R T Higashida

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (315)1193.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is often stratified by degree of stenosis. Additional features such as patient demographics and symptom characteristics also affect lesion behavior and response to treatment. This study compares stratification by degree of narrowing to these additional features.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 6 Suppl 1:A7. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although many intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are straightforward to treat, de novo and rapidly progressive ("runaway" or "malignant") DAVFs are more complex, often requiring multiple treatment sessions with suboptimal results. As these are rare entities, we sought to review our experience in the treatment of de novo and progressive DAVFs in order to better understand predictors of disease progression.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2014; 6 Suppl 1:A47. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms "fenestration" or "fenestrated" with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms.
    06/2014; 20(3):261-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are rare and complex congenital arteriovenous fistulas. The clinical and radiological features of VOGMs and their relation to clinical outcomes are not fully characterized. To examine the clinical and radiological features of VOGMs and the predictors of outcome in patients. We retrospectively reviewed the available imaging and medical records of all patients with VOGMs treated at the University of California, San Francisco between 1986 and 2013. Radiological and clinical features were identified. We applied the modified Rankin Scale to determine functional outcome by chart review. Predictors of outcome were assessed by χ(2) analyses. Forty-one cases were confirmed as VOGM. Most patients (78%) had been diagnosed with VOGM in the first year of life. Age at treatment was bimodally distributed, with predominantly urgent embolization at <10 days of age and elective embolization after 1 year of age. Patients commonly presented with hydrocephalus (65.9%) and congestive heart failure (61.0%). Mixed-type (31.7%) VOGM was more common in our cohort than purely mural (29.3%) or choroidal (26.8%) types. The most common feeding arteries were the choroidal and posterior cerebral arteries. Transarterial embolization with coils was the most common technique used to treat VOGMs at our institution. Functional outcome was normal or only mildly disabled in 50% of the cases at last follow-up (median=3 years, range=0-23 years). Younger age at first diagnosis, congestive heart failure, and seizures were predictive of adverse clinical outcome. The survival rate in our sample was 78.0% and complete thrombosis of the VOGM was achieved in 62.5% of patients. VOGMs continue to be challenging to treat and manage. Nonetheless, endovascular approaches to treatment are continuing to be refined and improved, with increasing success. The neurodevelopmental outcomes of affected children whose VOGMs are treated may be good in many cases.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 04/2014; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different types of symptomatic intracranial stenosis may respond differently to interventional therapy. We investigated symptomatic and pathophysiologic factors that may influence clinical outcomes of patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease who were treated with stents. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated with stents for intracranial atherosclerosis at 4 centers. Patient demographics and comorbidities, lesion features, treatment features, and preprocedural and postprocedural functional status were noted. χ(2) univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess technical results and clinical outcomes. One hundred forty-two lesions in 131 patients were analyzed. Lesions causing hypoperfusion ischemic symptoms were associated with fewer strokes by last contact [χ(2) (1, n = 63) = 5.41, P = .019]. Nonhypoperfusion lesions causing symptoms during the 14 days before treatment had more strokes by last contact [χ(2) (1, n = 136), 4.21, P = .047]. Patients treated with stents designed for intracranial deployment were more likely to have had a stroke by last contact (OR, 4.63; P = .032), and patients treated with percutaneous balloon angioplasty in addition to deployment of a self-expanding stent were less likely to be stroke free at point of last contact (OR, 0.60; P = .034). More favorable outcomes may occur after stent placement for lesions causing hypoperfusion symptoms and when delaying stent placement 7-14 days after most recent symptoms for lesions suspected to cause embolic disease or perforator ischemia. Angioplasty performed in addition to self-expanding stent deployment may lead to worse outcomes, as may use of self-expanding stents rather than balloon-mounted stents.