[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the population of people living with HIV ages, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are common among those with HIV. In addition, some antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens contribute to conditions such as hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. However, inflammation is increasingly recognized as a key contributor to ASCVD. HIV infection induces immune activation and inflammation through several mechanisms. Co-infections such as hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus along with HIV itself likely initiate immune activation and inflammation. Translocation of bacterial products across a compromised epithelial barrier as a result of HIV infection is another mechanism by which the immune system is activated. In this article we summarize the current understanding of drivers of immune activation and inflammation among those with HIV and the contribution of each to ASCVD.
European journal of preventive cardiology. 05/2012;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferons play important roles in innate immune defense. In HIV infection, type I interferons may delay disease progression by inhibiting viral replication while at the same time accelerating disease progression by contributing to chronic immune activation.
To investigate the effects of type I interferons in HIV-infection, we obtained cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 10 subjects who participated in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5192, a trial investigating the activity of systemic administration of IFNα for twelve weeks to patients with untreated HIV infection. Using flow cytometry, we examined changes in cell cycle status and expression of activation antigens by circulating T cells and their maturation subsets before, during and after IFNα treatment.
The proportion of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells increased from a mean of 11.7% at baseline to 24.1% after twelve weeks of interferon treatment (p = 0.006). These frequencies dropped to an average of 20.1% six weeks after the end of treatment. In contrast to CD8+ T cells, the frequencies of activated CD4+ T cells did not change with administration of type I interferon (mean percentage of CD38+DR+ cells = 2.62% at baseline and 2.17% after 12 weeks of interferon therapy). As plasma HIV levels fell with interferon therapy, this was correlated with a "paradoxical" increase in CD8+ T cell activation (p<0.001).
Administration of type I interferon increased expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA DR on CD8+ T cells but not on CD4+ T cells of HIV+ persons. These observations suggest that type I interferons may contribute to the high levels of CD8+ T cell activation that occur during HIV infection.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30306. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cellular immunity contributes to the control of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1-infected volunteers who were receiving antiretroviral therapy were given a replication-defective adenovirus type 5 HIV-1 gag vaccine in a randomized, blinded therapeutic vaccination study.
HIV-1-infected vaccine or placebo recipients underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) for 16 weeks. The log(10) HIV-1 RNA load at the ATI set point and the time-averaged area under the curve served as co-primary end points. Immune responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dye dilution.
Vaccine benefit trends were seen for both primary end points, but they did not reach a prespecified significance level of P < or = 25. The estimated shifts in the time-averaged area under the curve and the ATI set point were 0.24 (P=.04, unadjusted) and 0.26 (P=.07, unadjusted) log(10) copies lower, respectively, in the vaccine arm than in the placebo arm. HIV-1 gag-specific CD4(+) cells producing interferon-gamma were an immunologic correlate of viral control.
The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated. Despite a trend favoring viral suppression among vaccine recipients, differences in HIV-1 RNA levels did not meet the prespecified level of significance. Induction of HIV-1 gag-specific CD4 cells correlated with control of viral replication in vivo. Future immunogenicity studies should require a substantially higher immunogenicity threshold before an ATI is contemplated.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2010; 202(5):705-16. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV disease has substantially extended the lifespan of individuals infected with HIV resulting in a growing population of older HIV-infected individuals. The efficacy and safety of antiretroviral agents in the population are important concerns. There have been relatively few studies assessing antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in older patients. Thirty-seven subjects aged 18-30 years and 40 subjects aged 45-79 years, naive to antiretroviral therapy, received lopinavir/ritonavir (400/100) bid, emtricitibine 200 mg qd, and stavudine 40 mg bid. Trough lopinavir concentrations were available for 44 subjects, collected at 24, 36, and 96 weeks. At week 24, older age was associated with higher lopinavir trough concentrations, and a trend was observed toward older age being associated with higher lopinavir trough concentrations when all time points were evaluated. In the young cohort, among subjects with two or more measurements, there was a trend toward increasing intrasubject trough lopinavir concentrations over time. Using a nonlinear, mixed-effects population pharmacokinetic model, age was negatively associated with lopinavir clearance after adjusting for adherence. Adherence was assessed by patient self-reports; older patients missed fewer doses than younger patients (p = 0.02). No difference in grade 3-4 toxicities was observed between the two age group. Older patients have higher trough lopinavir concentrations and likely decreased lopinavir clearance. Age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs may be of increasing importance as the HIV-infected population ages and as older individuals comprise an increasing proportion of new diagnoses.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 06/2010; 26(6):635-43. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pilot studies have suggested that treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is associated with increased T-lymphocyte restoration and enhanced thymic output. We evaluated the immunologic effects of rhGH on HIV(+) subjects with incomplete immune reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sixty subjects were randomized to receive rhGH 1.5 mg scqd and ART for 48 weeks (Arm A) or continue ART alone for 24 weeks then add rhGH 3.0 mg scqd for 24 weeks (Arm B). Median baseline CD4 for Arms A and B were 223 and 219, respectively. There was little difference between Arm A and Arm B in change in total or naive CD4 cells or percentage from baseline to week 24. Only one subject in Arm A met the primary endpoint, an increase in naive CD4 percentage of at least 10 percentage points. By week 48 both Arms had statistically significant increases in naive CD4 cell count and percentage and thymus size. Within Arm B, treatment with rhGH was associated with significant increases in naive CD4(+) cell count and percentage compared with ART alone. Treatment with rhGH +ART may be associated with modest increases in CD4 lymphocytes over ART alone in subjects with CD4 <350, yet the origin of these naive cells and their impact on immune function require further investigation.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 04/2010; 26(4):425-32. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis studies show that naive CD4 cells are preferentially depleted in lymphoid tissues during HIV infection, and studies of advanced patients suggest levels of naive CD4 cells in blood correlate to total CD4 cells after starting antiretroviral therapy (ARV). We hypothesized that measuring naive CD4 cells in blood in people at earlier stages of disease would identify those at highest risk for poor CD4 reconstitution who may benefit from earlier initiation of ARV.
