a Th2 cytokine-mediated response.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2002; 168(8):3786-92. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has demonstrated that short-term systemic administration of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) Ig blocks human pancreatic islet xenograft rejection in mice and induces long-term, donor-specific tolerance, whereas studies on pig pancreatic islet rejection in mice have failed to demonstrate a role for CTLA4Ig in preventing rejection. Treatment with anti-CD40 ligand (L) monoclonal antibodies alone is somewhat effective in prolonging the survival of islet xenografts, but ineffective when applied to skin xenografts. However, simultaneous blockade of the CD28 and CD40 co-stimulatory pathways prolongs the survival of pig skin on recipient mice. To evaluate the role of CD28 and CD40 co-stimulatory pathways in pig islet-like cell cluster (ICC) xenograft rejection in mice, CD40L-deficient mice transplanted with fetal porcine ICCs were given posttransplant treatment with human (h) CTLA4Ig or a human IgG1 chimeric mAb (hL6). Xenografts were evaluated 6 or 12 days after transplantation. Fetal porcine ICC xenografts were protected from rejection in hCTLA4Ig-treated CD40L-deficient mice, whereas xenograft rejection persisted in untreated CD40L-deficient mice. Simultaneous blockade of the CD28 and CD40 co-stimulatory pathways is mandatory to inhibit ICC xenograft rejection in the pig-to-mouse model, because the CD28 and CD40 co-stimulatory pathways seem capable of efficiently substituting for one another.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of interleukin-10 (IL-10) to suppress accessory cell functions required for optimal T-cell acti- vation makes it an important inhibitor of cell-mediated immunity. Thus, after infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, IL-10 knockout (KO) mice develop a CD4-T-cell-dependent shock-like reaction with high levels of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-) in serum, leading to death of mice during the acute phase of infection. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that simultaneous blockade of CD28 and CD40 can prevent this lethal reaction by inhibiting the production of IFN-. However, the blockade of costimulation did not affect systemic levels of IL-12. To better understand the relationship between IL-12 and the CD28 and CD40 pathways in mediating immune hyperactivity, antagonists of these factors were used to determine their effects on the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice. Blockade of IL-12 or the CD28/B7 interaction alone did not affect survival; however, the combined blockade of both pathways resulted in decreased production of IFN- and the survival of IL-10 KO mice. To assess the role of the two ligands for CD28, B7.1 and B7.2, IL-10 KO mice were treated with IL-12 plus B7.1 or B7.2 or the combination of all three antibodies. These studies revealed that blockade of both B7 molecules is required for decreased production of IFN- and survival of infected IL-10 KO mice, suggesting that B7.1 and B7.2 can contribute to the lethal shock-like reaction in IL-10 KO mice. In contrast, neutralization of IL-12 and blockade of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction in vivo did not alter the production of IFN- and only resulted in a small delay in time to death of mice. Together, these data suggest that the CD28/B7 interaction has a central role in the development of a pathological T-cell response in IL-10 KO mice, which is distinct from the role of the CD40/CD40L and IL-12 pathways. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), produced by many hemopoietic cells, including macrophages (16), dendritic cells (DCs) (51), and CD4 T cells (29, 44), plays a key role in the inhibition of inflammatory responses and cell-mediated immunity (for a re- view, see reference 45). The anti-inflammatory effects of IL-10 are primarily attributed to its ability to inhibit accessory cell functions required for optimal T-cell responses. Thus, IL-10 can inhibit accessory cell production of cytokines such as tu- mor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), IL-1 and IL-12, which are required for the optimal production of gamma interferon (IFN-) (12, 21, 22, 32, 45, 61). In addition, IL-10 affects costimulation by decreasing the expression of B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) on monocytes, macrophages, and DCs (8, 18, 65) and inhibits CD40-mediated protein-tyrosine kinase activity (47, 57). Furthermore, IL-10 inhibits major histocompatibility complex class I and class II expression, thereby interfering with
Infection and Immunity - INFEC IMMUNITY. 01/2002; 70(12):6940-6947.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Provision of adequate T cell costimulation is critical for the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection. We have previously reported that early blockade of CD28-B7 T cell costimulation prevents the development of graft arteriosclerosis, in the LEW into F344 rat cardiac transplant model. In this study, we used the same model to examine the requirement for CD28-B7-mediated T cell costimulation in the progression of established chronic rejection and examined the individual roles of B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) costimulatory molecules. Late blockade of CD28-B7 T cell costimulation by the fusion protein CTLA4Ig, which binds both CD80 and CD86, attenuated the development of transplant arteriosclerosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, and parenchymal fibrosis in this model. Selective blockade of CD80 using the mutant fusion protein Y100F was as effective as CTLA4Ig in this regard. In contrast to CTLA4Ig, blockade of CD80 alone by Y100F was ineffective at preventing early graft loss and prolonging graft survival when given early after transplantation. This study is the first to demonstrate that late blockade of CD28-B7 T cell costimulation interrupts chronic cardiac allograft rejection, and it indicates the importance of continued T cell activation in this process. This study further defines functional differences between CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules in vivo.
American Journal Of Pathology 04/2001; 158(3):977-86. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abscesses are a classic host response to infection by many pathogenic bacteria. The immunopathogenesis of this tissue response to infection has not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that T cells are involved in the pathologic process, but the role of these cells remains unclear. To delineate the mechanism by which T cells mediate abscess formation associated with intra-abdominal sepsis, the role of T-cell activation and the contribution of antigen-presenting cells via CD28-B7 costimulation were investigated. T cells activated in vitro by zwitterionic bacterial polysaccharides (Zps) known to induce abscess formation required CD28-B7 costimulation and, when adoptively transferred to the peritoneal cavity of naïve rats, promoted abscess formation. Blockade of T-cell activation via the CD28-B7 pathway in animals with CTLA4Ig prevented abscess formation following challenge with different bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides fragilis, and a combination of Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides distasonis. In contrast, these animals had an increased abscess rate following in vivo T-cell activation via CD28 signaling. Abscess formation in vivo and T-cell activation in vitro required costimulation by B7-2 but not B7-1. These results demonstrate that abscess formation by pathogenic bacteria is under the control of a common effector mechanism that requires T-cell activation via the CD28-B7-2 pathway.
Infection and Immunity 01/2001; 68(12):6650-5. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The requirements for B7 costimulation during an in vivo humoral response to an intact extracellular bacteria have not been reported. In this study we immunized mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae (R36A) to determine the B7 requirements for induction of Ig, specific for two determinants on R36A, the phosphorylcholine (PC) determinant of C-polysaccharide and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). We show that the primary anti-PspA response, the development of PspA-specific memory, and the induction of the secondary anti-PspA response in primed mice were completely dependent upon B7 costimulation. Of note, costimulation was required only briefly after the secondary immunization compared with after the primary immunization for optimal induction of Ig. Blockade of B7 costimulation at the time of secondary immunization also completely abrogated the established state of memory, but did not induce tolerance. In contrast to the anti-PspA response, the primary anti-PC response involved only a very short period of B7 costimulation. Whereas B7-2 alone was required for induction of the primary anti-PspA and anti-PC responses, a redundant role for B7-1 and B7-2 was noted for the PspA-specific secondary response. CTLA4Ig blocked both the anti-PC and anti-PspA responses equally well over a wide range of bacterial doses. These studies demonstrate a critical, but variable, role for B7-dependent costimulation during an Ig response to an extracellular bacteria.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2001; 165(12):6840-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with inhibition of cell-mediated immunity and downregulation of the expression of costimulatory molecules required for T-cell activation. When IL-10-deficient (IL-10KO) mice are infected with Toxoplasma gondii, they succumb to a T-cell-mediated shock-like reaction characterized by the overproduction of IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) associated with widespread necrosis of the liver. Since costimulation is critical for T-cell activation, we investigated the role of the CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions in this infection-induced immunopathology. Our studies show that infection of mice with T. gondii resulted in increased expression of B7 and CD40 that was similar in wild-type and IL-10KO mice. In vivo blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40-CD40L interactions following infection of IL-10KO mice with T. gondii did not affect serum levels of IFN-gamma or IL-12, nor did it prevent death in these mice. However, when both pathways were blocked, the IL-10KO mice survived the acute phase of infection and had reduced serum levels of IFN-gamma and alanine transaminase as well as decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the liver and spleen. Analysis of parasite-specific recall responses from infected IL-10KO mice revealed that blockade of the CD40-CD40L interaction had minimal effects on cytokine production, whereas blockade of the CD28-B7 interaction resulted in decreased production of IFN-gamma but not IL-12. Further reduction of IFN-gamma production was observed when both costimulatory pathways were blocked. Together, these results demonstrate that the CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40L interactions are involved in the development of infection-induced immunopathology in the absence of IL-10.
