[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The available passive mode of periodontal infections in mice requires high efficiency of bacterial attachment and invasiveness and is not always suitable to test the pathogenicity of genetically engineered mutant strains. We developed an active mode of oral infection, using microinjection in the marginal gingiva of mice, to test the pathogenicity of a genetically engineered Treponema denticola mutant strain deficient in intermediate-like filaments, compared to the wild-type strain. This targeted mode of infection inoculates the bacterial strain to be tested directly at a lesion site (needle entry point) located at the future periodontal lesion site. The efficiency of T. denticola wild-type strain to elicit bone loss contrasted with the lack of pathogenicity of the intermediate-like filament deficient mutant strain in comparison to the sham infection. The periodontal microinjection oral model in mice can be used for a variety of applications complementary to the passive mode of periodontal infection in context of pathogenicity testing.
International Journal of Dentistry 07/2012; 2012:549169. DOI:10.1155/2012/549169
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe early childhood caries (ECC) results from bacterial acid production in an acidic environment. The purpose of this study was to determine Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and acid-tolerant counts in severe early childhood caries.
Two- to 6-year-olds with severe-ECC (N=77) or who were caries-free (N=40) were examined. Plaque samples from teeth and the tongue were cultured anaerobically on blood, acid, and S. mutans selective agars. Severe-ECC children were monitored post-treatment for recurrent caries.
Severe-ECC and caries-free children were balanced by household income and education level. Carious lesions were observed in 75% maxillary incisors and >80% molars in severe-ECC. At baseline, S. mutans, and S. sobrinus counts and proportions of S mutans were higher in severe-ECC than caries-free children. Acid and blood counts were elevated only in anterior samples of severe-ECC children. Baseline counts of S. sobrinus, but not S. mutans, were higher in children with recurrent compared with no recurrent caries. S. mutans counts were lower following treatment than pretreatment, particularly for children without caries recurrence. Other counts did not differ between before and after therapy.
Severe and recurrent early childhood caries was better explained by mutans streptococci than the aciduric microbiota. Streptococcus mutans did not predict children with recurrent caries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the treatment outcome of scaling and root planing (SRP) in combination with systemic antibiotics, local antibiotic therapy and/or periodontal surgery.
One hundred and eighty-seven patients were assigned to eight groups treated by SRP plus none, one, two or three adjunctive treatments and monitored for 24 months in a randomized controlled clinical trial using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Systemic amoxicillin + metronidazole (SMA), local tetracycline delivery (LTC) and periodontal surgery (SURG) were evaluated as adjuncts. Changes in clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD) were statistically evaluated by ancova of main effects.
Effects of adjunctive therapy to SRP were minimal at 3 months. Between 3 and 6 months PPD reduction occurred particularly in patients receiving periodontal surgery. After 6 months, both CAL gain and PPD reduction reached a plateau that was maintained at 24 months in all groups. The 24-month CAL gain was improved by SMA (0.50 mm) while PPD was reduced by SMA (0.51 mm) and SURG (0.36 mm). Smoking reduced CAL gain and PPD reduction.
Patients receiving adjunctive therapies generally exhibited improved CAL gain and/or PPD reduction when compared with the outcome of SRP alone. Only additive, not synergistic effects of the various adjunctive therapies were observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This study compares the changes to the subgingival microbiota of individuals with "refractory" periodontitis (RP) or treatable periodontitis (good responders [GR]) before and after periodontal therapy by using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) analysis. Methods: Individuals with chronic periodontitis were classified as RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and 15 months after treatment and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM analysis. Significant differences in taxa before and post-therapy were sought using the Wilcoxon test. Results: The majority of species evaluated decreased in prevalence in both groups after treatment; however, only a small subset of organisms was significantly affected. Species that increased or persisted in high frequency in RP but were significantly reduced in GR included Bacteroidetes sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Tannerella forsythia, Dialister spp., Selenomonas spp., Catonella morbi, Eubacterium spp., Filifactor alocis, Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus sp. OT113, Fusobacterium sp. OT203, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Streptococcus intermedius or Streptococcus constellatus, and Shuttlesworthia satelles. In contrast, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Gemella haemolysans, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Kingella oralis, Lautropia mirabilis, Neisseria elongata, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus australis, and Veillonella spp. were more associated with therapeutic success. Conclusion: Persistence of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, as well as low prevalence of beneficial species was associated with chronic refractory periodontitis.
