Rina Akaishi

Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan

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Publications (15)26.45 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As proposed criteria (Swansea criteria) for the diagnosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) do not include antithrombin (AT) activity, diagnosis of AFLP may be delayed. The aim of this review is to underscore problems in the differential diagnosis of AFLP and the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet counts (HELLP syndrome) and to facilitate prompt diagnosis of AFLP. Published works dealing with liver dysfunction in pregnancy, HELLP syndrome and AFLP were reviewed. AFLP and HELLP syndrome shared common clinical, laboratory, histological and genetic features, and differential diagnosis between them was often difficult. However, HELLP syndrome was likely to occur in patients with hypertension, but AFLP occurred often in the absence of hypertension. In addition, AFLP was exclusively associated with pregnancy-induced antithrombin deficiency (PIATD). Approximately 50% of patients with AFLP did not have thrombocytopenia at presentation. As the Swansea criteria for AFLP did not include PIATD, diagnosis of AFLP was delayed until manifestation of life-threatening complications; 60% of women were admitted to intensive care and 15% to a specialist liver unit. In conclusion, incorporation of AT activity of less than 65% into the diagnostic criteria for AFLP may facilitate suspicion and prompt diagnosis of AFLP, decrease uncertainty regarding the diagnosis of AFLP, and contribute to better investigation and understanding of the process leading to the development of liver dysfunction.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 01/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: It is unknown whether weekly maternal weight gain differs between Japanese women with singleton, twin, and triplet pregnancies. Methods: Gestational weight gain defined as net weight gain during pregnancy was analyzed in 135,036 pregnant Japanese women, including 128,838 with singletons, 5573 with twins, and 132 with triplets, who gave birth at ≥22 weeks of gestation between 2007 and 2009. Weekly weight gain was defined as follows: gestational weight gain÷[gestational week (GW) at Delivery-2]. Results: Length of gestation (weeks, mean±SD) decreased significantly (38.2±2.6, 35.3±3.0, and 32.7±2.8) with increasing number of fetuses, while overall gestational weight gain (kg) was significantly smaller in women with singletons than in those with either twins or triplets (9.6±4.4 vs. 10.9±4.8 or 10.9±5.2, respectively). Thus, weekly maternal weight gain (kg/week) increased significantly with increasing number of fetuses (0.26±0.12, 0.33±0.13, and 0.35±0.16). Among women with delivery at or after GW 34, difference in gestational weight gain (kg) was prominent between the three groups (9.8±4.4, 11.4±4.7, and 13.0±5.1 for singleton, twin, and triplet pregnancies, respectively, P<0.001 between any two groups). Conclusions: Weekly maternal weight gain increases with increasing number of fetuses. Our figures may be useful for advising Japanese women with multifetal pregnancies regarding gestational weight gain.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 12/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of abortion is known to be high in women with essential thrombocythemia (ET). However, a few studies have focused on the risk of stillbirth among fetuses reaching gestational age compatible with life. Review of medical charts of pregnant women with ET who received cares at a single center between January 2003 and June 2013 and the English literature in which more than 20 pregnancies with ET were dealt with regarding outcomes. Outcomes were classified into three categories: spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery before GW 24, stillbirth at and after GW 24, and live birth (LB). Japan national statistics was used to estimate the risk of stillbirth among women with GW 22 or more. In all nine pregnancies in four women with ET at our hospital, two miscarriages, one stillbirth (intrauterine death at GW 35), and six LBs occurred. There were six reports in the English literature in which a total of 374 pregnancy outcomes were described: 110 miscarriages (29%), 14 stillbirths (3.7% of all 374 pregnancies and 5.3% of 264 pregnancies with GW≥24), and 250 LBs (67%) occurred. Japan national statistics between 1995 and 2011 indicated that the risk of stillbirth was less than 0.50% among women with GW≥22. The risk of stillbirth was extremely high among women with ET. More intensified monitoring of fetal wellbeing may be required to improve outcome of pregnancy complicated with ET.
