Regina Maria Bringel Martins

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goianá, Goiás, Brazil

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Publications (100)139.39 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention.
    AIDS Care 03/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies constitute a dynamic population in a continuous process of variation and selection. To investigate effect of the immune system on the genetic variability of HCV, we compared the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of immunosuppressed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF group) to immunocompetent patients with HCV chronic infection (control group). The HVR1 from ten samples of each group was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The HCV quasispecies from the control group had a higher frequency of variable sites in HVR1 (83.9 % vs 59.3 %, p < 0.05), as well as a greater diversity within (intra-patient) and between samples, compared to the CRF group. The clustering of the majority of the quasispecies of the CRF group in the phylogenetic tree also showed the limited diversity of the quasispecies in immunosuppressed patients. Moreover, a higher variability of amino acids at positions 384, 386, 391, 394, 397, 398, 400, 405 and 410 was observed in the control group than in the CRF group, which showed a greater variability only at position 388 (p < 0.05). These data corroborates the hypothesis that the major selective pressure factor is the immune system, which promotes a high degree of diversity in the viral progeny and contributes to a constant evolution of HCV.
    Archives of Virology 02/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection represents an important cause of acute viral hepatitis. Selective waste collection is a widespread activity carried out by the urban poor, and recyclable waste pickers have a lifestyle that makes this group highly vulnerable to unfavorable socio-economic and environmental factors. To date, the epidemiology of HEV infection in this population remains unknown. To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis E-specific antibodies in a population of recyclable waste pickers in Brazil. Between April 2010 and May 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted among recyclable waste pickers from all 15 recycling cooperatives in Goiânia City, Central Brazil. The participants were tested for serological markers indicative of HEV infection. Of 432 individuals asked to participate in the survey, 431 (99.8%) agreed to participate. Twenty-four of 431 participants were anti-HEV IgG positive by ELISA. Of these, 22 were confirmed positive by immunoblot, resulting in an anti-HEV IgG prevalence of 5.1% (95% CI: 3.4-7.6). In addition, four individuals were anti-HEV IgM positive by ELISA. Of these, three (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.4-2.4) were confirmed anti-HEV IgM positive by immunoblot, but were HEV RNA negative. One was concurrently positive for anti-HEV IgG. Only age>40 years was independently associated with the presence of anti-HEV. These findings demonstrated that the prevalence of HEV antibodies among recyclable waste pickers in Central Brazil is relatively low and increased with age.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 01/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the hepatitis B immunization status of female sex workers (FSWs) in Central-West Brazil and to evaluate their compliance with and immune response to hepatitis B vaccination delivered using outreach strategies. A total of 721 FSWs recruited in 2 large cities in Central-West Brazil were interviewed and screened for the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers. Hepatitis B vaccine was offered to all women susceptible to HBV, using outreach strategies. The immune response of FSWs who received a full course of vaccine was assessed following the final vaccine dose. We found that 27.6% of FSWs, the majority of whom were aged 18 to 25 years, had serological evidence of previous hepatitis B vaccination. A total of 434 FSWs were eligible for vaccination, 389 (89.6%) of whom accepted the first hepatitis B vaccine dose. Of those, 64% received a second dose and 37.5% received all three doses. Through the outreach strategy, there was a 52.2% increase in the number of women who received the second dose and a 67% increase in the number who received the third dose. Of the 146 women who received a full course of vaccine, 105 accepted testing for quantitative anti-HBs (hepatitis B surface antibody) following the final vaccine dose, and 92.4% of those tested had developed protective levels of anti-HBs. Lower education level, workplace, and length of prostitution were predictors of full-vaccine acceptance. The present findings illustrate the benefits of using outreach strategies to overcome the difficulties of vaccinating hard-to-reach populations such as FSWs.
    Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 12/2013; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may impact the clinical course of tuberculosis (TB). Both infections are highly endemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in TB patients in Central-West Brazil and to perform a genetic characterisation of the respective isolates. Of the 402 patients, six (1.49%) were positive for anti-HTLV and five (1.24%; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-3.05) were infected with HTLV-1/2. Genetic characterisation demonstrated that the four HTLV-1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a and that the HTLV-2 isolate belonged to subtype a (HTLV-2a/c). The prevalence of HTLV infection observed in this study is higher than that observed in local blood donors and the HTLV-1 and 2 subtypes identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 10/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 06/2013; 108(4). · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 05/2013; 108(3). · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little information regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian female prisoners exists. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections and identified viral genotypes among female prisoners in Goiás, Central Brazil. Women incarcerated in the largest prison in the State of Goiás were invited to participate in the study. All female prisoners were interviewed and tested for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody against HCV (anti-HCV) by ELISA. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and HCV RNA and genotyped, respectively. Participants (n=148; 98.6%) completed the study with an overall HBV prevalence of 18.9%. Age >30 years, a low education level, sex with a sexually transmitted diseases carrier, and a male sexual partner serving in the same penitentiary were associated with HBV infections. Only 24% of the women were anti-HBs positive suggesting previous HBV vaccination. Nine female prisoners (6.1%) were anti-HCV positive. Age >40 years, injecting drug use and length of incarceration were statistically associated with anti-HCV antibodies. Five samples were HCV RNA positive and classified as genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a; n=3 and 1b; n=1) and 3 (subtype 3a; n=1). The HBsAg-reactive sample was HBV DNA positive and genotype A. These findings highlight the necessity of public policies to control hepatitis B and C infections and emphasize the importance of hepatitis B vaccination in prison environments.