Journal of Periodontology 02/2012; 83(10):1279-87. DOI:10.1902/jop.2012.110566 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of oral infections. Here, we investigate the effect of PDT on human dental plaque bacteria in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a positive or negative charge and red light at 665 nm.
Dental plaque samples were obtained from 14 patients with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from seven patients were sensitized with anionic, cationic PLGA nanoparticles (50 µg/ml equivalent to MB) or free MB (50 µg/ml) for 20 min followed by exposure to red light for 5 min with a power density of 100 mW/cm2 . Polymicrobial oral biofilms, which were developed on blood agar in 96-well plates from dental plaque inocula obtained from seven patients, were also exposed to PDT as above. Following the treatment, survival fractions were calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units.
The cationic MB-loaded nanoparticles exhibited greater bacterial phototoxicity in both planktonic and biofilm phase compared to anionic MB-loaded nanoparticles and free MB, but results were not significantly different (P > 0.05).
Cationic MB-loaded PLGA nanoparticles have the potential to be used as carriers of MB for PDT systems.
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 09/2011; 43(7):600-6. DOI:10.1002/lsm.21069 · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe early childhood caries (ECC) is difficult to treat successfully. This study aimed to characterize the microbiota of severe ECC and evaluate whether baseline or follow-up microbiotas are associated with new lesions post-treatment. Plaque samples from 2- to 6-year-old children were analyzed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray and by PCR for selected taxa. Severe-ECC children were monitored for 12 months post-therapy. By microarray, species associated with severe-ECC (n = 53) compared with caries-free (n = 32) children included Slackia exigua (p = 0.002), Streptococcus parasanguinis (p = 0.013), and Prevotella species (p < 0.02). By PCR, severe-ECC-associated taxa included Bifidobacteriaceae (p < 0.001), Scardovia wiggsiae (p = 0.003), Streptococcus mutans with bifidobacteria (p < 0.001), and S. mutans with S. wiggsiae (p = 0.001). In follow-up, children without new lesions (n = 36) showed lower detection of taxa including S. mutans, changes not observed in children with follow-up lesions (n = 17). Partial least-squares modeling separated the children into caries-free and two severe-ECC groups with either a stronger bacterial or a stronger dietary component. We conclude that several species, including S. wiggsiae and S. exigua, are associated with the ecology of advanced caries, that successful treatment is accompanied by a change in the microbiota, and that severe ECC is diverse, with influences from selected bacteria or from diet.
Journal of dental research 08/2011; 90(11):1298-305. DOI:10.1177/0022034511421201 · 4.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on infected human teeth ex vivo.
Fifty-two freshly extracted teeth with pulpal necrosis and associated periradicular radiolucencies were obtained from 34 subjects. Twenty-six teeth with 49 canals received chemomechanical debridement (CMD) with 6% NaOCl, and 26 teeth with 52 canals received CMD plus PDT. For PDT, root canal systems were incubated with methylene blue (MB) at concentration of 50 μg/mL for 5 minutes, followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm with an energy fluence of 30 J/cm(2). The contents of root canals were sampled by flushing the canals at baseline and after CMD alone or CMD+PDT and were serially diluted and cultured on blood agar. Survival fractions were calculated by counting colony-forming units (CFUs). Partial characterization of root canal species at baseline and after CMD alone or CMD+PDT was performed by using DNA probes to a panel of 39 endodontic species in the checkerboard assay.
The Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test for treatment effects demonstrated the better performance of CMD+PDT over CMD (P = .026). CMD+PDT significantly reduced the frequency of positive canals relative to CMD alone (P = .0003). After CMD+PDT, 45 of 52 canals (86.5%) had no CFUs as compared with 24 of 49 canals (49%) treated with CMD (canal flush samples). The CFU reductions were similar when teeth or canals were treated as independent entities. Post-treatment detection levels for all species were markedly lower for canals treated by CMD+PDT than they were for those treated by CMD alone. Bacterial species within dentinal tubules were detected in 17 of 22 (77.3%) and 15 of 29 (51.7%) canals in the CMD and CMD+PDT groups, respectively (P = .034).
Data indicate that PDT significantly reduces residual bacteria within the root canal system, and that PDT, if further enhanced by technical improvements, holds substantial promise as an adjunct to CMD.
Journal of endodontics 02/2011; 37(2):217-22. DOI:10.1016/j.joen.2010.10.008 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection (culture, PCR), has also been associated with a widely diverse microbiota using molecular cloning
approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition
of dental plaque from 42 severe ECC children was compared with that of 40 caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured
anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained
from 5,608 isolates. Sequence-based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe ECC and
caries-free children had >90% population coverage, with greater diversity occurring in the blood isolate library. Isolate
sequences were compared with taxon sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and 198 HOMD taxa were identified,
including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa, and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated
with severe ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus, and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans detection. We conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as that observed using cloning
approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously
cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report is a further analysis of a study designed to determine clinical and microbial risk indicators for progressing periodontitis.
One hundred ninety subjects who were periodontally healthy or had early signs of periodontitis (age range: 20 to 40 years) were monitored clinically at 6-month intervals followed by supragingival cleaning. At each visit, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and blood were collected for determination of interleukin (IL)-1β content (in GCF) and IL-1 genotype (in blood). Interproximal sites with a >1.5-mm increase in clinical attachment over 18 months were considered disease active. Characteristics were compared between active and inactive subjects.
IL-1β levels in GCF increased with the severity of disease and correlated well with clinical signs of incipient disease. However, the IL-1 genotype did not show any significant associations with disease or the extent of disease.
Indicators of inflammation may be important clinical determinants of future periodontal disease progression, but the IL-1 genotype was not a risk indictor for early (slight) periodontitis as defined in this subject population.
Journal of Periodontology 11/2010; 82(4):588-96. DOI:10.1902/jop.2010.100443 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the in vitro effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with the photosensitizer methylene blue (MB) and light against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212).
The uptake and distribution of nanoparticles in E. faecalis in suspension was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after incubation with PLGA complexed with colloidal gold particles for 2.5, 5, and 10 minutes. E. faecalis species were sensitized in planktonic phase and in experimentally infected root canals of human extracted teeth with MB-loaded nanoparticles for 10 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm.
The nanoparticles were found to be concentrated mainly on the cell walls of microorganisms at all three time points. The synergism of light and MB-loaded nanoparticles led to approximately 2 and 1 log10 reduction of colony-forming units (CFUs) in planktonic phase and root canals, respectively. In both cases, mean log10 CFU levels were significantly lower than controls and MB-loaded nanoparticles without light.
The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with photoactive drugs may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial endodontic treatment.
Journal of endodontics 02/2010; 36(2):322-8. DOI:10.1016/j.joen.2009.10.011 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to measure levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers and subgingival bacterial species in periodontally healthy subjects and subjects with periodontitis to explore the relationships among these biomarkers, the subgingival microbiota, and the clinical parameters of periodontal disease.
Clinical periodontal parameters were measured at six sites per tooth in 20 subjects with periodontitis and 20 periodontally healthy subjects. GCF and subgingival plaque samples were obtained from the mesio-buccal aspect of every tooth. GCF levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase 8 were measured using checkerboard immunoblotting, and the levels of 40 bacterial taxa were quantified using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. A subset of "clinically healthy" sites from each group was analyzed separately. The significance of the differences between groups was determined using the unpaired t test or the Mann-Whitney test. Correlations among immunologic, microbiologic, and clinical data were determined using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.