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The imaging characteristics and modes of presentation of brain AVMs may vary with patient age. Our aim was to determine whether clinical and angioarchitectural features of brain AVMs differ between children and adults. A prospectively collected institutional data base of all patients diagnosed with brain AVMs since 2001 was queried. Demographic, clinical, and angioarchitecture information was summarized and analyzed with univariable and multivariable models. Results often differed when age was treated as a continuous variable as opposed to dividing subjects into children (18 years or younger; n = 203) versus adults (older than 18 years; n = 630). Children were more likely to present with AVM hemorrhage than adults (59% versus 41%, P < .001). Although AVMs with a larger nidus presented at younger ages (mean of 26.8 years for >6 cm compared with 37.1 years for <3 cm), this feature was not significantly different between children and adults (P = .069). Exclusively deep venous drainage was more common in younger subjects when age was treated continuously (P = .04) or dichotomized (P < .001). Venous ectasia was more common with increasing age (mean, 39.4 years with ectasia compared with 31.1 years without ectasia) and when adults were compared with children (52% versus 35%, P < .001). Patients with feeding artery aneurysms presented at a later average age (44.1 years) than those without such aneurysms (31.6 years); this observation persisted when comparing children with adults (13% versus 29%, P < .001). Although children with brain AVMs were more likely to come to clinical attention due to hemorrhage than adults, venous ectasia and feeding artery aneurysms were under-represented in children, suggesting that these particular high-risk features take time to develop.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast staining of brain parenchyma identified on non-contrast CT performed after DSA in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is an incompletely understood imaging finding. We hypothesize contrast staining to be an indicator of brain injury and suspect the fate of involved parenchyma to be cerebral infarction. Seventeen years of AIS data were retrospectively analyzed for contrast staining. Charts were reviewed and outcomes of the stained parenchyma were identified on subsequent CT and MRI. Thirty-six of 67 patients meeting inclusion criteria (53.7%) had contrast staining on CT obtained within 72 hours after DSA. Brain parenchyma with contrast staining in patients with AIS most often evolved into cerebral infarction (81%). Hemorrhagic transformation was less likely in cases with staining compared with hemorrhagic transformation in the cohort that did not have contrast staining of the parenchyma on post DSA CT (6% versus 25%, respectively, OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.017 - 0.98, p = 0.02). Brain parenchyma with contrast staining on CT after DSA in AIS patients was likely to infarct and unlikely to hemorrhage.
    Interventional Neuroradiology 02/2014; 20(1):106-15. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare malignancy affecting the pediatric population. Intravenous chemotherapy is the longstanding delivery method, although intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy is gaining popularity given the reduced side effects compared with systemic chemotherapy administration. Given the sensitivity of the target organ, patient age, and secondary tumor susceptibility, a premium has been placed on minimizing procedural related radiation exposure. To reduce patient x-ray dose during the IA infusion procedure, customized surgical methods and fluoroscopic techniques were employed. The routine fluoroscopic settings were changed from the standard 7.5 pulses/s and dose level to the detector of 36 nGy/pulse, to a pulse rate of 4 pulses/s and detector dose to 23 nGy/pulse. The angiographic dose indicators (reference point air kerma (Ka) and fluoroscopy time) for a cohort of 10 consecutive patients (12 eyes, 30 infusions) were analyzed. An additional four cases (five eyes, five infusions) were analyzed using dosimeters placed at anatomic locations to reflect scalp, eye, and thyroid dose. The mean Ka per treated eye was 20.1±11.9 mGy with a mean fluoroscopic time of 8.5±4.6 min. Dosimetric measurements demonstrated minimal dose to the lens (0.18±0.10 mGy). Measured entrance skin doses varied from 0.7 to 7.0 mGy and were 73.4±19.7% less than the indicated Ka value. Ophthalmic arterial melphalan infusion is a safe and effective means to treat RB. Modification to contemporary fluoroscopic systems combined with parsimonious fluoroscopy can minimize radiation exposure.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 01/2014; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose Endovascular sampling and characterization from patients can provide very useful information about the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, but it has been much limited by the lack of an effective method of endothelial cell (EC)enrichment. We optimized the EC yield and enrichment from conventional guide wires by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) techniques, and addressed the feasibility of using these enriched ECs for downstream gene expression detection. Methods Iliac artery endovascular samples from 10 patients undergoing routine catheter angiography were collected using conventional 0.038 inch J-shape guide wires. Each of the samples were equally divided into two parts, which were respectively used for EC enrichment by immunocytochemistry -coupled LCM or multiple color FACS. After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, the amplified cDNA were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Fixed ECs, with positive CD31 or vWF fluorescent signal and endothelial like nucleus, were successfully separated by LCM and live single ECs were sorted on FACS by a seven color staining panel. EC yields by LCM and FACS were 51 ± 22 and 149 ± 56 respectively (P < 0.001). The minimum number of fixed ECs from ICC-coupled LCM for acceptable qPCR results of endothelial marker genes was 30, while acceptable qPCR results as enriched by FACS were attainable from a single live EC. Conclusion Both LCM and FACS can be used to enrich ECs from conventional guide wires and the enriched ECs can be used for downstream gene expression detection. FACS generated a higher EC yield and the sorted live ECs may be used for single cell gene expression detection.