We identified 348 patients from multiple AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies who were ARV naive, had a CD4 count between 200 and 500 cells per microliter, a measure of pretreatment-naive CD4 percent, and serial follow-up measures of CD4 count and plasma HIV RNA after starting ARV. We used logistic regression to model the ability of naive CD4 percent to predict 100 and 200 CD4 cell increases after 24 months of therapy. After controlling for baseline viral load and demographic variables, baseline naive but not total CD4 cell count strongly predicted CD4 cell increases. Lower baseline naive CD4 percent was associated with greater time spent at lower CD4 T-cell counts after initiating ARV.
Measurement of naive CD4 percent in patients can identify those least likely to reconstitute immunity, who may benefit from earlier ARV treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine with multiple effects on lymphocytes including induction of CD4 T-cell proliferation. IL-2 administration has been shown to increase CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected people receiving antiretroviral therapy. GB virus C (GBV-C) is an apparently nonpathogenic flavivirus that replicates in CD4 T cells and inhibits HIV replication in vitro by mechanisms including downregulation of HIV entry coreceptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) and induction of chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1 beta, and SDF-1). GBV-C replication is significantly inhibited in vitro by activation of primary CD4 cell cultures with IL-2 and phytohemagglutinin. We sought to determine if there is an interaction between GBV-C and IL-2 in vivo.
GBV-C viremia status was characterized in 92 HIV-infected individuals participating in a randomized trial of IL-2 and antiretroviral therapy [AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study (ACTG) 328]. Changes in CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA levels in individuals assigned IL-2 were compared with those in individuals assigned antiretroviral therapy alone.
Individuals lacking GBV-C viremia had a significantly greater rise in CD4 cell count with IL-2, compared with GBV-C viremic individuals (by 511 cells/microl at week 84; interaction P = 0.02): GBV-C viremic individuals assigned IL-2 did not demonstrate a significant increase in CD4 cell count compared with individuals not assigned to receive IL-2 (95% CI for difference -255 to 397 cells/microl).
GBV-C viremia was associated with a block in CD4 cell expansion following IL-2 therapy in the ACTG 328 study, and GBV-C status may be an important factor in IL-2 treatment response.
AIDS (London, England) 02/2009; 23(5):605-10. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the determinants of immune deficiency and immune restoration in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection are not well understood, immune activation has been proposed as being central to the pathogenesis of HIV.
A randomized, controlled trial of cyclosporin A treatment for 2 weeks was performed in persons with chronic HIV-1 infection who were beginning a standardized antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen.
Treatment with cyclosporin A provided only a marginal and transient enhancement in circulating T cell restoration that was largely restricted to cells expressing the CCR7 chemokine receptor and that did not persist beyond 2 weeks.
Cyclosporin A coadministered for 2 weeks with ART provided no sustained immunologic benefit to persons with chronic HIV-1 infection. If immune activation drives progressive immune deficiency in chronic HIV-1 infection, these activation pathways may not be sensitive to cyclosporin.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2007; 194(12):1677-85. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-12 is a cytokine that stimulates T lymphocytes and natural killer cells to generate a Type 1 T-helper lymphocyte immune response. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety and immunologic activity of repeated recombinant human IL-12 (rhIL-12) dosing in HIV-infected patients over a broad range of the HIV disease spectrum.
A randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 1 trial design was chosen to control for the effects of HIV disease alone on safety and immunologic measurements.
HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy received rhIL-12 or placebo twice weekly for 4 weeks. Subjects were monitored for safety and changes in absolute lymphocyte subset number, serum interferon (IFN)gamma and neopterin levels, plasma HIV RNA level, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-inducible IFNgamma responses to mitogen, and PBMC proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, tetanus, Candida, Mycobacterium avium complex, streptokinase, and HIV p24 and gp160 antigens.
rhIL-12 was well tolerated at doses up to 100 ng/kg in subjects enrolled with CD4 cell counts < 50 x 10(6) cells/l and at all doses in subjects with CD4 cell counts of 300 x 10(6)-500 x 10(6) cells/l. rhIL-12 resulted in dose-related increases in serum neopterin (particularly in subjects with baseline CD4 cell counts of 300-500 x 10(6) cells/l) but in no significant changes in other immunologic measurements or plasma HIV RNA levels.
rhIL-12 dosed twice weekly at < or = 100 ng/kg was well tolerated in HIV-infected patients and resulted in dose-related increases in serum neopterin (possibly reflecting the effect of some degree of IFNgamma induction). However, there was no evidence of improvement in antigen-specific immune response.