There were positive correlations among mean clinical parameters, mean levels of the three biomarkers, and the proportions of orange and red complex species (P <0.05). Clinically healthy sites from subjects with periodontitis had higher levels of IL-1beta and IL-8 and higher proportions of orange and red complex species (P <0.05) than clinically healthy sites from periodontally healthy subjects. Red complex species were positively associated with the expression of all biomarkers (P <0.05), whereas purple and yellow complex species had negative correlations with IL-1beta and IL-8 (P <0.05).
Clinically healthy sites from subjects with periodontitis have higher levels of GCF biomarkers and periodontal pathogens than clinically healthy sites from periodontally healthy subjects. Different microbial complexes demonstrated distinct associations with specific GCF biomarkers.
Journal of Periodontology 01/2010; 81(1):89-98. DOI:10.1902/jop.2009.090397 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro synergistic effect of methylene blue (MB) and red light on human gingival fibroblasts and osteoblasts with parameters similar to those that may be applied in a clinical setting for endodontic disinfection.
Both cell types were sensitized with 50 microg/mL MB followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm for 5 minutes with an irradiance of 10, 20, and 40 mW/cm(2). After photodynamic therapy (PDT), cell viability and mitochondrial activity were evaluated by the neutral red and MTT assay, respectively. The assessment of PDT-induced apoptosis was investigated by western blot analysis using cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-specific antibodies.
Light at 20 and 40 mW/cm(2) with MB had modest effects at 24 hours on osteoblasts in both assays, whereas sodium hypochlorite completely eliminated cells. Western blot analysis revealed no signs of apoptosis in either cell type.
The data suggest that there is a safe therapeutic window whereby PDT can inactivate endodontic pathogens without affecting host cell viability.
Journal of endodontics 11/2009; 35(11):1567-72. DOI:10.1016/j.joen.2009.08.002 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GRs = good responders) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM).
At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 subjects with periodontitis and 20 individuals with PH and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The subjects with periodontitis were classified as having RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or more than three sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GRs (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among the groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis and chi(2) tests.
More species were detected in patients with disease (GR or RP) than in those without disease (PH). Subjects with RP were distinguished from GRs or those with PH by a significantly higher frequency of putative periodontal pathogens, such as Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., and Eikenella corrodens, as well as unusual species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon [OT] 346/356, Bacteroidetes sp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium timidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, and Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) (P <0.05). Species that were more prevalent in subjects with PH than in patients with periodontitis included Actinomyces sp. OT 170, Actinomyces spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa/mucilaginosa, and Streptococcus sanguinis (P <0.05).
As determined by HOMIM, patients with RP presented a distinct microbial profile compared to patients in the GR and PH groups.
Journal of Periodontology 09/2009; 80(9):1421-32. DOI:10.1902/jop.2009.090185 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the photodynamic effects of methylene blue on multispecies root canal biofilms comprising Actinomyces israelii, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia in experimentally infected root canals of extracted human teeth in vitro. The 4 test microorganisms were detected in root canals by using DNA probes. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of biofilms in root canals before therapy. Root canal systems were incubated with methylene blue (25 microg/mL) for 10 minutes followed by exposure to red light at 665 nm with an energy fluence of 30 J/cm(2). Light was delivered from a diode laser via a 250-microm diameter polymethyl methacrylate optical fiber that uniformly distributed light over 360 degrees. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) achieved up to 80% reduction of colony-forming unit counts. We concluded that PDT can be an effective adjunct to standard endodontic antimicrobial treatment when the PDT parameters are optimized.
Journal of endodontics 07/2008; 34(6):728-34. DOI:10.1016/j.joen.2008.03.011 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease in the oral cavity, which culminates in alveolar bone loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a consensus periodontal pathogen that has been implicated in adult forms of periodontitis. We previously demonstrated that IL-10-deficient mice exhibit a hyperinflammatory phenotype and are highly susceptible to P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, indicating an important anti-inflammatory effect of IL-10 in suppressing bone loss. In this study, we analyzed the pathway(s) by which IL-10 deficiency leads to severe P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis. Because Stat3 is essential in IL-10 signaling, immune cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice were subjected to P. gingivalis infection to identify the key IL-10-responsive cells in preventing periodontitis. Myeloid cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice exhibited increased periodontal bone loss (p < 0.001), whereas T cell- and B cell-specific Stat3 mice were resistant, suggesting that macrophages (MP) and/or polymorphonuclear leukocytes are the key target cells normally suppressed by IL-10. Myeloid cell-specific Stat3-deficient mice exhibited elevated gingival CD40L gene expression in vivo compared with wild-type controls (p < 0.01), and Stat3-deficient MPs exhibited vigorous P. gingivalis-stimulated IL-12 production in vitro and induced elevated Ag-specific T cell proliferation compared with wild-type MPs (p < 0.01). Of importance, both IL-12p40/IL-10 and T cell/IL-10 double-deficient mice were resistant to P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis, demonstrating roles for both IL-12p40 and T cells in pathogenesis in a hyperinflammatory model of disease. These data demonstrate that P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis in IL-10-deficient mice is dependent upon IL-12p40-mediated proinflammatory T cell responses.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2008; 180(9):6193-8. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.180.9.6193 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the use of a flexible fiber optic that uniformly distributed light in the root canal space for targeting bacteria after their sensitization with methylene blue (MB). In the present study, we investigated the photodynamic effects of MB on Enterococcus faecalis species in experimentally infected root canals of extracted teeth after their sensitization with a concentration of MB that exhibits reduced dark toxicity.
In a model of root canal infection, 64 root canal specimens were prepared from extracted, single-rooted teeth and inoculated with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Three days later root canal infection was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The root canal systems were then incubated with 6.25 microg/ml MB for 5 minutes followed by exposure to light at 665 nm (60 J/cm(2)) that was delivered from a diode laser via a fiber optic with a diameter of 500 microm. Following photodynamic therapy (PDT) the canal content was sampled by flushing the root canals, serially diluted and cultured on blood agar. Survival fractions were calculated by counting colony-forming units. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine the porphyrins content of E. faecalis.
Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of bacteria in the root canal system. PDT achieved 77.5% reduction of E. faecalis viability. MB alone and light alone reduced bacterial viability by 19.5% and 40.5%, respectively. HPLC did not reveal any porphyrin patterns expressed by E. faecalis.
The results of this study support the need to determine the optimum MB concentration and light parameters to maximize bacterial killing in root canals.
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 12/2007; 39(10):782-7. DOI:10.1002/lsm.20579 · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought clinical and microbial risk indicators for progressing slight periodontitis.
One hundred and seventeen periodontally healthy or slight periodontitis adults (20-40 years) were monitored clinically at 6-month intervals followed by supragingival cleaning. Inter-proximal sites with >1.5 mm increase in clinical attachment over 18 months were considered disease active. Subgingival plaque was analysed by 78 16S rDNA and 38 whole-genomic DNA probes and by PCR to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. Characteristics were compared between active and inactive subjects.
Twenty-two subjects showed disease activity principally at molars. Mean baseline gingival and plaque indices, bleeding on probing, probing depth and clinical attachment level (CAL) were higher in active subjects. DNA probes detected species and not-yet-cultivated phylotypes from chronic periodontitis, although few species were associated with active subjects. By PCR P. gingivalis (p=0.007) and T. forsythia (p=0.075) were detected more frequently during monitoring in active subjects. Stepwise logistic analysis associated baseline levels of gingival index, clinical attachment and bleeding with subsequent clinical attachment loss.
