[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients needing a pacemaker (PM) for bradycardia indications, the amount of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing has been correlated with atrial fibrillation (AFib) and heart failure (HF) in both DDD and VVI mode. RV pacing was linked with left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in almost 50% of patients with PM implantation and atrioventricular (AV) node ablation for AFib. In patients with normal systolic function needing a PM, apical RV pacing resulted in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction. These negative effects were prevented by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Algorithms favoring physiological AV conduction are possible useful tools able to maintain both atrial and ventricular support and limit RV pacing. However, when chronic RV pacing cannot be avoided, it appears necessary to reconsider the cut-off value of basic LVEF for CRT. In HF patients, RV pacing can induce greater LV dyssynchrony, enhanced by underlying conduction diseases. In this context, a more deleterious effect of RV pacing in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients with low LVEF can be expected. In some major ICD trials, DDD mode was correlated with increased mortality/HF. This negative impact was attributed to unnecessary RV pacing >40-50%, virtually absent in VVI-40 mode. However, some data suggest that avoiding RV pacing may also not be the best option for patients requiring an ICD. In patients with impaired LV function, AV synchrony should therefore be ensured. The best pacing mode in ICD patients with HF should be defined on an individual basis.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 03/2012; 35(8):1035-43. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is considered a primary electrical disease. However, morphological abnormalities have been reported and localized arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) may mimic its phenotype, raising the question of an overlap between these two conditions and making difficult the therapeutic management of patients with borderline forms. The main objective of this study was to assess prospectively the prevalence of BrS and ARVD/C on the basis of international criteria, in patients with BrS-ECG and normal echocardiography, looking for a potential overlap between the two pathologies. The secondary objectives were to describe and quantify angiographic structural alterations, hemodynamics, electrophysiology, and genetics in the setting of BrS-ECG. Materials and Methods: Hundred and fourteen consecutive patients matched in age underwent prospectively cardiac catheterization and quantitative biventricular contrast angiography to rule out a structural heart disease. Fifty-one patients with a BrS-ECG (BrS group, 7 F, 44 M, 43 ± 11 y) had a spontaneous or ajmaline-induced BrS coved type ECG. For angiographic comparison, 49 patients with localized ARVD/C but without ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads (14 F, 35 M, 39 ± 13 y) were also studied. They fulfilled international ESC/WHF 2000 criteria and presented angiographic localized forms, mainly confined to hypokinetic anteroapical zone (characterized by trabecular dysarray and hypertrophy), and/or diaphragmatic wall, thus resulting in RV normal volumes and preserved systolic function. These two populations were also compared with 14 control patients (7 F, 7 M, 38 ± 16 y). Among BrS group, we identified three main angiographic phenotypes: BrS group I = patients with normal RV (n = 15, 29%); BrS group II = patients with segmental RV wall motion abnormalities but no structural arguments for ARVD/C (n = 26, 51%); BrS group III = patients with localized abnormalities suggestive of focal ARVD/C (n = 10, 20%). Results: Among BrS group, 34/51 patients (67%) fulfilled BrS HRS/EHRA 2005 criteria. Nineteen (37%) were symptomatic for aborted sudden death, agonal nocturnal respiration or syncope. Ventricular stimulation was positive in 14 patients (28%). Angiography showed RV abnormalities in 36/51 patients (71%) of BrS group (BrS groups II and III). Late potentials were present in 73% (100% sensitivity and NPV for an angiographic ARVD/C, but poor specificity and PPV, both 37%). In BrS group III, 8/10 patients (16% of BrS patients) finally fulfilled international ESC/WHF 2000 ARVD/C criteria and 5/10 (10% of BrS patients) fulfilled BrS diagnostic criteria. An overlap was observed in 4 patients (8% of BrS patients) who fulfilled both ARVD/C and BrS criteria. Among the 45 genotyped patients, only one presented a SCN5A mutation, whereas a TRPM4 mutation was found in another patient. Both belonged to BrS group II. MOG1 gene analysis was negative for all patients, as were PKP2, DSP, DSG2, and DSC2 analyzes performed in BrS group III. Conclusions: Seventy-one percent of patients with a BrS-ECG had abnormal RV wall motion and 16 had structural alterations corresponding to localized (anteroapical and/or diaphragmatic) ARVD/C. Moreover, 8% of BrS-ECG patients fulfilled both BrS and ARVD/C criteria. Our results support the hypothesis of an overlap between BrS and localized forms of ARVD/C. Conversely, genetic screening was poorly contributive for both diseases in the present series.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence suggests that the arrhythmogenic substrate underlying Brugada syndrome (BrS) is located in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), and electrophysiological abnormalities recently evidenced most commonly concur in conduction slowing. Also, imaging studies reported wall motion abnormalities of the RVOT in patients with BrS, with a various extent of RV remodeling. However, there are no data regarding a potential relationship between electrophysiological alterations and contraction abnormalities in BrS.