    Journal of Biotechnology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The absence of safe and reliable methods to harvest vascular tissue in situ limits the discovery of the underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of many vascular disorders such as aneurysms. We investigated the feasibility and comparable efficacy of endothelial cell collection using a spectrum of endovascular coils. Nine detachable coils ranging in k coefficient (0.15-0.24), diameter (4.0 mm-16.0 mm), and length (8.0 cm-47.0 cm) were tested in pigs. All coils were deployed and retrieved within the iliac artery of pigs (three coils/pig). Collected coils were evaluated under light microscopy. The total and endothelial cells collected by each coil were quantified. The nucleated cells were identified by Wright-Giemsa and DAPI stains. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells were identified by CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin antibody staining. Coils were deployed and retrieved without technical difficulty. Light microscopy demonstrated sheets of cellular material concentrated within the coil winds. All coils collected cellular material while five of nine (55.6%) coils retrieved endothelial cells. Coils collected mean endothelial cell counts of 89.0±101.6. Regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between increasing coil diameter and endothelial cell counts (R(2)=0.52, p = 0.029). Conventional detachable coils can be used to harvest endothelial cells. The number of endothelial cells collected by a coil positively correlated with its diameter. Given the widespread use of coils and their well-described safety profile their potential as an endovascular biopsy device would expand the availability of tissue for cellular and molecular analysis.
    Interventional Neuroradiology 12/2013; 19(4):399-408. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer for liquid embolization of cranial vascular lesions has resulted in microcatheter fragments entrapped in patients following endovascular procedures. Undergoing subsequent diagnostic MRI examinations poses a safety concern due to the possibility of radiofrequency heating of the metallic braid incorporated into the microcatheter. Heating of nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) braided microcatheters was assessed and compared using a phantom model. METHODS: Microcatheters coupled with fluoroptic temperature probes were embedded in a polyacrylamide gel within a head and torso phantom. Experiments were performed at 1.5 T and 3 T, analyzing the effects of different catheter immersion lengths, specific absorption rate (SAR) levels, short clinical scans, long clinical scans, and microcatheter fragment lengths. RESULTS: The maximal increase in temperature for the nitinol braided microcatheter during a 15 min scan was 3.06°C using the T1 fast spin echo sequence at 1.5 T and 0.45°C using the balanced steady state free precession sequence at 3 T. The same scans for fragment lengths of 9, 18, 36, and 72 cm produced maximal temperature rises of 0.68, 0.80, 1.70, and 1.07°C at 1.5 T, respectively. The temperature changes at 3 T for these fragment lengths were 0.66, 0.83, 1.07, and 0.72°C, respectively. The tungsten and PEEK braided microcatheters did not demonstrate heating. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial heating of nitinol braided microcatheters occurred and was a function of SAR level and geometric considerations. SAR and time limitations on MR scanning are proposed for patients with this microcatheter entrapped in their vasculature. In contrast, tungsten and PEEK braided microcatheters showed potential safe use in MRI.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 05/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the global impact and advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases, the term "stroke" is not consistently defined in clinical practice, in clinical research, or in assessments of the public health. The classic definition is mainly clinical and does not account for advances in science and technology. The Stroke Council of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association convened a writing group to develop an expert consensus document for an updated definition of stroke for the 21st century. Central nervous system infarction is defined as brain, spinal cord, or retinal cell death attributable to ischemia, based on neuropathological, neuroimaging, and/or clinical evidence of permanent injury. Central nervous system infarction occurs over a clinical spectrum: Ischemic stroke specifically refers to central nervous system infarction accompanied by overt symptoms, while silent infarction by definition causes no known symptoms. Stroke also broadly includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The updated definition of stroke incorporates clinical and tissue criteria and can be incorporated into practice, research, and assessments of the public health.
    Stroke 05/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The role of catheter angiography in the diagnosis and management of traumatic cerebrovascular injury has evolved rapidly with advances in CT and MR angiography and continued development of endovascular techniques. OBJECTIVE: To identify the modern spectrum of traumatic arterial injury encountered during catheter neuroangiography and to examine current patterns of endovascular treatment. METHODS: Records of trauma patients undergoing catheter neuroangiography over a 4 year period at two high volume centers were retrospectively reviewed. The sample comprised 100 separate arterial lesions that were classified according to mechanism, location, acuity, and endovascular treatment. Follow-up imaging and clinical notes were reviewed to identify procedural complications. RESULTS: Of 100 arterial lesions, 81% were related to blunt trauma. Distribution of lesions by location was 42% intracranial, 39% cervical, and 19% extracranial. The most common injuries were pseudoaneurysm (38%), fistula (29%), and dissection (19%). In total, 41% of lesions underwent endovascular treatment, with trends favoring treatment of non-acute, penetrating, non-cervical, and high grade lesions. Therapy involved coil embolization for 89% of treated lesions. There were a total of two immediate neurovascular complications and one delayed neurovascular complication; one of these resulted in a permanent neurological deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience in a large cohort of patients suggests that a relatively high proportion of traumatic arterial lesions identified by catheter angiography are treated by endovascular means, with a low rate of immediate and delayed neurovascular complications.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 01/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ACTA2 mutations have recently been shown to cause a multisystem smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome that may result in pediatric stroke. We report a case of ACTA2 mutation in a 3-year-old girl presenting with acute ischemic stroke and provide high resolution imaging of the cerebral arteries demonstrating novel findings of multiple tiny aneurysms (particularly in the posterior circulation), as well as the more characteristic imaging phenotype of straightened and narrowed proximal intracranial vessels, dilated cervical vessels and occlusion of the M1 MCA segment without lenticulostriate collateral formation. This newly identified disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of pediatric stroke and cerebral vasculopathy. Neuroradiologists, interventionalists, surgeons and neurologists should become familiar with this rare disease and its clinical sequelae.
    Case Reports 01/2013; 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: We report here results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study ( http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT00558311) that investigated the effect of clazosentan (5 mg/h, n = 768) or placebo (n = 389) administered for up to 14 days in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) repaired by surgical clipping. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, new cerebral infarction or delayed ischemic neurological deficit due to vasospasm, and rescue therapy for vasospasm. The main secondary endpoint was the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), which was dichotomized. Twenty-one percent of clazosentan- compared to 25% of placebo-treated patients met the primary endpoint (relative risk reduction [RRR] [95% CI]: 17% [-4% to 33%]; p = 0.10). Poor outcome (GOSE score ≤ 4) occurred in 29% of clazosentan- and 25% of placebo-treated patients (RRR: -18% [-45% to 4%]; p = 0.10). In prespecified subgroups, mortality/vasospasm-related morbidity was reduced in clazosentan-treated patients by 33% (8-51%) in poor WFNS (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons) grade (≥III) and 25% (5-41%) in patients with diffuse, thick SAH. Lung complications, anemia and hypotension occurred more frequently with clazosentan. Mortality (week 12) was 6% in both groups. The results showed that clazosentan nonsignificantly decreased mortality/vasospasm-related morbidity and nonsignificantly increased poor functional outcome in patients with aneurysmal SAH undergoing surgical clipping.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 01/2013; 115:27-31.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Can lysability of large vessel thrombi in acute ischemic stroke be predicted by measuring clot density on admission nonenhanced CT (NECT), postcontrast enhanced CT, or CT angiogram (CTA)? METHODS: We retrospectively studied 90 patients with acute large vessel ischemic strokes treated with intravenous (IV) tPA, intra-arterial (IA) tPA, and/or mechanical thrombectomy devices. Clot density [in Hounsfield unit (HU)] was measured on NECT, postcontrast enhanced CT, and CTA. Recanalization was assessed by the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grading system (TICI) on digital subtraction angiography. RESULTS: Thrombus density on preintervention NECT correlated with postintervention TICI grade regardless of pharmacological (IV tPA r=0.69, IA tPA r=0.72, P<0.0001) or mechanical treatment (r=0.73, P<0.0001). Patients with TICI≥2 demonstrated higher HU on NECT (mean corrected HU IV tPA=1.58, IA tPA=1.66, mechanical treatment=1.7) compared with patients with TICI<2 (IV tPA=1.39, IA tPA=1.4, mechanical treatment=1.3) (P=0.01, 0.006, <0.0001 respectively). There was no association between recanalization and age, sex, baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, treatment method, time to treatment, or clot volume. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombi with lower HU on NECT appear to be more resistant to pharmacological lysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Measuring thrombus density on admission NECT provides a rapid method to analyze clot composition, a potentially useful discriminator in selecting the most appropriate reperfusion strategy for an individual patient.
    Stroke 10/2012; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. According to the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, there are now 750,000 new strokes that occur each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths, or 1 of every 16 deaths, per year in the United States alone. Endovascular therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke is an area of intense investigation. The American Stroke Association has given a qualified endorsement of intra-arterial thrombolysis in selected patients. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has been studied in 2 randomized trials and numerous case series. Although 2 devices have been granted FDA phase 3 approval with an indication for mechanical stroke thrombectomy, none of these thrombectomy devices has demonstrated efficacy for the improvement of patient outcomes. The purpose of the present document is to define what constitutes adequate training to perform neuroendovascular procedures in patients with acute ischemic stroke and what performance standards should be adopted to assess outcomes. These guidelines have been written and approved by multiple neuroscience societies that historically have been directly involved in the medical, surgical and endovascular care of patients with acute stroke. These organizations include the Neurovascular Coalition and its participating societies, including the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Cerebrovascular Section (AANS/CNS), and Society of Vascular & Interventional Neurology (SVIN).
    Neurology 09/2012; 79(13 Suppl 1):S234-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NGAVFs are rare vascular malformations usually presenting in infancy or childhood. We sought to identify clinical and angiographic predictors of clinical outcome for these lesions. Retrospective review of a neurointerventional data base identified 386 pediatric patients with intracranial AVFs and AVMs, from which a cohort of 25 patients with NGAVF were selected for medical record and imaging analysis. NGAVFs constituted 7.3% of pediatric intracranial vascular lesions with a nondural arteriovenous shunt. Seven of 8 patients who presented in the first month of life had CHF and harbored large, complex fistulas with multiple sites of arteriovenous shunting. Single-hole fistulas predominated later in childhood and more frequently presented with seizures, hemorrhage, or focal neurologic deficits. More treatment procedures were performed in subjects presenting at ≤2 years of age compared with older children (median = 3 versus 2, P = .041), and in those harboring a multi-hole fistula versus those with a single-hole fistula (median = 3 versus 2, P = .003). Eighteen patients (72%) had complete posttreatment elimination of NGAVF shunting. Compared with patients presenting at >2 years of age, patients presenting in the first 2 years of life were more likely to have a multi-hole fistula (100% versus 25%, P = .0001) and to have a poor clinical outcome (54% versus 0%, P = .0052), defined as a pediatric mRS of ≥3. The morbidity of NGAVF appears higher than previously reported despite a somewhat higher rate of angiographic cure. Poor clinical outcome occurred primarily in patients with multi-hole NGAVFs presenting at ≤2 years of age.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 07/2012; 33(9):1710-9. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare, non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic vasculopathy typically affecting the abdominal arteries although it may also affect the great vessels and cerebral vasculature. Diseased vessels manifest with aneurysms and/or dissections, often presenting clinically with catastrophic thromboembolic injury and less frequently with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The etiology of SAM remains indeterminate although there is evidence it may be an endogenous pathological response to vasospasm. The SAM literature is reviewed and a case of SAH related to a ruptured dissecting-type vertebral artery aneurysm is described. In addition to furthering awareness of SAM, this unique case offers insight into the acute phase of the disease and the potential role of vasospastic induction.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 06/2012; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current US guideline statements regarding primary and secondary cardiovascular risk prediction and prevention use absolute risk estimates to identify patients who are at high risk for vascular disease events and who may benefit from specific preventive interventions. These guidelines do not explicitly include patients with stroke, however. This statement provides an overview of evidence and arguments supporting (1) the inclusion of patients with stroke, and atherosclerotic stroke in particular, among those considered to be at high absolute risk of cardiovascular disease and (2) the inclusion of stroke as part of the outcome cluster in risk prediction instruments for vascular disease. Writing group members were nominated by the committee co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the AHA Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews (covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010), reference to previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard AHA criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. The guideline underwent extensive AHA internal peer review, Stroke Council leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. There are several reasons to consider stroke patients, and particularly patients with atherosclerotic stroke, among the groups of patients at high absolute risk of coronary and cardiovascular disease. First, evidence suggests that patients with ischemic stroke are at high absolute risk of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or sudden death, approximating the ≥20% absolute risk over 10 years that has been used in some guidelines to define coronary risk equivalents. Second, inclusion of atherosclerotic stroke would be consistent with the reasons for inclusion of diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and other atherosclerotic disorders despite an absence of uniformity of evidence of elevated risks across all populations or patients. Third, the large-vessel atherosclerotic subtype of ischemic stroke shares pathophysiological mechanisms with these other disorders. Inclusion of stroke as a high-risk condition could result in an expansion of ≈10% in the number of patients considered to be at high risk. However, because of the heterogeneity of stroke, it is uncertain whether other stroke subtypes, including hemorrhagic and nonatherosclerotic ischemic stroke subtypes, should be considered to be at the same high levels of risk, and further research is needed. Inclusion of stroke with myocardial infarction and sudden death among the outcome cluster of cardiovascular events in risk prediction instruments, moreover, is appropriate because of the impact of stroke on morbidity and mortality, the similarity of many approaches to prevention of stroke and these other forms of vascular disease, and the importance of stroke relative to coronary disease in some subpopulations. Non-US guidelines often include stroke patients among others at high cardiovascular risk and include stroke as a relevant outcome along with cardiac end points. Patients with atherosclerotic stroke should be included among those deemed to be at high risk (≥20% over 10 years) of further atherosclerotic coronary events. Inclusion of nonatherosclerotic stroke subtypes remains less certain. For the purposes of primary prevention, ischemic stroke should be included among cardiovascular disease outcomes in absolute risk assessment algorithms. The inclusion of atherosclerotic ischemic stroke as a high-risk condition and the inclusion of ischemic stroke more broadly as an outcome will likely have important implications for prevention of cardiovascular disease, because the number of patients considered to be at high risk would grow substantially.
    Stroke 05/2012; 43(7):1998-2027. · 6.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
1,193.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2014
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Neurological Surgery
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Toronto
      • • Division of Neurosurgery
      • • Saint Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1986–2012
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Radiology
      Kansas City, MO, United States
    • St.Mary's Hospital (Fukuoka - Japan)
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2010–2011
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Neurology, The Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2009
    • American Academy of Neurology
      American Fork, Utah, United States
  • 2006
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Columbus, OH, United States
  • 2005
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2000
    • Royal Perth Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1996
    • Wakayama Medical University
      Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan
  • 1989
    • Fukuoka University
      • Department of Radiology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan