[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to describe the value of pelvic lymph node dissection (LND) after sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy in early-stage cervical cancer.
We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study in 8 gynecological oncology departments. In total, 645 women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA to IIB cervical cancer of squamous, adeno, or adenosquamous histologic type who underwent SN biopsy followed by pelvic LND were enrolled in this study. Radioisotope tracers and blue dye were used to localize the sentinel node, and pathologic ultrastaging was performed.
Among the patients with low-volume disease (micrometastases and isolated tumor cells) in the sentinel node, the overall survival was significantly better (P = 0.046) if more than 16 non-SNs were removed. No such significant difference in survival was detected in patients with negative or macrometastatic sentinel nodes.
Our findings indicate that in patients with negative or macrometastatic disease in the sentinel nodes, an additional LND did not alter survival. Conversely, our data suggest that the survival of patients with low-volume disease is improved when more than 16 additional lymph nodes are removed. If in a prospective trial our data are confirmed, we would suggest a 2-stage operation.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery. Methods. A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants (n = 42) were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises. Results. Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were "time to complete" and "economy of motion" (P < 0.001). The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery. Conclusions. Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:507076. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and model the optimal combination of commonly studied serum biomarkers aimed at identifying recurrence in cervical cancer patients.
From a systematic literature search, nine biomarkers (CA-15.3, CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1, hsCRP, IL-6, SCC-Ag, TNF-α and VEGF) were selected for a serum analysis. Samples were derived from a historical cervical cancer cohort. Subjects with serum samples stored in a biobank were included when quality criteria were met, and one sample preceding and at least one following primary treatment was available. In case of recurrence, two additional post-recurrence samples were analyzed. Biomarker serum levels were quantified by enzyme linked or chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassays. Logistic regression and receiver operating curve analysis were employed for selection, modeling and comparison on the diagnostic accuracy of the tested biomarkers.
205 samples were analyzed from 75 subjects, of whom 19 (25.3%) had a recurrence. The area under the curve (AUC) of CA-15.3, CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF were all <0.750. Only SCC-Ag and hsCRP were included in the final model with an AUC of 0.822 (95%CI: 0.744-0.900) and 0.831 (95%CI: 0.758-0.905) respectively. Combined AUC was 0.870 (95%CI: 0.805-0.935). Rises in SCC-Ag and hsCRP significantly increased the odds for recurrence. Each ng/ml of SCC-Ag increase, related to an odds ratio (OR) of 1.117 (95%CI: 1.039-1.200). Comparably, the OR for hsCRP (in mg/ml) was 1.025 (95%CI: 1.012-1.038).
Combined testing of SCC-Ag and hsCRP yields the highest detection rate of disease recurrence during cervical cancer follow-up.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pelvic serous carcinoma is usually advanced stage at diagnosis, indicating that abdominal spread occurs early in carcinogenesis. Recent discovery of a precursor sequence in the fallopian tube, culminating in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), provides an opportunity to study early disease events. This study aims to explore novel metastatic routes in STICs. A BRCA1 mutation carrier (patient A) who presented with a STIC and tubal intraluminal shedding of tumor cells upon prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) instigated scrutiny of an additional 23 women who underwent a PBSO and 40 patients with pelvic serous carcinoma involving the tubes. Complete serial sectioning of tubes and ovaries of patient A did not reveal invasive carcinoma, but subsequent staging surgery showed disseminated abdominal disease. STIC, intraluminal tumor cells, and abdominal metastases displayed an identical immunohistochemical profile (p53/WT1/PAX8/PAX2) and TP53 mutation. In 16 serous carcinoma patients (40%) tubal intraluminal tumor cells were found, compared with none in the PBSO group. This is the first description of a STIC, which plausibly metastasized without the presence of invasion through intraluminal shedding of malignant surface epithelial cells in the tube and subsequently spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. These findings warrant a reconsideration of the malignant potential of STICs and indicate that intraluminal shedding could be a risk factor for early intraperitoneal metastasis. Although rare in the absence of invasive cancer, we show that intraluminal shedding of tumor cells in the fallopian tubes from serous carcinoma cases are common and a likely route of abdominal spread.