We aimed to assess (1) the potential relationship between contraction delays of the RV quantified by phase analysis of equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA), and the spontaneous ST-segment elevation pattern; and (2) to evidence RV remodeling in patients with BrS.
Seventy patients with BrS and 18 control subjects were included in the study. For the purpose of the study, the spontaneous ST-segment elevation pattern was graded simultaneously to ERNA acquisition. RV contraction delays and amplitude were assessed using multiharmonic phase analysis of ERNA, and ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were assessed using gated blood-pool single photon emission computed tomography.
RVOT contraction was delayed in patients with BrS, and RV contraction heterogeneity increased according to the pattern of ST-segment elevation, without impairment of the amplitude of contraction. RV volumes were greater in patients with BrS compared with control subjects, without impairment of the ejection fraction, whatever the ST-segment elevation pattern or the magnitude of contraction heterogeneity.
In patients with BrS, we found a relationship between RV contraction heterogeneity and ST-segment pattern, providing evidence of a functional modulation of the arrhythmogenic substrate.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 07/2011; 8(12):1905-12. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS) and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days) shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death) and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L). Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91%) male). Twenty (37%) were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003). In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3). Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.
Cardiology research and practice. 01/2011; 2011:341521.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 30-year-old man with situs inversus totalis, recurrent orthodromic reciprocal tachycardia, and the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. He underwent, in our department, radiofrequency ablation of an accessory pathway (AP) located in the lateral mitral atrioventricular ring. Ablation of the AP was carried out successfully through a patent foramen ovale under fluoroscopic guidance, in a right anterior oblique projection with a 30° tilt and in anteroposterior views. We also used a mirror reversal of electrocardiogram (ECG) leads to better judge the site of the AP by using existing ECG algorithms. Complete situs inversus is a rare disorder, which has no consequence for the patient in the absence of cardiac or extracardiac involvement. Ablation of APs in situs inversus has been previously reported in only three cases of complete situs inversus and one case of situs ambiguous. In patients with mirror-image dextrocardia, APs seem more often located on the 'left' free wall (mitral annulus), as in the normal population. Radiofrequency ablation is feasible and safe after mirror reversion of the ECG electrodes and fluoroscopy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation of an uncommon coronary sinus (CS)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) was evaluated using conventional electrophysiological criteria in a highly selected subset of patients with typical and atypical AFL.
Fourteen patients with atrial flutter (11 males, mean age 69 ± 9 years) without previous right or left atrial RF ablation were included. Heart disease was present in eight patients. Baseline ECG suggested typical AFL in 12 patients and atypical AFL in two. Mean AFL cycle length was 324 ± 64 ms at the time of RF ablation in the CS. Lateral right atrium activation was counterclockwise (CCW) in 13 patients and clockwise in one. CS activation was CCW in all. Criteria for CS ablation included the presence of CS mid-diastolic fractionated atrial potentials (APs) associated with concealed entrainment with a postpacing interval within 20 ms. Success was defined as termination of AFL and subsequent noninducibility.
The initial target for ablation was the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) in 11 patients and the CS with further CTI ablation in three. AP duration at the CS target site was 122 ± 33 ms, spanning 40 ± 12% of the AFL cycle length. CS ablation site was located 1-4 cm from the CS ostium. Ablation was successful in all patients. Mean time to AFL termination during CS ablation was 39 ± 52 s (<20 s in eight patients). No recurrence of ablated arrhythmia occurred during a follow-up of 18 ± 8 months.
The CS musculature is a critical part of some AFL circuits in patients with typical and atypical AFL. AFL can be terminated in patients with CS or CTI/CS AFL reentrant circuits by targeting CS mid-diastolic fragmented APs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five desmosomal genes have been recently implicated in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) but the clinical impact of genetics remains poorly understood. We wanted to address the potential impact of genotyping.
