[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tripeptidyl-peptidase 1 (TPP1) null or residual activity occurs in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) with underlying TPP1/CLN2 mutations. A survey of 25 South American CLN2 affected individuals enabled the differentiation of two phenotypes: classical late-infantile and variant juvenile, each in approximately 50% of patients, with residual TPP1 activity occurring in approximately 32%. Each individual was assigned to one of three subgroups: (I) n=11, null TPP1 activity in leukocytes; (II) n=8, residual TPP1 activity of 0.60-15.85nmol/h/mg (nr 110-476); (III) n=6, activity not measured in leukocytes. Curvilinear bodies (CB) appeared in almost all studied CLN2 subjects; the only exceptions occurred in cases of subgroup II: two individuals had combined CBs/fingerprints (FPs), and one case had pure FPs. There were 15 mutations (4 first published in this paper, 3 previously observed in South America by our group, and 8 previously observed by others). In subgroup I, mutations were either missense or nonsense; in subgroups II and III, mutations prevailed at the non-conserved intronic site, c.887-10A>G (intron 7), and to a lesser extent at c.89+5G>C (intron 2), in heterozygous combinations. Grouping phenotypically and genetically known individuals on the basis of TPP1 activity supported the concept that residual enzyme activity underlies a protracted disease course. The prevalence of intronic mutations at non-conserved sites in subgroup II individuals indicates that some alternative splicing might allow some residual TPP1 activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sandhoff disease (SD) is a lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HEXB gene. To date, 43 mutations of HEXB have been described, including 3 large deletions. Here, we have characterized 14 unrelated SD patients and developed a Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay to investigate the presence of large HEXB deletions. Overall, we identified 16 alleles, 9 of which were novel, including 4 sequence variation leading to aminoacid changes [c.626C>T (p.T209I), c.634C>A (p.H212N), c.926G>T (p.C309F), c.1451G>A (p.G484E)] 3 intronic mutations (c.1082+5G>A, c.1242+1G>A, c.1169+5G>A), 1 nonsense mutation c.146C>A (p.S49X) and 1 small in-frame deletion c.1260_1265delAGTTGA (p.V421_E422del). Using the new MLPA assay, 2 previously described deletions were identified. In vitro expression studies showed that proteins bearing aminoacid changes p.T209I and p.G484E presented a very low or absent activity, while proteins bearing the p.H212N and p.C309F changes retained a significant residual activity. The detrimental effect of the 3 novel intronic mutations on the HEXB mRNA processing was demonstrated using a minigene assay. Unprecedentedly, minigene studies revealed the presence of a novel alternative spliced HEXB mRNA variant also present in normal cells. In conclusion, we provided new insights into the molecular basis of SD and validated an MLPA assay for detecting large HEXB deletions.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41516. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is an autosomal recessive disorder encoded by the ASS1 gene, which codes for argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), the rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Previously, we identified the mutation p.G390R in patients with CTLN1 in the San Luis Province of Argentina. Here, we report the results of p.G390R analysis in a larger number of probands, relatives of involved families and additionally, a population study to identify carriers. Altogether, we analyzed 420 alleles, belonging to 12 probands, 26 relatives, and 172 healthy volunteers. All the probands were homozygous for the mutation, and 21 of 26 relatives were carriers. The occurrence of the disease in descendants of couples at risk was 57% showing a preferential transmission of the mutant allele compared to the normal allele. The carrier frequency in the general San Luis Province population was 4.1%, suggesting the incidence of CTLN1 to be 1:2,427, which is approximately 20 times higher than for the general population. This work suggests that there should be an increased awareness of preconceptual screening of CTNL1 among individuals/couples who are at risk in the San Luis Province in order to better inform them of their reproductive options.Cascade/family and population molecular screening for carrier identification were performed in an Argentinean province with high incidence of CTLN1, a first step to preconceptional screening.