Ramesh Grandhi

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (37)96.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Conventional cerebral angiography is a commonly performed procedure in medicine. Vascular closure devices have been developed as alternatives to manual compression at the arteriotomy site and prolonged bed rest. The risks of using these devices include arterial dissection, groin hematoma, and device failure. Herein, we describe our experience with the use of a novel device used for arterial access and closure, the AXERA 2 Access System. A total of 13 patients underwent vascular access and closure with the AXERA 2 Access System. Arterial access using the AXERA 2 Access System was achieved in 11 of 13 patients. Amongst the patients with successful access, one patient experienced a groin hematoma requiring manual compression and two patients suffered occlusions of the common femoral artery due to dissections, with both patients requiring femoral artery thromboendarterectomies. This small series highlights a heretofore underreported serious complication rate of the AXERA 2 Access System. Additional studies are warranted to provide further insight into risk factors for device failure and complication development. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Interventional Neuroradiology 05/2015; 21(3). DOI:10.1177/1591019915582163 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Femoral artery injuries are known complications of percutaneous vascular closure devices (VCDs). We studied the incidence of delayed femoral artery angiographic irregularities after neurointerventional procedures in which the EXOSEAL extravascular closure device was used for femoral arterial puncture closure. Adult patients who underwent femoral arterial puncture closures with an EXOSEAL VCD and had a follow-up femoral artery angiogram from June 2012 through August 2013 were reviewed. A blinded radiologist compared pre-deployment and follow-up femoral arteriograms for the presence of femoral artery stenosis, dissection, pseudoaneurysm, or development of an arteriovenous fistula. Hospital records were reviewed for major or minor complications of the groin site or femoral artery. The EXOSEAL VCD achieved hemostasis, without evidence of a groin hematoma or requiring subsequent prolonged manual compression, in 400 of 441 closures following transfemoral arterial access, representing a device success rate of 90.7%. A total of 98 patients underwent 102 repeat angiograms following closure with the EXOSEAL VCD. The average time to the repeat angiogram was 73.5 days (range 0-488, median 28). Follow-up femoral arteriography demonstrated an irregularity in seven cases, all of which were vessel stenoses of <50%. There were no dissections, pseudoaneurysms, infections, or ischemic events in the study population. Angiographic irregularities were seen in 6.86% of cases after closure with the EXOSEAL VCD. There were no clinically significant vascular complications. Thus, femoral artery closure with EXOSEAL carries a low risk of clinically significant delayed angiographic findings. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Interventional Neuroradiology 05/2015; 21(3). DOI:10.1177/1591019915581776 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECT Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the calvarial sutures fuses prematurely. In addition to the cosmetic ramifications attributable to premature suture fusion, aberrations in neurophysiological parameters are seen, which may result in more significant damage. This work examines the microstructural integrity of white matter, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a homogeneous strain of rabbits with simple, familial coronal suture synostosis before and after surgical correction. METHODS After diagnosis, rabbits were assigned to different groups: wild-type (WT), rabbits with early-onset complete fusion of the coronal suture (BC), and rabbits that had undergone surgical correction with suturectomy (BC-SU) at 10 days of age. Fixed rabbit heads were imaged at 12, 25, or 42 days of life using a 4.7-T, 40-cm bore Avance scanner with a 7.2-cm radiofrequency coil. For DTI, a 3D spin echo sequence was used with a diffusion gradient (b = 2000 sec/mm(2)) applied in 6 directions. RESULTS As age increased from 12 to 42 days, the DTI differences between WT and BC groups became more pronounced (p < 0.05, 1-way ANOVA), especially in the corpus callosum, cingulum, and fimbriae. Suturectomy resulted in rabbits with no significant differences compared with WT animals, as assessed by DTI of white matter tracts. Also, it was possible to predict to which group an animal belonged (WT, BC, and BC-SU) with high accuracy based on imaging data alone using a linear support vector machine classifier. The ability to predict to which group the animal belonged improved as the age of the animal increased (71% accurate at 12 days and 100% accurate at 42 days). CONCLUSIONS Craniosynostosis results in characteristic changes of major white matter tracts, with differences becoming more apparent as the age of the rabbits increases. Early suturectomy (at 10 days of life) appears to mitigate these differences.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 05/2015; 38(5):E3. DOI:10.3171/2015.2.FOCUS14849 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complications associated with intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator agents for the treatment of vasospasm associated with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm are extremely rare. We present the case of a patient who developed left lower extremity monoplegia following intra-arterial infusion of verapamil for treatment of diffuse cerebral vasospasm, 6 days after initially undergoing treatment of a ruptured right A1-2 junction aneurysm. A repeat angiogram following this intra-arterial vasodilator treatment demonstrated a coil loop which had herniated into the right A2 artery. Herein, we describe a previously unreported complication which occurred following intra-arterial pharmacologic vasospasm treatment, review the existing literature, and suggest potential causes and treatment options. © IMechE 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Interventional Neuroradiology 05/2015; 21(2). DOI:10.1177/1591019915581990 · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Ramesh Grandhi, Lori A Shutter, David O Okonkwo
    JAMA Internal Medicine 05/2015; 175(5):866. DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0298 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes in elderly patients on oral antithrombotic (OAT) therapies have yielded conflicting results. Our objective was to examine the effect of premorbid OAT medications on outcomes among elderly TBI patients with intracranial hemorrhage. We performed a retrospective analysis of elderly TBI patients (≥65 years) with closed head injury and evidence of brain hemorrhage on computed tomography scan from 2006 to 2010. Patient demographics, injury severity, clinical course, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and disposition were collected. Comparison of patients stratified by premorbid OAT use was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare groups and identify predictors of primary outcomes, including mortality, neurosurgical intervention, hemorrhage progression, complications, and infection. A total of 1,552 patients were identified: 543 on aspirin only, 97 on clopidogrel only, 218 on warfarin only, 193 on clopidogrel and aspirin, and 501 on no antithrombotic agent. Blood products were administered to reverse coagulopathy in 77.3% of patients on antithrombotic medications. After adjusting for covariates, including medication reversal, OAT use was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.04). Warfarin use was identified as a key predictor (odds ratio, 2.27; p = 0.05), in contrast to the preinjury use of antiplatelet medications, which was not associated with increased risk of in-hospital death. Rates of neurosurgical intervention differed between groups, with patients on warfarin undergoing intervention more frequently. Survivor subset analysis demonstrated that hemorrhage progression was not associated with preinjury antithrombotic therapy, nor were rates of complication or infection, hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay, or ventilator days. Preinjury use of warfarin, but not antiplatelet medications, influences survival and need for neurosurgical intervention in elderly TBI patients with intracranial hemorrhage; hemorrhage progression and morbidity are not affected. The importance of antithrombotic therapy may lie in its impact on initial injury severity. Epidemiologic study, level III.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 03/2015; 78(3):614-21. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000542 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In previous studies, collagen based matrices have been implanted into the site of lesion in different models of brain injury. We hypothesized that semisynthestic collagen matrix can have neuroprotective function in the setting of traumatic brain injury. Methods: Rats were subjected to sham injury or controlled cortical impact. They either received extracellular matrix graft (DuraGen) over the injury site or did not receive any graft and underwent beam balance/beam walking test at post injury days 1-5 and Morris water maze at post injury days 14-18. Animals were sacrificed at day 18 for tissue analysis. Results: Collagen matrix implantation in injured rats did not affect motor function (beam balance test: p = 0.627, beam walking test: p = 0.921). However, injured group with collagen matrix had significantly better spatial memory acquisition (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in lesion volume, as well as neuronal loss in CA1 (p < 0.001) and CA3 (p < 0.05) regions of the hippocampus in injured group with collagen matrix (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Collagen matrix reduces contusional lesion volume, neuronal loss, and cognitive deficit after traumatic brain injury. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of neuroprotection by collagen matrix.
    Restorative neurology and neuroscience 01/2015; 33(2). DOI:10.3233/RNN-140430 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose To assess Onyx (Covidien, Irvine, California, United States) efficacy as a preoperative embolic agent for neoplasms of the head, neck, and spine, and to compare angiographic and histologic evidence of tumor penetration as predictors of intraoperative blood loss. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of preoperative Onyx embolization procedures for treatment of head, neck, and spine tumors from 2009 to 2011. Patient demographics and information relating to the embolization procedure and operation were recorded. Measures of Onyx efficacy included intraoperative blood loss and length of surgery. Angiographic and histologic penetration, in addition to percentage of tumor devascularization, were assessed as predictors of efficacy. Results A total of 22 patients with 17 head or neck and 5 spinal lesions underwent trans-arterial preoperative Onyx embolization. Good angiographic penetration was reported in 41% of tumors and central histologic penetration in 59%, with mean tumor devascularization of 85.3% (standard deviation [SD]: 12.6%). There was no relationship between angiographic and histologic Onyx penetrance. Mean surgical blood loss was 1342 mL (SD: 1327 mL), and length of surgery was 289 minutes (SD: 162 minutes). Neither angiographic, nor histologic Onyx penetration predicted intraoperative blood loss (p = 0.38 and p = 0.32, respectively) or surgical length (p = 0.62 and 0.90, respectively). Devascularization was not associated with blood loss (p = 0.62), but it was a negative predictor of surgical length (p = 0.013). Conclusions Preoperative Onyx embolization of head, neck, and spine tumors is capable of deep histologic tumor penetration, even when not visualized on angiography. The lack of association between measures of procedural adequacy suggests that using angiographic devascularization as a measure of procedural efficacy may be of limited utility. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    01/2015; DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1394191
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Impaired perioperative nutritional status has been shown to be an important predictor of surgical morbidity and is the earliest marker of nutritional deficiency. No study, however, has examined serum prealbumin as a surrogate marker of nutritional status in patients undergoing spine surgery. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients who developed a postoperative deep wound infection after undergoing spine surgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from January 2008 through December 2011. Demographics, preoperative diagnosis, type of surgery, perioperative serum prealbumin level, time to infection, number and type of debridement procedures, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results A total of 83 patients had prealbumin levels available at the time of presentation of infection. Mean patient age was 56 years, and 71% were women. Surgical treatment for the infection required between 1 and 13 debridements, and 21 (25%) of the 83 patients who had instrumentation placed at the time of the initial surgery required removal of their instrumentation. Inpatient hospitalizations were extended by an average of 13 days. Prealbumin levels were below normal in 82 (99%) of the 83 patients; levels were < 7 mg/dL in 24 patients, between 7 and 11 mg/dL in 32 patients, and between 11 and 19 mg/dL in 26 patients. Conclusions All patients except one who developed postoperative deep wound infection after spine surgery had serum prealbumin levels in the malnutrition range at the time of presentation. The current study suggests serum prealbumin levels may be an inexpensive screening biomarker for nutritional status and risk stratification for postoperative infection after spine surgery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    01/2015; 76(02). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1394188
  • Case Reports 11/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2014-206130
  • Case Reports 10/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1136/bcr-2014-207486
  • JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2014; 312(10):1057-1058. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.8748 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over last 20 years, extracellular matrices have been shown to be useful in promoting tissue regeneration. Recently, they have been used and have had success in achieving neurogenesis. Recent developments in extracellular matrix design have allowed their successful in vivo incorporation to engender an environment favorable for neural regeneration in animal models. Promising treatments under investigation include manipulation of the intrinsic extracellular matrix and incorporation of engineered naometer-sized scaffolds through which inhibition of molecules serving as barriers to neuroregeneration and delivery of neurotrophic factors and/or cells for successful tissue regeneration can be achieved. Further understanding of the changes incurred within the extracellular matrix following central nervous system injury will undoubtedly help design a clinically efficacious extracellular matrix scaffold that can mitigate or reverse neural degeneration in the clinical setting.
    Neural Regeneration Research 09/2014; 9(17):1573-7. DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.141778 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a condition that may severely reduce patients' quality of life. We sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of thin-slice T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting vascular compression in HFS patients. Prospective information was collected on 28 patients with HFS who presented to our center between March 2011 and March 2012 with thin-slice T2 MR imaging. The sensitivity and specificity for differentiating patients from controls were calculated. Sensitivities were 78.6% and 92.9% for the blinded radiologists and 75% for the partially blinded neurosurgeon. Specificities were 42.9% and 28.6% for the blinded radiologists and 75% for the partially blinded neurosurgeon. Magnetic resonance imaging of the facial nerve can guide clinicians in selecting patients who are good surgical candidates. Thin-slice T2 MRI should be viewed as supportive rather than diagnostic. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 09/2014; 29(10). DOI:10.1002/mds.25947 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has evolved to become an established, well-studied treatment modality for intracranial pathologies traditionally treated with more invasive neurosurgical management. As the field expands, among neurosurgeons and across multiple disciplines, resident training will become increasingly crucial. Methods In this review we reflect on 25 years of SRS at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and the development of formal training in this area at our institution. We describe the formal resident rotation, fellowship opportunities, and training courses for multidisciplinary physician teams and allied health professionals. Results The number of SRS cases performed annually has significantly increased in recent years, and indeed surpassed caseloads for certain more traditional surgeries. Residents report high rates of expectation for including SRS in future practice, yet participate in only a small fraction of annual cases. The formal PGY-3 rotation established at UPMC provides a way to expose and educate residents in this growing subspecialty within the confines of duty hour regulations. In combination with extended clinical elective opportunities and post-residency fellowships, this rotation prepares residents at our institution for the use of SRS in future clinical practice. Conclusion SRS is a rapidly expanding field that requires a unique skill set and current neurosurgical resident training often does not fully prepare trainees for its use in clinical practice. Focused resident training is necessary to ensure trainees are proficient in this specialty and well equipped to become leaders in the field.
    World Neurosurgery 09/2014; 82(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.05.016 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Angiolipomas are benign tumors that usually occur in patients during their late teens or early twenties. Most are found as multiple lesions and often located on the arm or trunk. Although predominantly subcutaneous lesions, intraosseous angiolipomas are primarily found in the mandible and ribs, with one case involving the calvarium reported in the literature.Case Description:We report the case of a 55-year-old male who presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, and double vision and was found to a right frontal intraosseous lesion. He was also found to have invasive ductal breast carcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a resection and the lesion was found to be an angiolipoma.Conclusion:We report a rare case of a calvarialangiolipoma in the setting of a male with invasive ductal breast carcinoma and a review of the literature.
    Surgical Neurology International 05/2014; 5:79. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.133304 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Fenestrations of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are extremely rare. Associated aneurysms have only been documented three times in the literature, and none associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a 52 year-old female who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured saccular aneurysm at the proximal limb of a fenestrated right PCoA. The patient was also found to have bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Surgical management included surmising the etiology of the subarachnoid hemorrhage with subsequent clipping of both the right PCoA and MCA aneurysm. The potential embryological mechanisms leading to a PCoA fenestration are discussed.
    The International journal of neuroscience 04/2014; 125(2). DOI:10.3109/00207454.2014.918119 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two key discoveries in the 19th century-infection control and the development of general anesthesia-provided an impetus for the rapid advancement of surgery, especially within the field of neurosurgery. Improvements in anesthesia and perioperative care, in particular, fostered the development of meticulous surgical technique conducive to the refinement of neuroanatomical understanding and optimization of neurosurgical procedures and outcomes. Yet, even dating back to the earliest times, some form of anesthesia or perioperative pain management was used during neurosurgical procedures. Despite a few reports on anesthesia published around the time of William Morton's now-famous public demonstration of ether anesthesia in 1846, relatively little is known or written of early anesthetics in neurosurgery. In the present article the authors discuss the history of anesthesia pertaining to neurosurgical procedures and draw parallels between the refinements and developments in anesthesia care over time with some of the concomitant advances in neurosurgery.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 04/2014; 36(4):E2. DOI:10.3171/2014.2.FOCUS13578 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is often a routine but lifesaving neurosurgical procedure performed throughout the world. Misadventures involving the procedure are well documented throughout the literature. However, we present a unique case of middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm formation after EVD placement not before described and provide a review of the literature.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 02/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1111/jon.12080 · 1.82 Impact Factor