Direct sequencing of the five genes (JUP, DSP, PKP2, DSG2, and DSC2) was performed in 135 unrelated patients with ARVD/C. We identified 41 different disease-causing mutations, including 28 novel ones, in 62 patients (46%). In addition, a genetic variant of unknown significance was identified in nine additional patients (7%). Distribution of genes was 31% (PKP2), 10% (DSG2), 4.5% (DSP), 1.5% (DSC2), and 0% (JUP). The presence of desmosomal mutations was not associated with familial context but was associated with young age, symptoms, electrical substrate, and extensive structural damage. When compared with other genes, DSG2 mutations were associated with more frequent left ventricular involvement (P = 0.006). Finally, complex genetic status with multiple mutations was identified in 4% of patients and was associated with more frequent sudden death (P = 0.047).
This study supports the use of genetic testing as a new diagnostic tool in ARVC/D and also suggests a prognostic impact, as the severity of the disease appears different according to the underlying gene or the presence of multiple mutations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We illustrate a case of persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia after slow pathway atrio-ventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia cryoablation, and inadvertent fast pathway lesion with residual first-degree AV block in a 72-year-old man with a small Koch's triangle. At the end of the cryoprocedure, the patient presented with sinus tachycardia 100 b.p.m., while PR was 300 ms. An accelerated sinus rhythm and a PR prolongation persisted over time. The patient was successfully treated with ivabradine with no effect on atrioventricular node conduction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is unclear. Methods and Results. In 91 consecutive patients with either ARVD/C with or without VT (cases) or idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tachycardia (controls), blood sampling were taken to determine CRP levels. In ARVD/C patients with VT, we analyzed the association between VT occurrences and CRP level. Sixty patients had ARVD/C, and 31 had idiopathic RVOT VT. Patients with ARVD/C had a significant higher level of CRP compared to those with RVOT VT (3.5 ± 4.9 versus 1.1 ± 1.2 mg/l, P = .0004). In ARVD/C group, 77%, (n = 46) patients experienced VT. Of these, 37% (n = 17) underwent blood testing for CRP within 24 h after the onset of VT and the remaining 63% (n = 29) after 24 h of VT reduction. CRP level was similar in ARVD/C patients with or without documented VT (3.6 ± 5.1 mg/l versus 3.1 ± 4.1 mg/l, P = .372). However, in patients with ARVD/C and documented VT, CRP was significantly higher when measured within 24 hours following VT in comparison to that level when measured after 24 h (4.9 ± 6.2 mg/l versus 3.0 ± 4.4 mg/l, P = .049). Conclusion. Inflammatory state is an active process in patients with ARVD/C. Moreover, there is a higher level of CRP in patients soon after ventricular tachycardia, and this probably tends to decrease after the event.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management of recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) remains difficult. Neither medical treatments nor conventional endocardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation are efficient to prevent some recurrences. In these cases, a percutaneous pericardial approach may be required.
Among all the patients referred to our center between 1998 and 2007 for a VT ablation, 276 endocardial and 35 epicardial procedures were performed, the latter in case of failure of the conventional approach. We report in this study the efficacy and the safety of these 35 interventions analyzed retrospectively.
Thirty-five epicardial procedures were attempted in 32 patients. An electric storm was present in 5 of 32 (16%) patients, with other individuals presenting with a recurrent VT despite drug therapy and a previous endocardial ablation. Pericardial space was reached in 28 of 32 patients by a xyphoidian puncture. An immediate success of RF on clinical VT was obtained in 22 of 29 (76%) cases. During a mean follow-up of 384 +/- 405 days, only 9 patients (26%) experienced a recurrence of a sustained VT. One patient died from tamponade during the procedure despite surgical drainage. Other complications had no significant consequences.