The American journal of surgical pathology 05/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare preoperative sentinel node (SN) mapping with planar lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) to single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for differences in intraoperative SN retrieval time in surgically treated cervical cancer patients. METHODS: In cervical cancer patients planned for radical surgery, one day preoperatively, 220-290MBq technetium-99m-nanocolloid was injected intracervically in four quadrants. Subsequent SN mapping was performed by either LSG (09.2009-03.2011) or SPECT-CT (03.2011-10.2012). The SN resection, by four armed robot assisted laparoscopy, was based on blue dye and technetium-99m and followed by pelvic lymph node dissection. Timing of perioperative care, including SN procedure times, was prospectively registered. RESULTS: Out of the 62 subjects included, 33 (53.2%) underwent LSG and 29 (46.8%) SPECT-CT. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed. Bi- and unilateral SN visualization rates were 75.8% and 15.2% for LSG versus 86.2% and 6.9% for SPECT-CT (p=0.299 and p=0.305, respectively). Intraoperative bi/unilateral SN detection occurred in 84.8% and 9.1% of LSG subjects versus 89.7% and 3.4% for SPECT-CT (p=0.573 and p=0.616). Correlation in SN location between mapping and surgery was low for LSG (Spearman ρ=0.098; p=0.449) but high for SPECT-CT (ρ=0.798; p<0.001). Bilateral intraoperative SN retrieval times for LSG and SPECT-CT were 75.4±33.5 and 50.1±15.6min, resulting in an average difference of 25.4min (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: SPECT-CT significantly reduces intraoperative SN retrieval with a clinically relevant time compared to LSG. The trend towards better bilateral visualization rates and significantly higher anatomical concordance may partly explain the observed difference in SN retrieval time.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: - In the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, robot-assisted surgical procedures are performed weekly within the departments of Surgery, Gynaecology and Urology.- Training for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgical procedures can be divided into two parts: system training and procedure training. After completing training modules, medical specialists are proctored by a specialist experienced in robotic surgery until they fully master the procedure.- Centralization of robotic surgery results in high volume centres. Robot-assisted operations performed in these centres show a lower rate of post-operative complications, resulting in shorter hospital stay and a reduction in costs.- In high volume centres, adequate system training and procedure training can be provided. A good training leads to a more efficient use of operating time and moreover reduces the costs of the learning curve of the surgeon.- It is aimed that in the future, almost all technically difficult minimally invasive surgical procedures will be performed with the robotic surgical system.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2013; 157(28):A5228.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As early as the 1950s there were warnings about the toxicity of the synthetic oestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), but in the Netherlands this drug continued to be prescribed to pregnant women up to the late 1970s. Until recently the periodic check-ups of children born from these pregnancies - the so-called DES Daughters - was mainly focused on genital abnormalities and the sporadically occurring clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina. As they grow older, the risk of this and similar types of carcinoma decreases and the nature of the periodic check-ups changes. However, check-ups cannot be omitted as the 5-yearly population study for cervical cancer is not suitable for detecting clear cell adenocarcinoma. DES Daughters should continue to receive a 2-yearly cytological check-up from their general practitioner until at least the age of 60. Now more than ever, physicians must be particularly vigilant in checking for the non-oncological late effects of DES.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2013; 157(52):A6809.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Primary data on training experiences of European gynaecological oncology trainees are lacking. This study aims to evaluate trainee profile, satisfaction and factors affecting the training experience in gynaecological oncology in Europe.Patients and methodsA web-based anonymous survey sent to ENYGO members/trainees in July 2011. It included sociodemographic information and a 22-item (1-5 Likert scale) questionnaire evaluating training experience in gynaecological oncology. Chi-square tests were used for evaluating the independence of categorical variables and t-test (parametric)/Mann-Whitney (non-parametric) tests for differences between two independent groups on continuous data. Cluster analysis was used to identify groupings in multivariate data and Cronbach's-alpha for questionnaire reliability. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the effect of variables on training satisfaction.ResultsOne hundred and nineteen gynaecological-oncology trainees from 31 countries responded. The mean age was 37.4 (S.D, 5.3) years and 55.5% were in accredited training posts. Two clusters identified in the cohort (Calinski-Harabasz, CH = 47.35) differed mainly by accredited training (P = 0.003). The training-satisfaction score (TSS) had high reliability (Cronbach's alpha, 0.951) and was significantly associated with accredited posts (P < 0.0005), years of training (P = 0.001) and salary (P = 0.002). The TSS was independent of age (P = 0.360), working hours (P = 0.620), overtime-pay (P = 0.318), annual leave (P = 0.933), gender (P = 0.545) and marital status (P = 0.731). Accredited programme trainees scored significantly higher than others in 17 of 22 aspects of training. The areas of greater need included advanced laparoscopic/urological/colorectal surgery, radiation oncology, palliative-care, cancer genetics and research opportunities.Conclusions