    Thrombosis Research 11/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to underscore problems associated with the dipstick test and determination of protein concentration alone in spot-urine (P-test) compared with spot-urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (P/Cr test) and to determine whether urine collection for 24-h test was complete. Dipstick and P/Cr tests were performed simultaneously in 357 random spot-urine specimens from 145 pregnant women, including 35 with pre-eclampsia. Positive results were defined as ≥1+ on dipstick test, protein concentration ≥30 mg/dL on P-test, and P/Cr ratio ≥ 0.27 (mg/mg) on P/Cr test. Sixty-four 24-h urine tests (quantification of protein in urine collected during 24 h) were performed in 27 of the 145 women. We assumed that P/Cr ratio ≥ 0.27 predicted significant proteinuria (urinary protein ≥ 0.3 g/day). The 24-h urine collection was considered incomplete when urinary creatinine excretion was <11.0 mg/kg/day or >25.0 mg/kg/day. Forty-four percent (69/156) of specimens with a positive test result on dipstick test contained protein < 30 mg/dL. Dipstick test was positive for 25.7% (69/269) of specimens with protein < 30 mg/dL and for 28.8% (79/274) of specimens with P/Cr ratio < 0.27. P-test results were positive for 7.3% (20/274) and negative for 18.1% (15/83) of specimens with P/Cr ratio < 0.27 and ≥0.27, respectively. Incomplete 24-h urine collection occurred in 15.6% (10/64) of 24-h urine tests. Daily urinary creatinine excretion was 702-1397 mg, while creatinine concentration varied from 16 mg/dL to 475 mg/dL in spot-urine specimens. Dipstick test and P-test were likely to over- and underestimate risks of significant proteinuria, respectively. The 24-h urine collection was often incomplete.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 09/2013; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women with imminent premature labor (IPL) are transported to a tertiary hospital equipped with neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) even during the night. However, there have been no extensive studies of the occurrence rate of night IPL. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence rate of night IPL in an area with a population of 2 million. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data collected by the Sapporo Obstetric System for Emergency Patients launched in October 2008, in which women, physicians, and ambulance staff who sought appropriate obstetric/gynecological facilities available in the night (19.00-06.00 hours) were informed of candidate hospitals by coordinators through telephone consultation. This system covered the Sapporo area, which has a population of 2 000 000 and 17 000 births annually. Approximately 14% and 86% of women received antenatal care at six and 35 obstetric facilities with and without NICU, respectively, in this area. Night IPL was defined as a threatened premature labor and transport to one of six tertiary hospitals with NICU between 19.00 and 06.00 hours the next morning. During a 4-year period from 1 October 2008 to 30 September 2012, the Sapporo Obstetric System for Emergency Patients received 158 ± 23 (mean ± standard deviation) monthly telephone consultations (range 114-218 per month). The monthly number of patients with night IPL was 3.0 ± 2.2 (range 0-9 per month). The monthly number of cases of night IPL was around three among women who received antenatal care at obstetrics facilities without NICU in an area with a population of 2 000 000.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 07/2013; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The risk of abortion is known to be high in women with essential thrombocythemia (ET). However, a few studies have focused on the risk of stillbirth among fetuses reaching gestational age compatible with life. Methods Review of medical charts of pregnant women with ET who received cares at a single center between January 2003 and June 2013 and the English literature in which more than 20 pregnancies with ET were dealt with regarding outcomes. Outcomes were classified into three categories: spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery before GW 24, stillbirth at and after GW 24, and live birth (LB). Japan national statistics was used to estimate the risk of stillbirth among women with GW 22 or more. Results In all nine pregnancies in four women with ET at our hospital, two miscarriages, one stillbirth (intrauterine death at GW 35), and six LBs occurred. There were six reports in the English literature in which a total of 374 pregnancy outcomes were described: 110 miscarriages (29%), 14 stillbirths (3.7% of all 374 pregnancies and 5.3% of 264 pregnancies with GW ≥ 24), and 250 LBs (67%) occurred. Japan national statistics between 1995 and 2011 indicated that the risk of stillbirth was less than 0.50% among women with GW ≥ 22. Conclusions The risk of stillbirth was extremely high among women with ET. More intensified monitoring of fetal wellbeing may be required to improve outcome of pregnancy complicated with ET.