Percutaneous epicardial puncture is feasible and relatively safe in patients with recurrent VT in whom conventional endocardial RF ablation failed. Epicardial RF ablation offers a high success rate in these challenging patients with only few severe complications.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 08/2009; 21(1):56-61. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 41-year-old man with a diagnosis of sporadic arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Genetic screening identified the heterozygous missense mutation R49H in the desmoglein-2 gene. The mutation was absent in both parents, and we demonstrated that it was a de novo mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a de novo mutation in ARVC. This has important implications, including for clinical practice, since individuals with sporadic ARVC caused by a de novo mutation can transmit the disease gene to 50% of their offspring. This suggests that the benefit of molecular genetics can be extended to sporadic ARVC and may improve genetic counselling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until recently it was generally thought that early repolarization is benign. But a recent article in the NEJM (Haissaguerre et al.) suggests that some persons with early repolarization may be at risk of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Unexplained syncope or sudden death occurs mostly during sleep. However, some cases of cardiac arrest during exertion have been reported. We report the case of a 39 year-old black African male with early repolarization pattern on electrocardiogram who regularly experienced dizziness (and one episode of transient loss of consciousness) exclusively while exercising. Detailed examination was normal. Under quinidine therapy, he experienced no further episodes. Increasingly reported cases of cardiac arrest in Africans, and significant prevalence of early repolarization in this population, have to be taken into account since the Haissaguerre et al. report. Further evidence of the lethal consequences of this syndrome are needed, bearing in mind that diagnostic tools for life-threatening arrhythmias are often scarce in sub-Saharan Africa.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in recurrent ventricular fibrillation (VF) associated with inferolateral early repolarization pattern on the electrocardiogram.
Although an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is the treatment of choice, additional AADs may be necessary to prevent frequent episodes of VF and reduce implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock burden or as a lifesaving therapy in electrical storms.
From a multicenter cohort of 122 patients (90 male subjects, age 37 +/- 12 years) with idiopathic VF and early repolarization abnormality in the inferolateral leads, we selected all patients with more than 3 episodes of VF (multiple) including those with electrical storms (> or =3 VF in 24 h). The choice of AAD was decided by individual physicians. Follow-up data were obtained for all patients using monitoring with implantable defibrillator. Successful oral AAD was defined as elimination of all recurrences of VF with a minimal follow-up period of 12 months.
Multiple episodes of VF were observed in 33 (27%) patients. Electrical storms (34 +/- 47 episodes) occurred in 16 and were unresponsive to beta-blockers (11 of 11), lidocaine/mexiletine (9 of 9), and verapamil (3 of 3), while amiodarone was partially effective (3 of 10). In contrast, isoproterenol infusion immediately suppressed electrical storms in 7 of 7 patients. Over a follow-up of 69 +/- 58 months, oral AADs were poorly effective in preventing recurrent VF: beta-blockers (2 of 16), verapamil (0 of 4), mexiletine (0 of 4), amiodarone (1 of 7), and class 1C AADs (2 of 9). Quinidine was successful in 9 of 9 patients, decreasing recurrent VF from 33 +/- 35 episodes to nil for 25 +/- 18 months. In addition, quinidine restored a normal electrocardiogram.
Multiple recurrences of VF occurred in 27% of patients with early repolarization abnormality and may be life threatening. Isoproterenol in acute cases and quinidine in chronic cases are effective AADs.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2009; 53(7):612-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aimed at evaluating the long-term effects of transient atrioventricular (AV) block on clinical outcomes during atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT) cryoablation.
In 150 consecutive patients (39 +/- 14 years, ineffective anti-arrhythmic drugs 1.9 +/- 1.3), slow-pathway cryoablation for AVNRT was performed. A 7 Fr 6 mm-tip cryocatheter was used. After successful cryomapping (-30 degrees C), defined as jump abolition or AV nodal refractory period prolongation, cryoablation (-80 degrees C for 4 min) was applied if no AV block occurred. Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia inducibility was checked after 30 min. Acute success (AVNRT non-inducibility) was achieved in 142 patients (95%). Overall, after a follow-up of 18 +/- 10 months, 118 of 150 patients (79%) were recurrence-free (including 2 patients for whom the procedure was unsuccessful). Among successful procedures, 116 of 142 (82%) patients were recurrence-free. During cryoablation, inadvertent transient AV block of varying degrees occurred in 34 patients (22.7%), namely, increased PR in 17 patients and a 2nd-3rd AV block in the remaining 17. In 24 patients, AV block occurred at the last effective site (increased PR in 13 patients and a 2nd-3rd AV block in 11). In the study population as a whole, univariate predictors of recurrence in the follow-up were AVNRT inducibility (P < 0.001), increased PR at the last effective site (P < 0.001), residual jump (P < 0.02), and small Koch's triangle (X-ray distance < 11 mm between the His and coronary sinus ostium catheters; P < 0.02). Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia inducibility (P < 0.03), increased PR (P < 0.01), and small Koch's triangle (P< 0.04) were independently significant. For attempts at the last effective site, 3 groups of patients were compared: 13 patients with increased PR duration (Group A), 11 with a 2nd-3rd AV block (Group B), and 126 without AV block (Group C). Cryo-application time was 277 +/- 203 s in Group A, 75 +/- 87 s in Group B, and 253 +/- 135 s in Group C (A vs. B, P < 0.01; B vs. C, P < 0.001; and C vs. A, P= NS). There was no statistical difference among groups in the atriogram/ventriculogram amplitude ratio at the site of the last attempt, unsuccessful acute procedure, small Koch's triangle, and residual jump. Actuarial incidence of recurrence-free status at 12 months was 38% in A, 82% in B, and 82% in C (A vs. B, P < 0.05; B vs. C, P = NS; and C vs. A, P < 0.001).
All AV blocks occurring during cryoablation were transient, confirming the safety of this method. An increased PR duration at the last effective site is associated with a higher recurrence rate, whereas a 2nd-3rd degree AV block has a recurrence rate similar to that of patients without AV block despite a shorter cryo-application time at the last site.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Right ventricular (RV) premature contractions, although generally benign, may represent the first manifestation of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy. The diagnostic and prognostic value of RV functional abnormalities evidenced by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) with multiharmonic Fourier analysis has been validated in patients with severe RV arrhythmias suspected of being affected by arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the same RV functional abnormalities in patients with frequent left bundle branch block pattern premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), without known heart disease, using ERNA as a screening tool.
The study included 377 consecutive patients (mean age: 40+/-15 years, males: 58%) presenting with complex PVCs. Cine mode and multiharmonic analysis were used to define global enlargement and areas of dyskinesia of both ventricles. Studies were classified as: normal, right and/or left ventricular abnormalities either localized or diffuse.
ERNA was normal in 302 patients (80%) and evidenced RV functional abnormalities in 75 patients (20%). Patients with RV outflow tract PVCs (n=276) were affected to the same extent as patients with right or left axis PVCs.
In a specific population with complex left bundle branch block pattern PVCs, RV functional abnormalities were detected by ERNA in 20% of patients. Consequently, ERNA may serve as a screening tool by selecting patients who may require a specific management.
Nuclear Medicine Communications 11/2008; 29(10):901-6. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pericicatricial right intra-atrial reentrant tachycardias occur frequently in patients who have undergone surgical correction of an interatrial defect.
To characterize the tachycardia circuits using three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping.
Twelve tachycardias were analysed in 11 patients who had undergone surgical correction of an interatrial defect. Patients were divided into two groups: atrial flutter with typical sawtooth flutter waves in inferior leads, atrial tachycardia with clearly delimited P waves separated by an isoelectric line.
Seven tachycardias were classified as atrial flutter; three-dimensional mapping identified a peritricuspid circuit with inferior vena cava-tricuspid annulus isthmus involvement in all cases. All atrial flutters were terminated by linear ablation of this isthmus. Five tachycardias were classified as atrial tachycardia; three-dimensional mapping identified periatriotomy loops. All atrial tachycardias were ablated successfully between two scars or between a scar and an anatomical barrier.
Periatriotomy loops were always associated with an atrial tachycardia electrocardiogram pattern. Three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping appeared to be particularly useful for circuit identification and for ablation of these complex arrhythmias.
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 10/2008; 101(9):533-8. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information is available on the efficacy of cryoablation in the coronary venous system in humans. A patient with a lateral accessory pathway was referred to our center after several unsuccessful endocardial and epicardial (within the coronary sinus) attempts using standard radiofrequency energy. Ablation was subsequently performed successfully by applying cryoenergy distally into the coronary sinus, using a temperature of -50 degrees C and a freezing application time of 45 s. There were no complications. Angiography of the left coronary circumflex artery and coronary venous system was performed at 12 months follow-up using cardiac multislice computed tomography, and no coronary stenosis or anatomic anomaly was found. Neither pre-excitation or any arrhythmia recurred during follow-up. This experience suggests that ablating in the distal coronary sinus can be safely performed using cryoenergy.