[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Co-administration of artemether/lumefantrine with antiretroviral therapy has potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions. We investigated drug-drug interactions between artemether/lumefantrine and efavirenz or nevirapine.
We performed a cross-over study in which HIV-infected adults received standard six-dose artemether/lumefantrine 80/480 mg before and at efavirenz or nevirapine steady state. Artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, efavirenz and nevirapine plasma concentrations were measured and compared.
Efavirenz significantly reduced artemether maximum concentration (C(max)) and plasma AUC (median 29 versus 12 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 119 versus 25 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01), dihydroartemisinin C(max) and AUC (median 120 versus 26 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 341 versus 84 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01), and lumefantrine C(max) and AUC (median 8737 versus 6331 ng/mL, P = 0.03, and 280 370 versus 124 381 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01). Nevirapine significantly reduced artemether C(max) and AUC (median 28 versus 11 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 123 versus 34 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01) and dihydroartemisinin C(max) and AUC (median 107 versus 59 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 364 versus 228 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01). Lumefantrine C(max) and AUC were non-significantly reduced by nevirapine. Artemether/lumefantrine reduced nevirapine C(max) and AUC (median 8620 versus 4958 ng/mL, P < 0.01, and 66 329 versus 35 728 ng · h/mL, P < 0.01), but did not affect efavirenz exposure.
Co-administration of artemether/lumefantrine with efavirenz or nevirapine resulted in a reduction in artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine and nevirapine exposure. These drug interactions may increase the risk of malaria treatment failure and development of resistance to artemether/lumefantrine and nevirapine. Clinical data from population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic trials evaluating the impact of these drug interactions are urgently needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting data exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on steady-state nevirapine pharmacokinetics (PK), although steady-state nevirapine concentrations during pregnancy have never been characterized in sub-Saharan Africa.
This was a longitudinal intensive PK study in Ugandan pregnant women receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Participants underwent intensive 12-hour PK sampling during the second trimester (T2; n = 4), third trimester (T3; n = 15) and 6 weeks postpartum (PP; n = 15). HIV-1 RNA was performed within 2 weeks of each visit. Nevirapine C12 above 3000 ng/mL was classified as optimal based on the suggested value for therapeutic drug monitoring.
The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine were influenced by pregnancy, demonstrated by a 20% reduction in the maximum concentration, minimum concentration (C12), and area under the curve between T3 and PP visits (P = 0.001, P = 0.011 and P = 0.005, respectively). Ten subjects (66.7%) had C12 values <3000 ng/mL during T3. Of these participants, 7 partcipant's C12 concentrations increased to >3000 ng/mL during the PP visit. HIV-1 RNA were <1000 copies per milliliter at T3 and <400 copies per milliliter at PP in all patients.
Nevirapine exposure was reduced in Ugandan women during their third trimester compared with the same women PP, however, HIV RNA remained <1000 copies per milliliter. The long-term impact of intermittent suboptimal nevirapine concentrations during pregnancy is unknown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: rifampicin lowers nevirapine plasma concentrations by inducing cytochrome P450. However, few data are available on this interaction during the lead-in period of nevirapine treatment.
eighteen HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected adults receiving rifampicin daily as part of anti-tuberculosis therapy were evenly randomized to nevirapine initiation by dose escalation (NVP200) or nevirapine initiation at 200 mg twice daily (NVP400). Subjects underwent 12 h intensive pharmacokinetic sampling on Days 7, 14 and 21 of nevirapine treatment. A minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 3000 ng/mL was used to interpret nevirapine concentrations 12 h after dosing (C(12)). Trial registration number: NCT00617643 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).
day 7 geometric mean nevirapine C(12) [90% confidence interval (CI)] was 1504 (1127-2115) ng/mL and 3148 (2451-4687) ng/mL in the NVP200 and NVP400 arms, respectively (P < 0.01). Nevirapine C(12) on Days 14 and 21 was similar. On Day 21, nevirapine concentration in 64% of patients was below the MEC. On Day 7, geometric mean area under the curve (AUC(0-12)) was lower in the NVP200 arm, 25 223 (90% CI, 21 978-29 695) ng·h/mL versus 43 195 (35 607-57 035) ng·h/mL in the NVP400 arm (P < 0.01). Similarly, on Day 14, nevirapine AUC(0-12) was lower in the NVP200 arm 23 668 (18 253-32 218) ng·h/mL versus the NVP400 arm 44 918 (36 264-62 769) ng·h/mL (P = 0.03).
in co-treated patients, nevirapine concentrations were below the MEC during initiation with dose escalation. Nevirapine initiation at the maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily is preferred. Sub-therapeutic nevirapine concentrations were common at Day 21 with either regimen. Evaluation of higher nevirapine maintenance doses may be considered.