    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 01/2013; 46(1):24-9. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protective anti-HBs titres were examined six-year post-immunisation with the Brazilian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. After the primary vaccination, all adolescents (n = 89) responded with protective anti-HBs titres and had a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 4031.8 mIU/mL. In 2010, 94.5% maintained protective anti-HBs (> 10 mIU/mL) antibodies, with a GMT of 236.0 mIU/mL. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-HBs titres after the primary vaccination and the titres at the six-year follow-up (p < 0.01). Eleven subjects showed anti-HBs titres suggestive of a natural booster. Prostitution and tattoos/piercings were marginally associated with natural boosters in the multivariate analysis. This study showed the first data on anti-HBs persistence following the Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine in sexually active individuals and highlights its effectiveness in the medium term.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 12/2012; 107(8):1060-3. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    AIDS patient care and STDs 10/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and tuberculosis (TB) represent major public health problems. There is currently little data on HBV infection among TB patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess HBV prevalence among TB patients with and without HIV. From April 2008 to March 2010, a cross-sectional study was conduct among TB patients attended at a reference hospital in Goiânia City, Brazil. The participants were tested for serological markers of HBV infection and HIV antibodies. HBV DNA was detected in HBsAg-positive samples, and also in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive samples to look for HBV occult infection. Of 425 patients, 402 (94.6%) agreed to participate in the study. The overall prevalence of HBV (HBsAg and/or anti-HBc positive) and HIV infections were 25.6% (103/402) and 27.6% (111/402), respectively. A higher HBV infection rate was found among HIV-infected patients (36.9%; 41/111) compared to patients infected with TB only (20.0%; 57/285). A multivariate analysis of risk factors showed that age ≥ 50 years (p=0.03), non-injecting (p<0.01) and injecting (p<0.01) drugs use were associated with HBV infection. Among the HBsAg-positive samples (n=13), HBV DNA was detected in 10 (76.9%) samples. Of the 90 anti-HBc-positive samples, 13 were HBV DNA positive (with very low levels) resulting in an occult HBV infection rate of 14.4%. PCR-RFLP was successfully performed in 20 HBV DNA-positive samples: 15 were genotype A and 5 were genotype D. HBV infection was common, particularly among this with HIV infection.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 05/2012; 54(4):327-31. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Goiânia City, Goiás State, Brazil. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, risk factors, HCV genotype/ subtype, HCV viral load and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in patients with tuberculosis (TB) in Central Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 402 patients who were under tuberculosis (TB) treatment in the reference hospital for infectious diseases in Goiânia, Goiás, Central Brazil. The prevalence rates of HCV and HIV were respectively 7.5% and 27.6%. Two thirds of the HCV-infected patients (20/30) were HIV-positive. Age, injecting drug use (IDU) and HIV status were factors independently associated with HCV infection. HCV RNA was detected in 23 serum samples; HCV RNA levels were measured in 22/23 samples. HCV RNA level was slightly higher in HCV-HIV co-infected patients than in HCV monoinfected patients. Genotypes 1 (n = 17) and 3 (n = 6) were determined by LiPA. Using phylogenetic tree analysis of the NS5B region, subtypes 1a (n = 12), 1b (n = 2) and 3a (n = 6) were identified. These data indicate that patients with TB may benefit from integrated HIV and HCV screening, which may have an important impact upon TB management and treatment.
    The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease: the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10/2011; 15(10):1397-402. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of infection with and the genotype of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and to determine the extent of underreporting of HCV cases. A total of 115,386 pregnant women seen by the Program for Protection of Pregnancy [Programa Estadual de Proteção à Gestante] of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, were tested for anti-HCV antibodies between 2005 and 2007. Prevalence of HCV infection was 1.07 cases per thousand. Positive samples were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Genotype 1 was detected in 73% of samples, genotype 3 in 24.3%, and genotype 2 in 2.7%. Underreporting of hepatitis C cases was 35.5%.
    Revista de saude publica 08/2011; 45(5):974-6. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leprosy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly endemic in some regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in central Brazil. The association of leprosy with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was assessed using a seroprevalence study and 191 leprosy outpatients were included. Demographic data and the clinical classification of leprosy were recorded. Evidence of previous HBV infection was present in 53 patients (27.7%, 95% confidence interval: 21.9-34.5) and two (1%) were HBsAg positive. Five (2.6%) had antibodies to HCV. The prevalence of previous exposure to HBV was higher than expected for an adult population in central Brazil. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was not much higher regarding the age range of participants. HBV markers were associated with a higher number of sex partners and the use of injections without proper sterilisation of the syringes. The number of HBV carriers was small, suggesting that there was no increased likelihood of chronification among these patients.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2011; 106(5):632-4. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it was suggested that maternal hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti-HBs) acquired transplacentally could play a negative role in newborn infants' immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. We compared the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine response in infants born to mothers previously vaccinated against HBV (n = 91) to infants born to mothers who were not previously vaccinated (n = 221). All newborn infants received three intramuscular doses (10 μg) of HBV vaccine (Butang®) at 0,1 and six months. The first dose was administered at the maternity hospital within 12 h of birth. The geometric mean titres of anti-HBs were not different among newborn infants born to mothers who were anti-HBs-negative (492.7 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs-positive (578.7 mIU/mL) (p = 0.38). Eight infants did not respond to the HBV vaccine. Of them, six were born to anti-HBs-negative mothers and two were born to mothers with anti-HBs titres less than 50 mlU/mL. Despite the mother's anti-HBs-positive status, our data show a good immunogenicity of the Brazilian HBV recombinant vaccine in neonates.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2011; 106(1):113-116. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it was suggested that maternal hepatitis B surface antigen antibodies (anti-HBs) acquired transplacentally could play a negative role in newborn infants' immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. We compared the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine response in infants born to mothers previously vaccinated against HBV (n = 91) to infants born to mothers who were not previously vaccinated (n = 221). All newborn infants received three intramuscular doses (10 μg) of HBV vaccine (Butang®) at 0,1 and six months. The first dose was administered at the maternity hospital within 12 h of birth. The geometric mean titres of anti-HBs were not different among newborn infants born to mothers who were anti-HBs-negative (492.7 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs-positive (578.7 mIU/mL) (p = 0.38). Eight infants did not respond to the HBV vaccine. Of them, six were born to anti-HBs-negative mothers and two were born to mothers with anti-HBs titres less than 50 mlU/mL. Despite the mother's anti-HBs-positive status, our data show a good immunogenicity of the Brazilian HBV recombinant vaccine in neonates.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2011; 106(1):113-6. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 01/2011; 22(4):313-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.
    Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 01/2011; 33(1):38-42.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among prison inmates in Campo Grande, MS. A total of 408 individuals were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, associated factors and HBV vaccination using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from all participants and serological markers for HBV were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive samples were tested for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 17.9% (95%CI: 14.4-22.0). The HBsAg carrier rate was 0.5%; 56 (13.7%) individuals had been infected and developed natural immunity and 15 (3.7%) were positive for anti-HBc only. Ninety eight (24%) prisoners had only anti-HBs, suggesting that they had low vaccine coverage. An occult HBV infection rate of 0% was verified among anti-HBc-positive individuals. Multivariate analysis of associated factors showed that age > 35 years-old, low schooling level and illicit drug use are significantly associated with HBV infection. Analysis of the data showed HBV infection prevalence similar or slightly lower than that reported in other of Brazilian prisons. Independent predictors of HBV infection in this population include older age, low schooling level and illicit drug use.
    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 10/2010; 43(5):512-5. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a are the most prevalent strains in Brazil, but very little is known about the epidemic history of these subtypes in the country. A total of 231 HCV NS5B gene sequences (subtype 1a=89, subtype 1b=56, and subtype 3a=86) isolated in Brazil between 1995 and 2007 were analyzed in the present study. Sequences (328-pb) were subjected to phylogenetic analyses and statistical tests of phylogenetic mixing by sampling location and risk group. Our results revealed important variations in the pattern of HCV transmission among subtypes. Transmission of subtype 1a was characterized by dissemination of one major Brazilian lineage with a random virus exchange between different geographical regions but not between IDU and non-IDU populations. Transmission of subtype 1b was characterized by concurrent dissemination of multiple HCV lineages with a restricted virus exchange between country regions and risk groups. Transmission of subtype 3a was characterized by simultaneous spreading of multiple HCV lineages and random phylogenetic mixing by risk group and sampling location. Epidemic histories of major subtypes 1a, 1b and 3a Brazilian clades were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Our results indicate that all major HCV Brazilian clades probably start to circulate in the country during the second half of the 20th century and displayed roughly similar epidemic histories characterized by an initial phase of exponential expansion and by reduction of growth rates since 1980-1995. This suggests that the expansion of HCV may have been effectively controlled in Brazil.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 10/2010; 10(7):886-95. · 3.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

490 Citations
139.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Universidade Federal de Goiás
      • • Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública (IPTSP)
      • • Faculdade de Enfermagem (FEN)
      Goianá, Goiás, Brazil
  • 2012
    • Universidade Federal do Ceará
      Ceará, Ceará, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT)
      • Faculdade de Ciências Médicas (FCM)
      Cuiabá, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • 2010
    • University of Brasília
      • Departamento de Biologia Celular (CEL)
      Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
  • 2009
    • UNIC - Universidade de Cuiabá
      Vila Real do Senhor Bom Jesus de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • 2003–2009
    • Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
      • Departamento de Farmácia Bioquímica (DFB)
      Campo Grande, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil