Ramesh Grandhi

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (21)72.09 Total impact

  • JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2014; 312(10):1057-1058. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a condition that may severely reduce patients' quality of life. We sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of thin-slice T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting vascular compression in HFS patients. Prospective information was collected on 28 patients with HFS who presented to our center between March 2011 and March 2012 with thin-slice T2 MR imaging. The sensitivity and specificity for differentiating patients from controls were calculated. Sensitivities were 78.6% and 92.9% for the blinded radiologists and 75% for the partially blinded neurosurgeon. Specificities were 42.9% and 28.6% for the blinded radiologists and 75% for the partially blinded neurosurgeon. Magnetic resonance imaging of the facial nerve can guide clinicians in selecting patients who are good surgical candidates. Thin-slice T2 MRI should be viewed as supportive rather than diagnostic. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 07/2014; · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Fenestrations of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are extremely rare. Associated aneurysms have only been documented three times in the literature, and none associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a 52 year-old female who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured saccular aneurysm at the proximal limb of a fenestrated right PCoA. The patient was also found to have bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Surgical management included surmising the etiology of the subarachnoid hemorrhage with subsequent clipping of both the right PCoA and MCA aneurysm. The potential embryological mechanisms leading to a PCoA fenestration are discussed.
    The International journal of neuroscience 04/2014; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two key discoveries in the 19th century-infection control and the development of general anesthesia-provided an impetus for the rapid advancement of surgery, especially within the field of neurosurgery. Improvements in anesthesia and perioperative care, in particular, fostered the development of meticulous surgical technique conducive to the refinement of neuroanatomical understanding and optimization of neurosurgical procedures and outcomes. Yet, even dating back to the earliest times, some form of anesthesia or perioperative pain management was used during neurosurgical procedures. Despite a few reports on anesthesia published around the time of William Morton's now-famous public demonstration of ether anesthesia in 1846, relatively little is known or written of early anesthetics in neurosurgery. In the present article the authors discuss the history of anesthesia pertaining to neurosurgical procedures and draw parallels between the refinements and developments in anesthesia care over time with some of the concomitant advances in neurosurgery.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 04/2014; 36(4):E2. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is often a routine but lifesaving neurosurgical procedure performed throughout the world. Misadventures involving the procedure are well documented throughout the literature. However, we present a unique case of middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm formation after EVD placement not before described and provide a review of the literature.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 02/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe procedural aspects and clinical outcomes in a consecutive series of patients in whom manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) was performed as the first treatment modality with other techniques used only in case MAT did not yield recanalization. A retrospective review of a prospectively acquired acute stroke intervention database was performed. Primary MAT was carried out with a preference for the largest catheter considered to be trackable into the target occlusive lesion. The catheter was wedged into the thrombus followed by manual aspiration with a 20 ml syringe. 112 consecutive patients were evaluated. The median age was 66 years and the median NIH Stroke Scale score was 17. Occlusion locations included the M1 (62%), M2 (8%), internal carotid artery terminus (19%) and the vertebrobasilar artery (11%). Patients with anterior occlusions had tandem extracranial/intracranial occlusive lesions in 18.7% Median time from symptom onset to groin puncture was 267 min, and from groin puncture to recanalization was 70 min. Successful recanalization (defined as Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 2b/3) with primary MAT was 59% with a median of two passes. 41% of patients required the use of adjunctive therapy yielding an overall recanalization rate of TICI 2b/3 (86%) and TICI 3 (30.6%). Parenchymal hematoma of any type (PH1/PH2) was seen in 9.8% of patients, with symptomatic hemorrhage in 6%. Favorable outcomes (90-day modified Rankin Scale ≤2) were 46%. Mortality at 3 months was 31%. Primary MAT was associated with faster procedural times (mean 63 vs 97 min, p<0.0001) but not with higher rates of favorable outcomes. Primary MAT is an alternative endovascular recanalization technique with reasonable first pass efficacy that will likely improve with technology and experience.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 01/2014; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has evolved to become an established, well-studied treatment modality for intracranial pathologies traditionally treated with more invasive neurosurgical management. As the field expands, among neurosurgeons and across multiple disciplines, resident training will become increasingly crucial. Methods In this review we reflect on 25 years of SRS at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and the development of formal training in this area at our institution. We describe the formal resident rotation, fellowship opportunities, and training courses for multidisciplinary physician teams and allied health professionals. Results The number of SRS cases performed annually has significantly increased in recent years, and indeed surpassed caseloads for certain more traditional surgeries. Residents report high rates of expectation for including SRS in future practice, yet participate in only a small fraction of annual cases. The formal PGY-3 rotation established at UPMC provides a way to expose and educate residents in this growing subspecialty within the confines of duty hour regulations. In combination with extended clinical elective opportunities and post-residency fellowships, this rotation prepares residents at our institution for the use of SRS in future clinical practice. Conclusion SRS is a rapidly expanding field that requires a unique skill set and current neurosurgical resident training often does not fully prepare trainees for its use in clinical practice. Focused resident training is necessary to ensure trainees are proficient in this specialty and well equipped to become leaders in the field.
    World Neurosurgery 01/2014; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiolipomas are benign tumors that usually occur in patients during their late teens or early twenties. Most are found as multiple lesions and often located on the arm or trunk. Although predominantly subcutaneous lesions, intraosseous angiolipomas are primarily found in the mandible and ribs, with one case involving the calvarium reported in the literature.
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2014; 5:79. · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • BMJ case reports. 01/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: Large vessel occlusive disease portends a poor prognosis unless recanalization is rapidly achieved. Endovascular treatment is typically performed via a transfemoral approach, but catheterization of the occluded vessel can be problematic in cases of extensive vessel tortuosity. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database identified 7 patients who underwent acute endovascular reperfusion therapy via transcervical approach. We identified 7 patients. Admission NIHSS ranged from 8-27 and recanalization occurred between 7-49 min of carotid access. Prior to carotid access, 20-90 min were spent attempting target vessel catheterization via the transfemoral approach. All occlusions were in the left MCA. In 87.5% of patient, TICI2b/3 recanalization was achieved. Neck hematoma formation occurred in one case requiring elective intubation. At 2 months followup, all patients had survived with mRS 0-4 except for one patient who had a large infarct despite recanalization. Transcervical access for acute ischemic stroke leads to rapid and high quality recanalization. Future studies will focus on improved hemostasis and early identification of patients who would benefit the most from direct carotid access for acute stroke.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 11/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complication rates of carotid artery stenting (CAS) vary from 3.0% to 4.4%, and most commonly include ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or groin complications. We present the rare complication of a patient who underwent CAS for a symptomatic 90% left internal carotid artery stenosis and developed an expanding cervical hematoma after the procedure with imminent respiratory compromise. After intubation, an arteriogram revealed perforation of the external carotid artery trunk, proximal to the origin of the internal maxillary artery. The artery was subsequently embolized and the hematoma resolved without further intervention. We present a potential catastrophic complication and suggest potential causes and treatment options available.
    Case Reports 08/2013; 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transfemoral arterial procedures rely on a variety of vascular closure methods. We studied closure success and complications after using the Mynx vascular closure device in cerebral neurovascular procedures. We prospectively analyzed patients undergoing diagnostic cerebral angiogram or neurointervention with arteriotomy closure using the Mynx device. Patient demographics and procedural factors were recorded. Statistical analyses compared groups and identified predictors of device failure and complication. A total of 766 patients, 59% women, mean age 55.5 years (SD 14.2), mean body mass index (BMI) 29.1 kg/m(2) (SD 7.4), underwent 937 neurovascular procedures in a 10 month period. Device success was achieved in 92% of patients; lower BMI, higher number of antithrombotic medications, larger sheath size, and performance of a neurointerventional procedure predicted Mynx failure. Complications occurred in 2.45% of procedures, with older age, lower BMI, higher number of antithrombotic medicines used, higher international normalized ratio, lower platelet count, and Mynx device failure conferring an increased risk of complication. The Mynx device is safe and effective for cerebral neurovascular procedures. However, specific patient populations may warrant particular attention and thorough consideration of risks and benefits prior to employing the Mynx device for femoral arteriotomy closure.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) are rare and potentially devastating. First-line management involves intravenous antibiotics, with surgical or endovascular management reserved for cases of failed medical treatment or aneurysmal rupture. Endovascular therapy has become the primary approach for treating these small, distally located aneurysms. Liquid embolic agents are well suited for use because of their ability to fill the aneurysm and parent vessel. We present our experience in treating these aneurysms via Onyx embolization and review the literature. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the endovascular treatment of IIAs at our institution from 2010 to 2012. Eight patients with 16 IIAs ranging in size from 1 to 16 mm underwent treatment. Seven of the patients initially presented after aneurysmal rupture. Onyx was pushed until the aneurysm and parent artery were filled. Confirmation of aneurysmal occlusion was made by repeat cerebral angiography. RESULTS: One symptomatic stroke occurred after embolization. Fourteen of the 16 aneurysms have been evaluated with follow-up angiography and remain occluded. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of IIAs using an endovascular approach with Onyx is safe and effective.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 05/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 04/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by neoplasms of the sebaceous gland or keratoacanthomas, in addition to visceral malignancies. Cerebral neoplasms in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or familial adenomatous polyposis suffer from Turcot's syndrome. Genetic mutations in MutS homolog (MSH)-2, MutL homolog (MLH)-1, and MutS homolog (MSH)-6 DNA mismatch repair genes are the most common in MTS with MSH-2 being the most predominant. In HNPCC MLH-1 and MSH-2 mutations are approximately equal in prevalence. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a prior history of being treated for colonic adenocarcinoma and skin lesions leading to a diagnosis of MTS. The patient later developed a World Health Organization (WHO) grade 4 glioma requiring surgical resection. Pathology revealed mutations in MSH-2 and MSH-6 mismatch repair genes. This case represents the first report of Turcot's and MTS with extensive molecular testing on the cerebral neoplasm demonstrating a molecular relationship between Turcot's and MTS and only the second published report of simultaneous Turcot's and MTS.
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2013; 4:52. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evolution in techniques and equipment has expanded the role, effectiveness, and safety of endovascular transarterial embolization for the treatment of severe epistaxis. Risks from this treatment approach include major ischemic complications. To date, there have been only a few reports of soft tissue necrosis following endovascular embolization for severe epistaxis; none involve the use of Onyx-18. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with epistaxis that was refractory to medical and surgical management, which lead to endovascular intervention and embolization with Onyx-18. The patient subsequently developed nasal ala and facial necrosis as a result of the procedure. We report the use of Onyx-18 for the endovascular embolization of a patient with severe epistaxis and subsequent complications. In cases of severe epistaxis that warrant intervention in the form of embolization, ischemic complications are rare; however, ischemic complications may be unavoidable and should factor into the discussion regarding procedural risks.
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2013; 4:95. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : As the US population ages, the number of elderly individuals on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications at risk for traumatic injury grows. Previous studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes in this demographic have yielded conflicting results. : We performed a retrospective analysis of elderly TBI patients ( ≥65 years) with evidence of brain hemorrhage on computed tomography (CT) scan at our institution from 2006-2010. Patient demographics, injury severity, clinical course, length of stay, and disposition were collected. Statistical analyses were performed to compare groups and identify predictors of mortality, complication, infection, neurosurgical intervention, and hemorrhage progression. : 1552 patients were identified with 543 aspirin only (AO), 97 clopidogrel only (CO), 218 warfarin only (WO), 193 clopidogrel/aspirin (CA), and 501 patients on no antithrombotic medication (NAT). Significant differences existed in abbreviated injury score (AIS) (P = 0.012), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (P = 0.013), and Marshall score (P < 0.001) at time of presentation. Blood products were administered to reverse coagulopathy in 77.3% of patients. After adjusting for covariates, including medication reversal, antithrombotic use was associated with increased mortality (P = 0.03); WO use conferred greater odds of mortality than preinjury use of antiplatelet agents (OR 2.53, P = 0.003), which did not influence mortality (P = 0.622). Rates of neurosurgical interventions (P = 0.677) did not differ between groups. Survivor subset analysis demonstrated that CT-identified hemorrhage progression was not associated with preinjury antithrombotic therapy, nor were rates of complication or infection development, hospital/ICU LOS, ventilator days, or discharge disposition. When stratifying for severe and moderate TBI only, use of antithrombotics did not affect outcomes. : Preinjury use of warfarin, but not antiplatelet medications, influences survival in elderly patients admitted with TBI. Hemorrhage progression, neurosurgical interventions, and morbidity are not affected. The importance of antithrombotic therapy seems to lie in its impact on initial injury severity, which in turn, is predictive of increased morbidity and mortality.
    Neurosurgery 08/2012; 71(2):E559-60. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To better establish the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in treating patients with 10 or more intracranial metastases, the authors assessed clinical outcomes and identified prognostic factors associated with survival and tumor control in patients who underwent radiosurgery using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGK PFX) unit. The authors retrospectively reviewed data in all patients who had undergone LGK PFX surgery to treat 10 or more brain metastases in a single session at the University of Pittsburgh. Posttreatment imaging studies were used to assess tumor response, and patient records were reviewed for clinical follow-up data. All data were collected by a neurosurgeon who had not participated in patient care. Sixty-one patients with 10 or more brain metastases underwent SRS for the treatment of 806 tumors (mean 13.2 lesions). Seven patients (11.5%) had no previous therapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery was the sole prior treatment modality in 8 patients (13.1%), 22 (36.1%) underwent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) only, and 16 (26.2%) had prior SRS and WBRT. The total treated tumor volume ranged from 0.14 to 40.21 cm(3), and the median radiation dose to the tumor margin was 16 Gy. The median survival following SRS for 10 or more brain metastases was 4 months, with improved survival in patients with fewer than 14 brain metastases, a nonmelanomatous primary tumor, controlled systemic disease, a better Karnofsky Performance Scale score, and a lower recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Prior cerebral treatment did not influence survival. The median survival for a patient with fewer than 14 brain metastases, a nonmelanomatous primary tumor, and controlled systemic disease was 21.0 months. Sustained local tumor control was achieved in 81% of patients. Prior WBRT predicted the development of new adverse radiation effects. Stereotactic radiosurgery safely and effectively treats intracranial disease with a high rate of local control in patients with 10 or more brain metastases. In patients with fewer metastases, a nonmelanomatous primary lesion, controlled systemic disease, and a low RPA class, SRS may be most valuable. In selected patients, it can be considered as first-line treatment.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 05/2012; 117(2):237-45. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since Lars Leksell conceived of the Gamma Knife in the mid-20th century, it has become a fundamental strategy for managing intracranial tumors. The Gamma Knife harnesses around 200 focused beams of ionizing radiation that are directed stereotactically onto an intracranial target, destroying or inactivating it, all while sparing surrounding tissues. Today, a patient can have numerous intracranial tumors treated by radiosurgery in a minimally invasive fashion, during a single outpatient encounter, and return to usual activities the next day. Gamma Knife radiosurgery has found applications for nearly all intracranial tumors, either as a primary strategy or adjunctive therapy. In no area has Gamma Knife radiosurgery had a larger impact than in the treatment of brain metastases. In this article, we review the evolution of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, discuss current indications for the treatment of intracranial tumors and highlight how the future treatment of metastatic brain cancer may change.
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 04/2012; 12(4):437-45. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors encountered by physicians. Historically, the mainstays of therapy were limited to surgery and whole brain radiation. Surgery is typically reserved for safely accessible and symptomatic tumors in patients well enough to tolerate a procedure. Whole-brain radiation therapy has proven to have limited efficacy and concerns have arisen regarding its toxicity. Advances in the treatment of systemic cancers have yielded improved long-term survival and quality of life for patients. To parallel these efforts in systemic treatment, continual improvement of the treatment of brain metastases is a must. The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in the thinking about metastatic brain tumor treatment as a result of the advent of stereotactic radiosurgery. Radiosurgery has proven to be an efficacious, minimally invasive, and highly selective treatment for metastatic brain tumors. In this review, we discuss the evolution of metastatic brain tumor management, the appropriately diminished role for reflexive whole brain radiation, and the growing importance of stereotactic radiosurgery as an upfront treatment modality in conjunction with surgery and subsequent salvage radiosurgery.
    Progress in neurological surgery 01/2012; 25:287-308.