Our data demonstrate the importance of accredited training and the need for harmonisation of gynaecological oncology training within Europe.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy (etoposide 100mg/m(2) days 1-5, methotrexate 300mg/m(2) day 1, cyclophosphamide 600mg/m(2) day 1, actinomycin D 0.6mg/m(2) day 2 and cisplatin 60mg/m(2) day 4, EMACP) was compared to EMA/CO (etoposide 100mg/m(2) days 1-2, methotrexate 300mg/m(2) day 1 and actinomycin D 0.5mg i.v. bolus day 1 and 0.5mg/m(2) day 2, alternating with cyclophosphamide 600mg/m(2) day 8 and vincristine 1mg/m(2) day 8) for the treatment of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Netherlands, 83 patients were treated with EMACP and 103 patients with EMA/CO. Outcome measures were remission rate, median number of courses to achieve normal human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentrations, toxicity, recurrent disease rate and disease specific survival. RESULTS: Remission rates were similar (EMACP 91.6%, EMA/CO 85.4%). The median number of courses of EMA/CO to reach hCG normalisation for single-agent resistant disease and primary high-risk disease was three and five courses, respectively, compared to 1.5 (p=0.001) and three (p<0.001) courses of EMACP. Patients treated with EMACP more often developed fever, renal toxicity, nausea and diarrhoea compared to patients treated with EMA/CO. Patients treated with EMA/CO more often had anaemia, neuropathy and hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: EMACP combination chemotherapy is an effective treatment for high-risk GTN, with a remission rate comparable to EMA/CO. However, the difference in duration of treatment is only slightly shorter with EMACP. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the form of EMACP in this study was not proven more effective than EMA/CO.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 10/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of sentinel node (SN) ultrastaging and to define parameters that may reduce the overall false-negative rate in women with early-stage cervical cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large retrospective multicenter cohort group with FIGO stages IA-IIB cervical cancer in whom at least one SN was identified and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy was uniformly performed. All who were SN negative by initial evaluation were subjected to ultrastaging. RESULTS: In all, 645 patients were evaluable. SN were detected bilaterally in 72% of cases and unilaterally in 28%. Patients with optimal bilateral SN detection were significantly more likely to have any metastasis detected (33.3% vs. 19.2%; P<0.001) as well as micrometastasis detected in their SN (39.6% vs. 11.4%). SN ultrastaging resulted in a low overall false-negative rate of 2.8% (whole group) and an even lower false-negative rate of 1.3% for patients with optimal bilateral mapping. Patients with false-negative SN after ultrastaging had a higher prevalence of LVSI and more frequent unilateral SN detection. Sensitivity of SN ultrastaging was 91% (95% CI: 86%-95%) for the whole group and 97% (95% CI: 91%-99%) in the subgroup with bilateral SN detection. CONCLUSION: These data confirm previous observations that optimal bilateral SN detection substantially decreases the false negative rate of SN ultrastaging and increases detection of micrometastasis. In patients with bilateral SN detection, the sensitivity of SN ultrastaging is not reduced in more advanced stages of the disease. SN mapping and ultrastaging should become standard practice in the surgical management of early-stage cervical cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After decades of reluctance to change surgical approaches, new technologies have created new perspectives for surgery. Initially, the laparoscopic approach was considered to be only one useful for relatively simple procedures as the design of the instruments and the limited access hampered free movements to perform complicated surgery. Robotic systems overcame this problem and boosted the use of minimally invasive techniques also for radical gynaecological surgery. Robot-assisted laparoscopy can now routinely be used for the surgical treatment of early or downstaged cervical carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and staging of early ovarian carcinoma. Robot-assisted laparoscopy has proven to be feasible, although the benefits for the patient are less clear than those for the surgeon. The main advantage of robot-assisted laparoscopy over conventional laparoscopy is probably not that it is safer or better, but that it allows more types of radical surgery to be performed and that it prevents the surgeon from developing complaints and muscular conditions that interfere with the ability to perform surgery. New applications have emerged with the introduction of new devices to be used in conjunction with the robotic system as well as with totally new robotic systems. Training in these new tools should be more systematic and structured to allow their safe introduction and use.
Current Oncology Reports 08/2012; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events.
Sixteen early and sixteen advanced stage ovarian carcinomas, matched for histological subtype and differentiation grade, were included. Genomic aberrations were compared for each early and advanced stage ovarian cancer by array comparative genomic hybridization. To study how the aberrations correlate to the clinical characteristics of the tumors we clustered tumors based on the genomic aberrations.
The genomic aberration patterns in advanced stage cancer equalled those in early stage, but were more frequent in advanced stage (p = 0.012). Unsupervised clustering based on genomic aberrations yielded two clusters that significantly discriminated early from advanced stage (p = 0.001), and that did differ significantly in survival (p = 0.002). These clusters however did give a more accurate prognosis than histological subtype or differentiation grade.
This study indicates that advanced stage ovarian cancer either progresses from early stage or from a common precursor lesion but that they do not arise from distinct carcinogenic molecular events. Furthermore, we show that array comparative genomic hybridization has the potential to identify clinically distinct patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to investigate whether high-risk HPV (hrHPV) mRNA detection by PreTect HPV-Proofer can be used to stratify hrHPV DNA-positive women of different cytology classes for risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (cervical precancer or cancer, i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher [≥ CIN2]). A total of 375 women participating in population-based screening, with a GP5+/6+-PCR hrHPV DNA-positive cervical scrape with normal cytology (n = 202), borderline or mild dyskaryosis (BMD) (n = 88), or moderate dyskaryosis or worse (>BMD) (n = 85), were enrolled. Cervical scrapes were additionally subjected to HPV16/18/31/33/45 E6/E7 mRNA analysis by PreTect HPV-Proofer (mRNA test). Referral and follow-up policies were based on cytology, hrHPV DNA, and mRNA testing. The primary study endpoint was the number of ≥CIN2 detected within 3 years of follow-up. The mRNA positivity increased with the severity of cytological abnormality, ranging from 32% (64/202) in hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology to 47% (41/88) in BMD and 68% (58/85) in >BMD groups (P < 0.01). Women with ≥ CIN2 were more likely to test positive by mRNA test (63%) than women without evidence of ≥ CIN2 (32%; P < 0.01). A positive mRNA test result conferred an increased ≥ CIN2 risk in hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology, i.e., 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34 to 0.76) in mRNA-positive versus 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.33) in mRNA-negative women. In hrHPV DNA-positive women with BMD or >BMD, the result of the mRNA test did not influence the ≥ CIN2 risk. In conclusion, mRNA testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer might be of value to select hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology in need of immediate referral for colposcopy.
Journal of clinical microbiology 05/2012; 50(7):2390-6. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening.
In all, 25,871 women (29-61) enrolled in our population-based cohort study were offered both cytology and hrHPV testing. High-risk HPV-positive women with normal cytology and an age-matched subcohort of hrHPV-negative women with normal cytology were invited for repeat testing after 1 and/or 2 years and were referred for colposcopy if they presented with abnormal cytology and/or a positive hrHPV test. The hrHPV-positive women with borderline or mild dyskaryosis (BMD) and all women with moderate dyskaryosis or worse (>BMD) were directly referred for colposcopy. Women with BMD and an hrHPV-negative test were advised to repeat cytology at 6 and 18 months and were referred for colposcopy if the repeat cytology test was abnormal. The main outcome measure was CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+). Results were adjusted for non-attendance at repeat testing.
The hrHPV-positive women with abnormal cytology had a CIN3+ risk of 42.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 36.4-48.2), whereas the hrHPV-positive women with normal cytology had a much lower risk of 5.22% (95% CI: 3.72-7.91). In hrHPV-positive women with normal cytology, an additional cytology step after 1 year reduced the CIN3+ risk to only 1.6% (95% CI: 0.6-4.9) if the repeat test was normal. The CIN3+ risk in women with hrHPV-positive normal cytology was higher among women invited for the first time (29-33 years of age) (9.1%; 95% CI: 5.6-14.3) than among older women (3.0%; 95% CI: 1.5-5.5).
Primary hrHPV screening with cytology triage in women aged 30 years is an effective way to stratify women on CIN3+ risk and seems a feasible alternative to cytological screening. Repeat cytology after 1 year for hrHPV-positive women with normal cytology is however necessary before returning women to routine screening.
British Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 106(5):975-81. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the agreement between conventional colposcopic impression, dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) colposcopy and histology, for human papillomavirus type 16-positive (HPV16(+)) and non-16 high-risk (hr) HPV(+) women.
Prospective, comparative, multicentre clinical trial.
Three colposcopy clinics in the Netherlands.
Women (n = 177) aged 18 years or over with an intact cervix, referred for colposcopy.
The colposcopist graded the lesion by using the DSI colposcope as a regular video colposcope. Subsequently the DSI impression was displayed and biopsies were taken from all abnormal areas as well as from a random (normal) site. A cervical smear was taken for HPV typing.
Histologically confirmed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer (CIN2(+)), positive for HPV16 or for any other hrHPV type.
The DSI colposcope identified more CIN2(+) cervical lesions among HPV16(+) women than in non-16 hrHPV(+) women (P = 0.032 regardless of final histology and P = 0.009 among women with CIN2(+)). Consequently, the sensitivity of the DSI colposcope for detecting CIN2(+) lesions was higher in HPV16(+) women than in non-16 hrHPV(+) women (97% versus 74%, P = 0.009). No such differences were seen for the colposcopist impression. In addition, mainly smaller cervical lesions are missed by the colposcopist.
The sensitivity of DSI colposcopy for CIN2(+) is higher in HPV16(+) than in non-16 hrHPV(+) women. Furthermore, regardless of HPV16 status, the sensitivity of DSI for CIN2(+) is higher than that of the colposcopist, probably because colposcopists tend to miss smaller cervical lesions.
BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 02/2012; 119(5):537-44. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the effect of increasing experience of a single surgeon (learning curve) in the laparoscopic staging procedure for women with early ovarian cancer and compared the results with the literature. We retrospectively analysed a total of 25 women with apparent early-stage ovarian cancer who underwent a laparoscopic staging procedure by the same surgeon. Three time periods, based on date of surgery, were compared with respect to operating time, amount of lymph nodes harvested and surgical outcome. There was no significant difference in operation time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay between the three periods. There was, however, a significant increase in the median number of pelvic and para-aortal lymph nodes harvested (group1 = 6.5, group 2 = 8.0 and group 3 = 21.0; P < 0.005). For the total period, median operation time was 235 min and median estimated blood loss was 100 ml. The median length of hospital stay was 4.0 days. Two intraoperative and two postoperative complications occurred. The upstaging rate was 32%. The mean interval between initial surgery and laparoscopic staging was 51.2 days. Mean duration of follow-up was 43 months, range (1-116 months). Five (20%) patients had recurrences, and two (8%) patients died of the disease. In conclusion, there is a significant learning curve for the laparoscopic full staging procedure in ovarian cancer. In our study this is mainly reflected in the amount of lymph nodes harvested and not in the total operating time.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery is growing rapidly and there is an increasing need for a structured approach to train future robotic surgeons.
To review the literature on training and learning strategies for robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery.
A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Journal of Robotic Surgery was performed.
We included articles concerning training, learning, education and teaching of robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery in any specialism.
Two authors independently selected articles to be included. We categorised the included articles into: training modalities, learning curve, training future surgeons, curriculum design and implementation.
We included 114 full text articles. Training modalities such as didactic training, skills training (dry lab, virtual reality, animal or cadaver models), case observation, bedside assisting, proctoring and the mentoring console can be used for training in robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. Several training programmes in general and specific programmes designed for residents, fellows and surgeons are described in the literature. We provide guidelines for development of a structured training programme.
Robotic surgical training consists of system training and procedural training. System training should be formally organised and should be competence based, instead of time based. Virtual reality training will play an import role in the near future. Procedural training should be organised in a stepwise approach with objective assessment of each step. This review aims to facilitate and improve the implementation of structured robotic surgical training programmes.
BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 01/2012; 119(2):137-49. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCA1/2 germ line mutation carriers have a high risk of developing fallopian tube carcinoma (FTC), thought to occur through different early (p53 signatures) and later (dysplasia, intra-epithelial carcinoma) premalignant stages. Promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes is known to play a key role in (early) carcinogenesis. However, little is known about methylation in normal and (pre)malignant fallopian tube tissue. We identified 14 areas of p53 accumulation in the fallopian tubes of BRCA mutation carriers. Cells from these areas were harvested together with cells from adjacent benign appearing areas. An age-matched non-BRCA sporadic control group (n=13) and eight sporadic FTCs were included as negative and positive controls respectively. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to assess promoter methylation of 70 tumour suppressor genes in all samples. We observed a gradual increase in methylation from sporadic control tissue (median cumulative methylation index (CMI) 568.19) through normal tissue and from areas of p53 accumulation in BRCA carriers (median CMI 687.54 and 676.72) to FTC (median CMI 780.97). Furthermore, the methylation percentage of many individual tumour suppressor genes differed significantly between these groups, gradually increasing as for CMI. Between areas with and without p53 accumulation in BRCA mutation carriers no significant differences were found. In this paper, we have shown that BRCA mutation carriers display increased methylation of tumour suppressor genes in their non-malignant fallopian tube epithelium, closer to methylation levels in FTC than to normal sporadic tissue. Methylation could, therefore, play an important role in the increased risk of gynaecological malignancies in BRCA mutation carriers.
Endocrine Related Cancer 12/2011; 19(1):69-81. · 5.26 Impact Factor