Infection and Immunity 06/2000; 68(5):2837-44. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B7 costimulation is a required component of many type 2 immune responses, including allergy and protective immunity to many nematode parasites. This response includes elevations in Th2 cytokines and associated effector functions including elevations in serum IgG1 and IgE and parasite expulsion. In studies of mice infected with Trichuris muris, blocking B7 ligand interactions inhibited protective immunity, suppressed IL-4 production, and enhanced IFN-gamma production, but unexpectedly did not inhibit production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-13. Blocking both IFN-gamma and B7 restored protective immunity, which was IL-13 dependent, but did not restore IL-4 or associated IgE responses. Although IL-13 was required for worm expulsion in mice in which both IFN-gamma and B7 were blocked, IL-4 could mediate expulsion in the absence of both IL-13 and IFN-gamma. These studies demonstrate that 1) B7 costimulation is required to induce IL-4, but not IL-13 responses; 2) IL-13 is elevated in association with the IFN-gamma response that occurs following inhibition of B7 interactions, but can only mediate IL-4-independent protection when IFN-gamma is also inhibited; and 3) increased IL-13 production, in the absence of increased IL-4 production, is not associated with an IgE response, even in the absence of IFN-gamma.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2000; 164(8):4250-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis (EAG), an animal model of Goodpasture's disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by a single injection of rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in adjuvant. EAG is characterized by circulating and deposited anti-GBM antibodies, accompanied by focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. The role of T cells in the pathogenesis of EAG remains unclear. T-cell costimulation is provided by ligation of CD28 with either B7.1 (CD80) or B7.2 (CD86) on antigen-presenting cells, and can be inhibited by a soluble form of CTLA4 (CTLA4-Ig) that binds to both B7.1 and B7.2. We examined the effect of CD28-B7 blockade on the development of EAG using native CTLA4-Ig or mutant CTLA4-Ig (Y100F-Ig), which selectively blocks B7.1. Native CTLA4-Ig treatment ameliorated EAG by several measures, including the levels of circulating anti-GBM antibodies, albuminuria, the deposition of IgG and fibrin in the glomeruli, the severity of glomerular abnormalities, and the numbers of infiltrating T cells and macrophages. Y100F-Ig resulted in a similar reduction in the severity of nephritis, but produced no overall reduction in circulating anti-GBM antibodies, although there was a reduction in IgG2a antibodies. We concluded that CD28-B7 blockade reduced autoantibody production and cellular infiltration of glomeruli, and prevented target organ injury. Our results suggest a key role for B7. 1 in costimulation of Th1-like autoimmune responses in the rat, and show that glomerular injury in EAG is largely dependent on cell-mediated mechanisms.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2000; 105(5):643-51. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28 deficient (CD28-/-) mice were used to study the role of costimulation in the T cell-mediated, IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. These mice were resistant to infection with the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Analysis of the immune response of acutely infected CD28-/- mice revealed that IL-12 was required for T cell production of IFN-gamma and this was independent of the CD40/CD40 ligand interaction. A similar mechanism of IL-12-dependent, CD28/B7 independent production of IFN-gamma by T cells was also observed in wild-type mice. Interestingly, although chronically infected wild-type mice were resistant to rechallenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii, chronically infected CD28-/- mice were susceptible to rechallenge with the RH strain. This deficiency in the protective memory response by CD28-/- mice correlated with a lack of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in recall responses and reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells expressing a memory phenotype. Together, our findings demonstrate that CD28 is not required for the development of a protective T cell response to T. gondii, but CD28 is required for an optimal secondary immune response.
The Journal of Immunology 10/1999; 163(6):3344-53. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii leads to chronic encephalitis characterized by infiltration into the brain of T cells that produce IFN-gamma and mediate resistance to the parasite. Our studies revealed that expression of B7.1 and B7.2 was up-regulated in brains of mice with toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). Because CD28/B7-mediated costimulation is important for T cell activation, we assessed the contribution of this interaction to the production of IFN-gamma by T cells from brains and spleens of mice with TE. Stimulation of splenocytes with Toxoplasma Ag or anti-CD3 mAb resulted in production of IFN-gamma, which was inhibited by 90% in the presence of CTLA4-Ig, an antagonist of B7 stimulation. However, production of IFN-gamma by T cells from the brains of these mice was only slightly reduced (20%) by the addition of CTLA4-Ig. To address the role of the CD28/B7 interaction during TE, we compared the development of disease in C57BL/6 wild-type (wt) and CD28-/- mice. Although the parasite burden was similar in wt and CD28-/- mice, CD28-/- mice developed less severe encephalitis and survived longer than wt mice. Ex vivo recall responses revealed that mononuclear cells isolated from the brains of chronically infected CD28-/- mice produced less IFN-gamma than wt cells, and this correlated with reduced numbers of intracerebral CD4+ T cells in CD28-/- mice compared with wt mice. Taken together, our data show that resistance to T. gondii in the brain is independent of CD28 and suggest a role for CD28 in development of immune-mediated pathology during TE.
The Journal of Immunology 10/1999; 163(6):3354-62. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of the CD28-B7 or CD40L-CD40 T cell costimulatory signals prevents induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the effect of simultaneous blockade of these signals in EAE is unknown. We show that administration of either MR1 (to block CD40L) or CTLA4Ig (to block B7) after immunization or after the first attack protects from EAE. Treatment with a combination of CTLA4Ig and MR1 provides additive protection, and is associated with complete absence of mononuclear cell infiltrates in the central nervous system, and marked suppression of proliferation of primed T cells in the periphery. Selective B7-1 blockade did not protect from EAE. These observations have implications for therapy of autoimmune diseases.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 06/1999; 96(2):158-66. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic injury to cadaver organs is a major risk factor for development of chronic organ dysfunction. We have recently shown that the B7 costimulatory pathway plays a critical role in early organ dysfunction developing after renal cold ischemia/reperfusion injury. We extended these observations to investigate the role of this pathway in the development and progression of chronic organ dysfunction following such injury. Uninephrectomized rats which underwent cold ischemia/reperfusion injury developed progressive proteinuria as compared to uninephrectomized controls. Animals treated with CTLA4Ig, which blocks B7 costimulation, starting on the day of injury had significantly better long-term survival and developed significantly less proteinuria than control animals treated with control Ig. RT-PCR analysis of kidney tissue showed significant reduction in expression of activation and inflammatory cytokines, chemoattractants, and growth factors, as compared to controls. Delaying administration of CTLA4Ig for one week, but not four weeks, after injury was still effective in ameliorating development of progressive proteinuria. Interestingly, selective blockade of B7-1 by a mutant form of CTLA4Ig had no effect on early or chronic organ dysfunction. These findings indicate the long-term functional and molecular consequences of experimental cold ischemia/reperfusion injury, and suggest that B7-2 is critical in the development of organ dysfunction following ischemic injury, even in the absence of alloantigen.
Kidney International 01/1998; 52(6):1678-84. · 7.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blocking the CD28-B7 T cell costimulatory activation pathway protects animals from developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the mouse EAE model, selective blockade of B7-1 by specific mAbs has been shown to protect animals from EAE. In the Lewis rat model, we have shown that CD28-B7 blockade by systemic administration of CTLA4Ig prevents actively induced EAE. Since CTLA4Ig binds to both B7-1 and B7-2, we used a mutant form of CTLA4Ig (CTLA4IgY100F) that binds only B7-1, to study the role of B7-1 blockade in this model. Such a reagent avoids the potential of signaling by mAbs. Systemic administration of CTLA4IgY100F in several dosing regimens did not protect from EAE, and in some protocols worsened disease, while CTLA4Ig was always protective. In contrast, systemic injection of APCs preincubated ex vivo with the encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein and either CTLA4Ig or CTLA4IgY100F protected recipients from disease. In vitro studies confirmed the in vivo observations and showed that primed lymph node cells from protected animals had decreased proliferative responses to myelin basic protein as compared with controls, while lymphocytes from animals treated with systemic CTLA4gY100F did not. More importantly, systemic administration of CTLA4IgY100F abrogated the protective effect of ex vivo treated APCs. These data suggest an important regulatory role for B7-1, perhaps through binding to CTLA4, in this model of EAE. Understanding the role and mechanisms of selective blockade of costimulatory molecules has implications for therapy of autoimmune disease.
The Journal of Immunology 12/1997; 159(9):4212-6. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of CD28-mediated T cell costimulatory signals produces effective immunosuppression of a variety of T cell-dependent in vivo immune responses, including autoimmune disorders and transplant rejection. The soluble fusion protein CTLA4Ig, which competitively blocks CD28 ligands B7-1 and B7-2, can prevent allograft and xenograft rejection and in some circumstances induce transplantation tolerance. To determine the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 in graft rejection, we have performed islet and cardiac allografts with normal and B7-1(-/-) mice in conjunction with selective blocking reagents. We found that the absence of B7-1 on donor or recipient tissues leads to a slight prolongation of islet allograft survival, but has minimal or no effect on cardiac allograft survival. Allograft function is further prolonged in the islet model when both donor and recipient lack B7-1, although cardiac allograft survival is not prolonged. In the cardiac model, treatment with CTLA4Ig induces long term survival in B7-1(-/-) recipients regardless of donor status. In contrast, anti-B7-2 mAb leads to indefinite allograft survival only when the recipient and donor both lack B7-1, indicating that even in the absence of available B7-2, B7-1 molecules on the donor or recipient cells alone are sufficient to induce graft rejection. These data also indicate that B7-1 and B7-2 are the only CD28 ligands relevant to cardiac allograft rejection in mice.
The Journal of Immunology 09/1997; 159(3):1169-73. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the effects of blocking CD28-B7 T cell costimulation by using CTLA4Ig in an established transplantation model in which LBNF1 cardiac allografts are rejected in an accelerated manner (<36 h) by LEW rats presensitized with Brown-Norway skin grafts. Treatment with CTLA4Ig with or without donor alloantigen in the sensitization phase (between skin and cardiac engraftment) minimally delayed accelerated rejection. However, adjunctive infusion of CTLA4Ig and donor alloantigen in the effector phase (after cardiac engraftment) resulted in long term graft survival and donor-specific tolerance in 30 to 50% of the recipients. The mutant form of CTLA4Ig, which blocks B7-1 but not B7-2, was ineffective. The tolerant state was accompanied by reduction of cell-mediated (MLR/CTL) responses and depression of humoral (circulating IgM/IgG allo-Abs) alloreactivity in vivo. Hence, the binding of CD28 on T cells to both CD80 and CD86 ligands represents a crucial initial costimulatory step leading to accelerated graft rejection. CTLA4Ig-mediated early blockade of the CD28 signaling pathway combined with transfusion of donor cells in the perioperative period interrupts sensitization and may produce transplantation tolerance. This regimen inhibits T cell costimulation and activation to provide help to CD8+ cytotoxic T and B cells, perhaps, via CTLA4Ig-induced clonal anergy or deletion.
The Journal of Immunology 08/1997; 159(4):1711-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The costimulatory signal provided to T cells through CD28/CTLA-4 interactions is required for in vivo Th cell effector function associated with cytokine production. However, it is uncertain whether the two well-characterized ligands for these molecules, B7-1 and B7-2, differentially influence the consequent development of a type 1 or a type 2 primary response. We have examined the in vivo effects of blocking B7-1 and/or B7-2 ligand interactions on the type 2 mucosal immune response that follows oral infection of mice with the nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Administration of the combination of anti-B7-1 and anti-B7-2 Abs inhibited H. polygyrus-induced increases in serum IgG1 and IgE levels, the expansion of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) germinal centers, in situ CD4+ T cell expansion, elevated blood eosinophils, and increased intestinal mucosal mast cells. Similarly, both Abs blocked MLN and Peyer's patch cytokine gene expression and elevations in MLN T cell-derived IL-4 protein secretion. However, in the same experiments, administration of either anti-B7-1 or anti-B7-2 Abs alone had little effect on any of these parameters. T cell and B cell activation was also blocked by the combination of anti-B7-2 and a B7-1-specific mutant Y100F CTLA-4Ig construct. These results suggest that to the extent that anti-B7-1 and anti-B7-2 mAbs block B7 interactions, either B7-1 or B7-2 ligand interactions can provide the required costimulatory signals that lead to T cell effector function during a type 2 in vivo immune response.
The Journal of Immunology 06/1997; 158(9):4088-96. · 5.52 Impact Factor