Gingivitis and CAL were significantly associated with progressing slight periodontitis in 20--40-year-old adults. Species associated with moderate and advanced chronic periodontitis were detected in slight periodontitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photomechanical waves (PW), the product of an intense light beam interaction with a target material, enhance molecular delivery
across biological membranes and skin. The ability to deliver methylene blue (MB), a fluorescent probe and photosensitizer,
into bacterial biofilms was demonstrated by applying PW on saliva-derived multi-species biofilms that were developed on agar
surfaces in 24-well plates. PW were generated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and were directed into the biofilms in the presence
of 25μg/ml MB. The biofilms were then irradiated with red light at 665nm. After illumination, adherent bacteria were scraped
and spread over the surface of blood agar plates. Survival fractions were calculated by counting bacterial colonies. Microbial
analysis was performed via a colony lift method and a DNA checkerboard assay using whole genomic probes to 40 oral microorganisms.
Visual analysis by confocal scanning laser microscopy demonstrated that the application of PW enhanced the penetration depth
of MB in biofilms. Exposure to MB, PW and light led to a significant reduction of the mean levels of log10 CFU counts compared with the group that received MB and light (P=0.006). The DNA checkerboard assay showed some benefit from PW-assisted phototargeting in 25 biofilm microorganisms relative
to phototreatment alone. Our data provide a basis for further exploration and optimization of PW parameters for complete eradication
of microorganisms in oral microcosm biofilms.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2007; 23(11):1637-1646. DOI:10.1007/s11274-007-9411-x · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The undesired movement of anchor teeth, and relapse of previously moved teeth, are major clinical problems in orthodontics. Dental implants are increasingly used to preserve anchorage, but these are costly and require invasive surgical procedures. An alternative strategy for maintaining anchorage may be the use of biological inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present study, we investigated the relative efficacy of pamidronate vs. osteoprotegerin (OPG) in inhibiting bone resorption and tooth movement, using a new orthodontic model in mice in which maxillary molars are moved for prolonged periods by near-constant, clinically relevant forces. Osteoclast influx to compression sites was initiated on day 3, was maximal on day 4, and persisted until at least day 12 after force application. Tooth movement paralleled osteoclast numbers. Minimal osteoclast apoptosis was observed, suggesting that recruitment, rather than programmed cell death, is a critical regulatory mechanism under conditions of constant force. Osteoclasts were reduced at compression sites by both OPG (95%) and pamidronate (70%); tooth movement was more dramatically inhibited by OPG (77% vs. 34%). Our findings indicate that constant orthodontic force regulates the recruitment, activation, and viability of osteoclasts, and that OPG could have clinical utility in preventing undesired tooth movement.
European Journal Of Oral Sciences 05/2007; 115(2):131-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.2007.00433.x · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontal diseases affect over half the adults in the U.S., disproportionately affecting minority populations. Periodontitis can be treated in early stages, but it is not clear what features indicate, or could be risk factors for, early stages of periodontal attachment loss. This study aimed to evaluate associations between clinical and other risk indicators of early periodontitis.
A cross-sectional evaluation of 225 healthy and early periodontitis adults aged 20 to 40 years was performed. Clinical measurements, demographic information, and smoking histories were recorded. Analyses evaluated demographic and clinical associations with health and early periodontitis disease categories and periodontal attachment loss. Patterns of attachment loss at interproximal and buccal/lingual sites were evaluated.
Subject age, plaque, and measures of gingivitis exhibited associations with attachment loss and probing depth. More periodontal attachment loss was detected in African-American and Hispanic subjects compared to Asian and Caucasian subjects. Smoking history was associated with attachment loss. At interproximal sites, lower molars most frequently had attachment loss, whereas at buccal/lingual sites, higher proportions of lower bicuspid teeth demonstrated attachment loss compared with other sites.
In this study of subjects with minimal attachment loss, gingival inflammation was associated with early periodontitis. Lower molar interproximal sites were frequently associated with interproximal attachment loss, whereas lower bicuspid teeth were at risk for gingival recession on buccal surfaces.
Journal of Periodontology 05/2005; 76(4):573-81. DOI:10.1902/jop.2005.76.4.573 · 2.71 Impact Factor