    Thrombosis Research 01/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 09/2012; 158A(11):2969-71. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the normal reference values for antithrombin (AT) activity, platelet count (Plt), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and hematocrit value (Ht) immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and to determine association of these blood parameters with fetal growth. A complete blood count was performed and the AT activity was examined in 300 consecutive women admitted to hospital at > or = gestational week 36 for labor pains and/or the rupture of fetal membranes. All the women were normotensive and had singleton pregnancies, and none of the women had proteinuria, a weekly weight gain > or = 0.5 kg, or other specific complications upon admission. All the women attempted a vaginal delivery. The medians (5th-95th percentile) were 90% (71-110%) for AT activity, 234x10(9)/L (150-337x10(9)/L) for Plt, 11.0 g/dL (9.5-12.8 g/dL) for Hb, and 34.0% (30.4-38.6%) for Ht. Women with an Hb value of > or = the median (11.0 g/dL) gave birth to significantly smaller infants than their counterparts. A considerable number of healthy women exhibit a reduced AT activity and/or platelet count immediately before delivery. Hemoconcentration evidenced by a raised Hb value adversely effects on infant growth. Our data may be helpful when considering the normal ranges of these blood parameters for healthy parturient women.
    [Hokkaido igaku zasshi] The Hokkaido journal of medical science 08/2012; 87(4-5):141-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  To assess the usefulness of a new method for cesarean section (CS) that is comprised of a transverse incision into the uterine fundus, developed for women with placentas covering the entire anterior uterine wall, and introduced in September 2006. Material and Methods:  Review of medical records of 12 and 29 women who underwent CS by the new and conventional methods, respectively, for placenta previa, placenta accreta (accreta, increta and percreta) or placenta widely covering the entire anterior uterine wall in which placenta accreta cannot be excluded, between June 2003 and March 2011. Results:  Placenta accreta (67% [8/12] vs 10% [3/29], P = 0.0006) and cesarean hysterectomy (67% vs 10%) were significantly more frequent in the group with the new compared with the conventional method. There were no significant differences between groups with the new and conventional methods in amount of blood loss (1732 ± 1067 vs 1847 ± 1279 g, respectively), prevalence of blood loss >3000 g (8.3% vs 17%, respectively) or blood transfusion (92% vs 72%, respectively), time required for cesarean hysterectomy (210 ± 58 vs 195 ± 41 min), or neonatal conditions at birth. The amount of blood loss for cesarean hysterectomy was significantly less for the new than conventional method (1959 ± 1025 g vs 4450 ± 1145 g, P = 0.041). Conclusion:  The new method was superior to the conventional method with respect to reduction of blood loss during cesarean hysterectomy. However, careful observations are mandatory in women with preserved uterus with respect to a possible increased risk of uterine rupture in future pregnancies.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 06/2012; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize patterns of insulin secretion in women with overt diabetes and gestational diabetes (GDM) defined by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. MaTERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 228 Japanese women were examined retrospectively. All 228 women had a positive 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) result at 25.2±1.2weeks of gestation and underwent a 75-g glucose tolerance test (GTT) at 27.4±1.8weeks of gestation. The immunoreactive insulin levels were determined during the GTT in four groups of pregnant women: five with overt diabetes, 20 with GDM according to both the previous Japan Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (JSOG) and current IADPSG criteria (traditional GDM group), 43 with GDM according to only the IADPSG criteria (new GDM group), and 160 with non- GDM, but with a positive GCT result. Attenuated and slow rise in plasma insulin in concert with prolonged hyperglycemia were characteristic in women with overt diabetes, compared with women with GDM in whom excessive insulin secretion in the presence of hyperglycemia was characteristic. The new GDM group did not differ significantly from the traditional GDM group with respect to scores of such indices as the insulinogenic index, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Women with overt diabetes have both an impaired capacity for insulin secretion and elevated insulin resistance, while women with GDM exhibit a maintained insulin secretory capacity with an elevated insulin resistance.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 12/2011; 38(1):220-5. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Which physical findings and blood parameters predict postpartum hypertension remain to be studied in women with twin pregnancies. The antenatal systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, respectively), and 16 laboratory variables were investigated in 150 normotensive women who gave birth to twins. When the median values of the 18 continuous variables were used as cut-off values, an SBP>120 mm Hg (relative risk [95% confidence interval], 2.81 [1.94-4.08]), a DBP>70 mm Hg (2.42 [1.68-3.49]), an aspartate aminotransferase level>18 U/L (2.22 [1.55-3.19]), and a uric acid level>5.3 mg/dL (1.68 [1.20-2.36]) were independent risk factors for postpartum hypertension. Antenatal blood pressure measurements and a laboratory work-up may be useful clinically for predicting postpartum hypertension in women with twin pregnancies.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 10/2011; 40(2):115-20. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine how the D-dimer level changes after cesarean section, a topic that has not been studied extensively. The D-dimer level (μg/mL) was measured in 792 and 119 women with singleton and twin pregnancies, respectively, on the day or one day before cesarean section and on postpartum days 1, 3, and 7. None of the women developed venous thromboembolism with clinical symptoms. The data for other two women who underwent a cesarean section and developed pulmonary thromboembolism on postpartum days 0 to 1 were also presented. The preoperative D-dimer level (median, μg/mL) of 2.4 increased on postpartum day 1 to 6.0, then decreased to 2.8 on postpartum day 3, and again increased to 4.5 on postpartum day 7 in the singleton pregnancies. A similar pattern, but with slightly higher values, was seen in the twin pregnancies. The 95 percentile value of D-dimer for singleton and twin pregnancies was 6.9 and 10.5 on days -1/0, 19.7 and 25.7 on day 1, 9.7 and 13.5 on day 3, and 15.7 and 17.7 on day 7, respectively. The D-dimer level after pulmonary thromboembolism was greater than the 99 percentile value and the 98 percentile value in the two women, respectively. Our data regarding the D-dimer level may be helpful when considering the normal range of D-dimer for postpartum women with cesarean delivery.
    Thrombosis Research 06/2011; 128(4):e33-8. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess how the number of Japanese pregnant women with hyperglycemia changes after the adoption of the criteria proposed by the IADPSG. The study subjects comprised 228 Japanese women with a plasma glucose level ≥ 7.8 mmol/L on a glucose challenge test and who subsequently underwent a glucose tolerance test among 1038 women with singleton pregnancies. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently diagnosed using the JSOG criteria in Japan. Of the 228 women, all 25 women with GDM and an additional 43 women without GDM according to the JSOG criteria were classified as having hyperglycemia according to the IADPSG criteria, resulting in an increase of patients with hyperglycemia from 2.4% (25/1038) to 6.6% (68/1038). The number of infants with a birthweight ≥ 3600g was significantly larger among the 43 women with newly diagnosed GDM than among the 160 women who remained normoglycemic (14% [6/43] vs. 3.8% [6/160], p = 0.02). The calculated number of patients requiring treatment for a reduction of one infant with a birthweight ≥ 3600 g was at least 9.8 for women with newly diagnosed GDM. The IADPSG criteria increase the number of patients by at least 2.7-fold but may be cost-effective with respect to the resulting reduction in macrosomia.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 12/2010; 90(3):339-42. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: we investigated whether ascites samples obtained from pregnant women during cesarean sections contained antithrombin because it is unknown whether antithrombin escapes from the blood and passes into the interstitial space during pregnancy. the concentration and activity levels of antithrombin were determined in six ascites samples obtained from six consecutive women who exhibited generalized edema, ascites, and a gradual decline in antithrombin activity. all six ascites samples contained antithrombin (mean ± SD, 4.9 ± 2.2 mg/dL; range, 2.7-8.8 mg/dL) and exhibited an antithrombin activity level of 15.5 ± 6.0% (range, 10-24%). antithrombin escapes from the blood into the interstitial space in pregnant women. This phenomenon partially explains the gradual decline in antithrombin activity observed in these six pregnant women with generalized edema and large volumes of ascites.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 11/2010; 38(6):613-5. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether uterotrophic agents increase the risk of fatal hemorrhagic brain stroke. Between 1991 and 1992, there were 230 maternal deaths among 2,420,000 pregnant women in Japan and the causes of these deaths was investigated in 1994. Using information provided in this report, we identified 35 women who died from or were assumed to die from hemorrhagic brain stroke. We assumed that 93% of women would have tried vaginal delivery. The risk of fatal hemorrhagic brain stroke after uterotrophic agent use was calculated according to the assumption that 5.0-40% of women received uterotrophic agents. Use of uterotrophic agents for induction/augmentation of labor was confirmed in five (14.3%) of the 35 women who died from hemorrhagic brain stroke. The incidence of fatal brain stroke after the use of uterotrophic agents was only significantly higher than that for spontaneous hemorrhagic brain stroke if these agents were administered in ≤ 6.0% of women. Because more than 6.0% of women received uterotrophic agents, these agents are unlikely to increase the risk of fatal hemorrhagic brain stroke.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 10/2010; 39(1):23-6. · 1.95 Impact Factor