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disease associated with mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, ALDP. The disease is characterized by increased concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in plasma and in adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues, due to a defect in peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation. In the present study, we analyzed 10 male patients and 17 female carriers from 10 unrelated pedigrees with X-ALD from Argentina. By sequencing the ABCD1 we detected 9 different mutations, 8 of which were novel. These new mutations were verified by a combination of methods that included both functional (western blot and peroxisomal VLCFA β-oxidation) and bioinformatics analysis. The spectrum of novel mutations consists of 3 frameshift (p.Ser284fs*16, p.Glu380Argfs*21 and p.Thr254Argfs*82); a deletion (p.Ser572_Asp575del); a splicing mutation (c.1081+5G>C) and 3 missense mutations (p.Ala341Asp, p.His420Pro and p.Tyr547Cys). In one patient 2 changes were found: a known missense (p.His669Arg) and an unpublished amino acid substitution (p.Ala19Ser). In vitro studies suggest that p.Ala19Ser is a polymorphism. Moreover, we identified two novel intronic polymorphisms and two amino acid polymorphisms. In conclusion, this study extends the spectrum of mutation in X-ALD and facilitates the identification of heterozygous females.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e52635. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases caused by abnormal protein and lipid glycosylation. In this
chapter, we report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in two siblings with an unidentified CDG (CDG-Ix). They
are the first and the third child of healthy consanguineous Argentinean parents. Patient 1 is now a 11-year-old girl, and
patient 2 died at the age of 4 months. Their clinical picture involved liver dysfunction in the neonatal period, psychomotor
retardation, microcephaly, seizures, axial hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and hepatomegaly. Patient 1 also developed strabismus
and cataract. They showed a type 1 pattern of serum sialotransferrin. Enzymatic analysis for phosphomannomutase and phosphomannose
isomerase in leukocytes and fibroblasts excluded PMM2-CDG and MPI-CDG. Lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) analysis showed
a normal profile. Therefore, this result could point to a deficiency in the dolichol metabolism. In this context, ALG8-CDG, DPAGT1-CDG, and SRD5A3-CDG were analyzed and no defects were identified. In conclusion, we could not identify the genetic deficiency in these patients
yet. Further studies are underway to identify the basic defect in them, taking into account the new CDG types that have been
KeywordsCongenital disorders of glycosylation-Isoelectrofocusing-N- and O-glycosylation
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases caused by abnormal protein and lipid glycosylation. In this chapter, we report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in two siblings with an unidentified CDG (CDG-Ix). They are the first and the third child of healthy consanguineous Argentinean parents. Patient 1 is now a 11-year-old girl, and patient 2 died at the age of 4 months. Their clinical picture involved liver dysfunction in the neonatal period, psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, seizures, axial hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and hepatomegaly. Patient 1 also developed strabismus and cataract. They showed a type 1 pattern of serum sialotransferrin. Enzymatic analysis for phosphomannomutase and phosphomannose isomerase in leukocytes and fibroblasts excluded PMM2-CDG and MPI-CDG. Lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) analysis showed a normal profile. Therefore, this result could point to a deficiency in the dolichol metabolism. In this context, ALG8-CDG, DPAGT1-CDG, and SRD5A3-CDG were analyzed and no defects were identified. In conclusion, we could not identify the genetic deficiency in these patients yet. Further studies are underway to identify the basic defect in them, taking into account the new CDG types that have been recently described.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated evaluation of biotinidase (BTD) activity was carried out for a long-term follow-up in patients with hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). The results indicated inter-intra variability among the GSD-Ia, GSD-III and GSD-IX patients. In addition, a c.1330G>C transversion in the BTD gene, resulting in a p.Asp444His substitution was detected in one allele of a GSD-Ia patient with sustained normal enzyme activity. Thus far, it is necessary to be cautious in the interpretation of the results of BTD activity as a presumptive GSD diagnostic element. It is not known why plasma BTD activity increases in GSDs patients, or the clinical importance of the increment. When viewed from a global perspective, there are some lines of biotin biology that could indicate a relationship between BTD´s behavior and GSDs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lesch-Nyhan disease is a neurogenetic disorder caused by mutation of the HPRT1 gene on the X chromosome. There is significant variation in the clinical phenotype, with more than 300 different known mutations. There are few studies that have addressed whether similar mutations result in similar phenotypes across different patients because hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt) deficiency is rare, and most mutations are unique or limited to individual families. However, recent studies have revealed multiple unrelated patients with similar mutations, providing an opportunity to examine genotype-phenotype correlations. We found significant variation among the clinical features of 10 patients from 8 unrelated families all carrying a mutation replacing guanine with adenine at base position 143 (c.143G>A) in the HPRT1 gene. This mutation results in replacement of arginine by histidine at amino acid position 48 (p.arg48his) in the HGprt enzyme. Biochemically, the enzyme exhibits reduced thermal integrity, a mechanism that may explain clinical variation. The literature reveals similar clinical variation among other patients with similar mutations, although the variation is relatively minor across the whole population of patients. Identifiable sources of clinical variation include known limitations of clinical ascertainment and mechanisms that affect residual enzyme activity and stability. These results are helpful for understanding genotype-phenotype correlations and discordance and likely are applicable to other neurogenetic disorders where similar variation occurs.
Human Genetics 10/2010; 129(1):71-8. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we review the clinical and genetic data in 14 Latin American propionic acidemia (PA) and 15 methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria) patients. In the PA patients, we have identified four different changes in the PCCA gene, including one novel one (c.414+5G>A) affecting the splicing process. The PCCB mutational spectrum included two prevalent changes accounting for close to 60% of the mutant alleles studied and one novel change (c.494G>C) which by functional analysis is clearly pathogenic. We have also identified the deep intronic change c.654+462A>G, and the results of the antisense treatment in the patient's cell line confirmed the functional recovery of PCC activity. All PA patients bearing out-of-frame mutations presented the disease earlier while patients bearing in hemizygous fashion p.E168K and p.R165W presented the disease later. Regarding the MMAuria patients, we have found three novel mutations in the MUT gene (c.1068G>A, c.1587_1594del8 and c.593delA) and one in the MMAB gene (c.349-1 G>C). Two patients with MMAuria with homocystinuria cblC type are carriers of the frequent c.271dupA mutation. All mut(0), cblB and cblC patients presented the symptoms early and in general had more neurological complications, while cblA and mut(-) patients exhibited a late-onset presentation, and in general the long-term outcome was better. The results presented in this work emphasize the importance of the genetic analysis of the patients not only for diagnostic purposes but also to research into novel therapies based on the genotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lesch-Nyhan disease is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The classic form of the disease is described by a characteristic syndrome that includes overproduction of uric acid, severe generalized dystonia, cognitive disability and self-injurious behaviour. In addition to the classic disease, variant forms of the disease occur wherein some clinical features are absent or unusually mild. The current studies provide the results of a prospective and multi-centre international study focusing on neurological manifestations of the largest cohort of Lesch-Nyhan disease variants evaluated to date, with 46 patients from 3 to 65 years of age coming from 34 families. All had evidence for overproduction of uric acid. Motor abnormalities were evident in 42 (91%), ranging from subtle clumsiness to severely disabling generalized dystonia. Cognitive function was affected in 31 (67%) but it was never severe. Though none exhibited self-injurious behaviours, many exhibited behaviours that were maladaptive. Only three patients had no evidence of neurological dysfunction. Our results were compared with a comprehensive review of 78 prior reports describing a total of 127 Lesch-Nyhan disease variants. Together these results define the spectrum of clinical features associated with hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. At one end of the spectrum are patients with classic Lesch-Nyhan disease and the full clinical phenotype. At the other end of the spectrum are patients with overproduction of uric acid but no apparent neurological or behavioural deficits. Inbetween are patients with varying degrees of motor, cognitive, or behavioural abnormalities. Recognition of this spectrum is valuable for understanding the pathogenesis and diagnosis of all forms of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of progressive neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the cellular accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin-like bodies. NCL type 1 (CLN1) and type 2 (CLN2) are caused by deficiencies of the lysosomal enzymes palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (PPT-1) and tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP-1), respectively. In this study, 118 Latin American patients were examined for NCL using an integrated multidisciplinary program. This revealed two patients affected by CLN1 and nine by CLN2. Both CLN1 patients had a juvenile-onset phenotype with mutation studies of one patient demonstrating the known mutation p.Arg151X and a novel mutation in intron 3, c.363-3T>G. Six of the CLN2 patients presented with the 'classical' late-infantile phenotype. The remaining three patients, who were siblings, presented with a 'protracted' phenotype and had a higher level of residual TPP-1 activity than the 'classical' CLN2 patients. Genotype analysis of the TPP1 gene in the 'classical' CLN2 patients showed the presence of the known mutation p.Arg208X and the novel mutations p.Leu104X, p.Asp276Val, and p.Ala453Val. The siblings with the 'protracted' phenotype were heterozygous for two known TPP1 mutations, p.Gln66X and c.887-10A>G. This multidisciplinary program is also being used to diagnose other NCL types.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is an urea cycle defect caused by mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene. We report the first identification in Argentina of patients with CTLN1 in a limited geographic area.
Molecular analysis in patient/relatives included PCR, sequencing and restriction enzyme assay.
The studied families showed the same mutation: ASS~p.G390R, associated with the early-onset/severe phenotype.
We postulate a possible population cluster. A program to know the carrier frequency in that population is in progress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is an urea cycle defect caused by mutations in the argininosuccinate synthetase gene. We report the first identification in Argentina of patients with CTLN1 in a limited geographic area.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease caused by more than 1500 mutations and variants in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.
To establish the spectrum and frequency of mutations on this gene in Argentinean patients.To detect heterozygotes in affected families.
We investigated 91 clinical and biochemically confirmed patients with 2 elevated sweat tests and 2 sterile adults. We worked with 165 relatives. The molecular diagnosis was accomplished in 3 serial stages: a) determination of 29 frequent mutations; b) haplotypes for microsatellites; c) an extensive screening of gene through single strand conformation analysis and multiplex denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with sequencing of abnormal patterns. Once patient's genotype was confirmed, we investigated the heterozygotes' state in the relatives.
1ST OBJECTIVE: Fourteen mutations were identified. Three more mutations were detected and other 11 mutations were characterized, 3 of them novel (p.G27R, c.622-2A>G, p.W277R). In total, we have identified 28 mutations responsible for 90.3% of the mutated alleles, 14 with a higher frequency than 1%. 2ND OBJECTIVE: From 165 investigated people, 143 were confirmed as heterozygotes and with normal genotype 22.
This work contributed to the molecular characterization of patients with classic and atypical phenotypes and to the detection of great numbers of carriers. New pharmacological therapeutic investigations are based on the mutation type. Therefore, knowledge of patients, mutations (genotype) has significant importance for the future application of specific therapies.
Archivos argentinos de pediatría 08/2008; 106(4):310-9. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is an inborn error of purine metabolism responsible for Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) and its partial phenotypes, HPRT-related hyperuricemia with neurologic dysfunction (HRND) and hyperuricemia alone. We report here the recognition of six Argentine patients, two with LND and four with HRND. All patients presented elevated excretion of uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and decreased HPRT enzyme activities <1 nmol/h/mg Hb. The molecular analysis demonstrated in the two LND patients a novel inherited transition mutation, c.203T >C (L68P), in one subject and a germline transition mutation, c.209G >A (G70E), in the other. In the HRND patients a novel transversion mutation, c.584 A >C (Y195S), was found in three related patients and an inherited transition mutation, c.143G >A (R48H), in the fourth subject.