[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preliminary study was conducted to assess the virulence of a strain of Brucella abortus (1969D) and to compare the susceptibility of water buffalo and cattle calves to infection by the intraconjunctival route. Seven of each cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves aged 3-6 months were inoculated intraconjunctivally with counts ranging from 1.5 × 10(7) to 1.7 × 10(10) colony forming units of B. abortus. Animals were monitored over an 8-week period for clinical manifestations and serological and hematological evidence of infection. At slaughter, eight lymph nodes from each animal were sampled for bacteriological and histopathological assessments. Lymph nodes from three water buffalo (43%) and five cattle (71%) yielded B. abortus (P=0.048). Parotid/prescapular lymph nodes were most sensitive in detecting B. abortus. Our data suggest that B. abortus strain 1969D may be used as challenge strain, and water buffalo appeared to have a lower susceptibility to B. abortus infection than cattle.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 12/2010; 42(8):1685-94. DOI:10.1007/s11250-010-9621-3 · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis has been documented in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) but published literature is limited despite the importance of this species in tropical agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to compare the virulence of Brucella abortus isolates recovered from cattle and water buffalo. Nineteen strains of B. abortus from cattle and domestic water buffalo in Trinidad were intraperitoneally inoculated into BALB/c mice. Spleens were cultured for B. abortus and histopathological severity scores were calculated based on lymphoid depletion, lymphoid necrosis, splenitis, and macrophage accumulation. A general linear model approach was used to estimate the effect of isolate source (cattle versus water buffalo) on virulence. Isolates of water buffalo origin were significantly less virulent in the mouse model based on recovered B. abortus from splenic tissues, spleen/weight ratio, and lymphoid necrosis but not overall histopathological severity scores. Further investigation of isolates recovered from water buffalo might provide the key to the development of procedures for brucellosis control in tropical environments.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2010; 43(1):13-6. DOI:10.1007/s11250-010-9679-y · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The estimated prevalence and antimicrobial resistances of Salmonella spp. in non-diarrhoeic dogs across Trinidad was determined. The serotypes of Salmonella spp. isolated were also identified. Of a total of 1391 dogs sampled, 50 (3.6%) were positive for Salmonella spp. with 28 different serotypes, the predominant serotypes were Javiana (12), Newport (6), Arechavaleta (5) and Heidelberg (5). Fifty-seven (85.1%) of 67 isolates exhibited resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents. Of eight antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was exhibited to streptomycin (80.6%), cephalothin (37.3%), neomycin (38.8%) and gentamicin (9.0%). All isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, norfloxacin, choramphenicol and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the isolation of the Salmonella spp. from non-diarrhoeic dogs could pose health hazard to their owners as most serotypes are known to be virulent. Furthermore, the prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial agents amongst the Salmonella isolates from these animals indicates susceptibility testing may influence chemotherapeutic choices when treating these isolates.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 10/2004; 51(7):337-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2004.00785.x · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Segregated early weaning (SEW) into a cleaner nursery increases food intake and growth in pigs, presumably because of reduced immune stimulation compared with conventionally reared, nonsegregated pigs (NSW). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation of linoleic acid (18:2omega6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) in SEW and NSW pigs. Pigs consumed a control or high 18:3omega3 diet (omega6 PUFA/omega3 PUFA; 21.3 vs. 2.5, respectively) and were weaned at either 14 days old into a SEW nursery or at 21 days old into a conventional NSW nursery. The major acute-phase protein of pigs but not haptoglobin increased in 35-day-old NSW pigs. NSW pigs had 15-25% lower carcass 18:2omega6 and 20-30% lower carcass 18:3omega3 (% composition) at 49 days old. Between 35- and 49-days-old, NSW pigs had a higher whole-body oxidation of 18:2omega6 (40-120%) and 18:3omega3 (30-80%). The high 18:3omega3 diet decreased the whole-body oxidation of 18:2omega6 by 73% and of 18:3omega3 by 63% in NSW pigs. We conclude that moderately cleaner housing SEW significantly decreases 18:2omega6 and 18:3omega3 oxidation in pigs.
The Journal of Lipid Research 03/2003; 44(2):314-9. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M200153-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor