[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation.
Because of its low sensitivity (50-62% for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer) and limited specificity (94-98.5%), cancer antigen (CA) 125 (CA125) is not recommended as a screening test in asymptomatic women. The Risk of Malignancy Index, which includes CA125, transvaginal ultrasound, and menopausal status, is recommended for the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass. Because human epididymis protein 4 has been reported to have superior specificity to CA125, especially in premenopausal women, it may be considered either alone or as part of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm, in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses, especially in such women. CA125 should be used to monitor response to first-line chemotherapy using the previously published criteria of the Gynecological Cancer Intergroup, that is, at least a 50% reduction of a pretreatment sample of 70 kU/L or greater. The value of CA125 in posttherapy surveillance is less clear. Although a prospective randomized trial concluded that early administration of chemotherapy based on increasing CA125 levels had no effect on survival, European Group on Tumor Markers state that monitoring with CA125 in this situation should occur, especially if the patient is a candidate for secondary cytoreductive surgery.
At present, CA125 remains the most important biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer, excluding tumors of mucinous origin.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000586 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women with an increased lifetime risk of ovarian cancer are advised to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) to reduce risk of adnexal cancer. We investigated the uptake of RRSO and evaluated the influence of personal medical history of (breast) cancer, risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and family history of ovarian and/or breast cancer on the RRSO decision. This single center retrospective observational cohort study was performed in a tertiary multidisciplinary clinic for hereditary cancer of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands. Women ≥35 years old with an estimated lifetime risk of ovarian cancer ≥10 %, who had completed childbearing, were eligible for RRSO. Uptake and timing of RRSO were analyzed. Influence of personal medical history and family history on RRSO decision making, were evaluated with logistic regression. The study population consisted of 218 women (45.0 % BRCA1 mutation carrier, 28.0 % BRCA2 mutation carrier, 27.0 % with familial susceptibility) with 87.2 % RRSO uptake. The median age at RRSO was 44.5 (range 28-73) years. Of the women undergoing RRSO, 78.3 % needed ≤3 consultations to reach this decision. Multivariable analysis showed a significant difference in RRSO uptake for women with a history of RRM [OR 3.66 95 % CI (1.12-11.98)], but no significant difference in women with a history of breast cancer [OR 1.38 95 % CI (0.50-3.79)], nor with a family history of ovarian and/or breast cancer [OR 1.10 95 % CI (0.44-2.76)]. We conclude that RRSO counseling, without the alternative of screening, is effective. The uptake is increased in women with a history of RRM.
Familial Cancer 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10689-015-9827-7 · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging.
All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 - September 2013), and for whom ≥6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography.
Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ≥6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman - with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease - showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women - 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease - were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%.
Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0131899. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131899 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Performing endocervical curettage (ECC) at colposcopy may increase the yield of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or worse (CIN2+) compared to biopsies alone. The additional benefit of ECC in detecting CIN2+ was studied in women with lesion-targeted biopsies (low-grade or worse impression) and women with biopsies of normal-appearing cervix (less than low-grade impression).
In this subanalysis of a multicenter study, 126 women referred to colposcopy who had an ECC were included. Multiple directed biopsies were taken from lesions, and a nontargeted biopsy was added if fewer than 4 biopsies were collected. Risk strata of CIN2+ were evaluated based on cytology and colposcopic appearance to identify women for whom ECC would be most valuable.
The CIN2+ yield of ECC in addition to biopsies was 15 (11.9%) of 126. In women with lesion-targeted biopsies and ECC, the CIN2+ yield of targeted biopsies was 34 (51.5%) of 66, the yield of additional nontargeted biopsies was 1 (1.5%) of 66, and the additional CIN2+ yield of ECC was 5 (7.6%) of 66. The yield in women with nontargeted biopsies only and ECC was 5 (8.3%) 60, and the additional yield for ECC was 10 (16.7%) of 60. Endocervical curettage did not find disease in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
In women with less than low-grade impression and especially those with unsatisfactory colposcopy, the yield of CIN2+ was higher for ECC compared to nontargeted biopsies. The highest yield of CIN2+ from ECC was observed in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and less than low-grade impression, suggesting that disease is higher up in the endocervix in this group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To evaluate whether a model to predict a failed endometrial biopsy in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) and a thickened endometrium can reduce costs without compromising diagnostic accuracy. Design, Setting, and Population. Model based cost-minimization analysis. Methods. A decision analytic model was designed to compare two diagnostic strategies for women with PMB: (I) attempting office endometrial biopsy and performing outpatient hysteroscopy after failed biopsy and (II) predicted probability of a failed endometrial biopsy based on patient characteristics to guide the decision for endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy. Robustness of assumptions regarding costs was evaluated in sensitivity analyses. Main Outcome Measures. Costs for the different strategies. Results. At different cut-offs for the predicted probability of failure of an endometrial biopsy, strategy I was generally less expensive than strategy II. The costs for strategy I were always € 460; the costs for strategy II varied between € 457 and € 475. At a 65% cut-off, a possible saving of € 3 per woman could be achieved. Conclusions. Individualizing the decision to perform an endometrial biopsy or immediate hysteroscopy in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding based on patient characteristics does not increase the efficiency of the diagnostic work-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A good educational climate/environment in the workplace is essential for developing high-quality medical (sub)specialists. These data are lacking for gynecological oncology training.
This study aims to evaluate the educational climate in gynecological oncology training throughout Europe and the factors affecting it.
A Web-based anonymous survey sent to ENYGO (European Network of Young Gynecological Oncologists) members/trainees to assess gynecological oncology training. This included sociodemographic information, details regarding training posts, and a 50-item validated Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) questionnaire with 11 subscales (1-5 Likert scale) to assess the educational climate. The χ test was used for evaluating categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U (nonparametric) test was used for continuous variables between 2 independent groups. Cronbach α assessed the questionnaire reliability. Multivariable linear regression assessed the effect of variables on D-RECT outcome subscales.
One hundred nineteen gynecological oncological fellows responded. The D-RECT questionnaire was extremely reliable for assessing the educational environment in gynecological oncology (subscales' Cronbach α, 0.82-0.96). Overall, trainees do not seem to receive adequate/effective constructive feedback during training. The overall educational climate (supervision, coaching/assessment, feedback, teamwork, interconsultant relationships, formal education, role of the tutor, patient handover, and overall consultant's attitude) was significantly better (P = 0.001) in centers providing accredited training in comparison with centers without such accreditation. Multivariable regression indicated the main factors independently associated with a better educational climate were presence of an accredited training post and total years of training.
This study emphasizes the need for better feedback mechanisms and the importance of accreditation of centers for training in gynecological oncology to ensure training within higher quality clinical learning climates.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2015; 25(1):180-190. DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000323 · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although adolescent girls are the main population for prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, adult women who remain at risk of cervical cancer can also be vaccinated. We report data from the interim analysis of the ongoing VIVIANE study, the aim of which is to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women.
In this phase 3, multinational, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned healthy women older than 25 years to the HPV 16/18 vaccine or control (1:1), via an internet-based system with an algorithm process that accounted for region, age stratum, baseline HPV DNA status, HPV 16/18 serostatus, and cytology. Enrolment was age-stratified, with about 45% of participants in each of the 26–35 and 36–45 years age strata and 10% in the 46 years and older stratum. Up to 15% of women in each age stratum could have a history of HPV infection or disease. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. The primary analysis was done in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, which consists of women who received all three vaccine or control doses, had negative or low-grade cytology at baseline, and had no history of HPV disease. Secondary analyses included vaccine efficacy against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types. Mean follow-up time was 40·3 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047.
The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit for the present analysis took place on Dec 10, 2010; 5752 women were included in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2881 vaccine, n=2871 control), and 4505 in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2264 vaccine, n=2241 control). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ was significant in all age groups combined (81·1%, 97·7% CI 52·1–94·0), in the 26–35 years age group (83·5%, 45·0–96·8), and in the 36–45 years age group (77·2%, 2·8–96·9); no cases were seen in women aged 46 years and older. Vaccine efficacy against atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater associated with HPV 16/18 was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (79·1%, 97·7% CI 27·6–95·9) and HPV 45 (76·9%, 18·5–95·6]) Serious adverse events occurred in 285 (10%) of 2881 women in the vaccine group and 267 (9%) of 2871 in the control group; five (<1%) and eight (<1%) of these events, respectively, were believed to be related to vaccination.
In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine is efficacious against infections and cervical abnormalities associated with the vaccine types, as well as infections with the non-vaccine HPV types 31 and 45.
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.
The Lancet 12/2014; 384(9961). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60920-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The focus of testing the dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) colposcope has been on the technical characteristics and clinical performance. However, aspects from a patient's perspective are just as important.
This study was designed as a substudy of the DSI validation study, a prospective comparative, multicenter clinical trial to assess the clinical performance of DSI colposcopy. All women included in this study were asked to complete two questionnaires: a patient characteristics questionnaire and a patient satisfaction questionnaire.
In the initial study a total of 239 women were included in the intention-to-treat cohort. Of these, 230 women (96.2%) completed both questionnaires. When assessing the women's preferences for some of the possible uses of DSI colposcopy, a high level of agreement was noted for all potential implementations. In general, women found the additional time DSI colposcopy took acceptable: just 15 women (6.5%) thought the time DSI colposcopy took made them feel uncomfortable. Furthermore, women ranked test accuracy as the most important characteristic, followed by (more) rapid testing and comfort. Quick notification of the results and costs were considered the least important characteristics.
Women are willing to accept discomfort in the form of an additional or longer test if there is clinical benefit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
It has been suggested that colposcopy can miss a significant percentage of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 +). Improved disease ascertainment was evaluated by taking multiple lesion-directed biopsies.
In a cross-sectional multicentre study in the Netherlands and Spain, 610 women referred to colposcopy following abnormal cervical cytology results were included. Multiple directed biopsies were collected from lesions and ranked according to impression. A non-directed biopsy of normal-appearing tissue was added if fewer than four biopsies were collected. We evaluated the additional CIN2 + yield for one and two directed biopsies. Colposcopic images were reviewed for quality control.
In women with at least two lesion-directed biopsies the yield for CIN2 + increased from 51.7% (95%CI; 45.7-57.7) for one directed biopsy to 60.4% (95%CI; 54.4-66.2, p < 0.001) for two biopsies. The highest CIN2 + yield was observed in women who were HPV16-positive, had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cytology, and high-grade colposcopy impression. The yield increased from 83.1% (95%CI; 71.5-90.5) with one directed biopsy to 93.2% (95%CI; 83.8-97.3) with two directed biopsies. Only 4.5% additional CIN2 + were detected in biopsies not targeting abnormal areas on the cervix.
A second lesion-directed biopsy is associated with a significant increase in CIN2 + detection. Performing a second lesion-directed biopsy and using a low threshold for abnormality of any acetowhitening should become the standard clinical practice of colposcopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women treated for high-grade cervical disease (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3 [CIN 2/3]) face a significant risk of developing post-treatment disease. Therefore, in most European countries, they are monitored by cytologic testing at 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Although testing for high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in the follow-up seems to be a valuable supplementary method, its use is not yet fully explored.
Besides reviewing the literature, we completed a long-term follow-up study describing the cumulative risk for CIN 2/3 or cancer (CIN 2+) of different hrHPV and cytology test results after treatment.
High-risk HPV testing improves the sensitivity to detect posttreatment CIN 2/3 (relative sensitivity = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.25), but the highest sensitivity (95%, 95% CI = 91%-98%) is reached by performing cotesting (both cytology and hrHPV). The CIN 2+ risk after a single negative cotesting result taken 6 months after treatments was similar to the risk after 3 consecutive negative cytologic test results (5-y CIN 2+ risk being 3.0% [95% CI = 1.5%-6.1%] and 2.9% [95% CI = 1.2%-7.1%], respectively). Women who test negative for cotesting at both 6 and 24 months after treatment have a minimal risk of developing CIN 3+ in the next 5 years (0.0%, 95% CI = 0.0%-3.0%).
We propose a new posttreatment surveillance protocol, consisting of combined testing with both cytology and hrHPV at 6 and 24 months after treatment. After 2 negative cotesting results, women should be retested after 5 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) are, although still treated as a single disease entity, often classified into type I tumors (low-grade serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell) and type II tumors (high-grade serous, undifferentiated cancers, carcinosarcomas). The aim of our study was to determine the incidence, clinical relevance, and prognostic and predictive impact of somatic mutations in both types I and II EOCs.
Two hundred sixty-two evaluable, primary, high-risk stage I (grade 3, or aneuploid grade 1 or 2, or clear cell) and stage II-IV EOCs, collected at the University Hospitals Leuven and within the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 55971 trial, were genotyped for hotspot mutations in KRAS (COSMIC [Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer] coverage >97%), BRAF (>94%), NRAS (>97%), PIK3CA (>79%), PTEN, FBXW7 (>57%), AKT2, AKT3, and FOXL2, using Sequenom MassARRAY.
Of the 13% histopathologically classified type I tumors, 49% were KRAS or PIK3CA mutant versus only 2.9% in the type II tumors (87%). Mucinous subtypes harbored significantly more KRAS mutations than all nonmucinous tumors (50% vs 4%, P < 0.001). PIK3CA mutations were predominantly found in clear cell carcinomas (46.2%) and endometrioid carcinoma (20%) and were frequently associated with endometriosis. Moreover, low-grade serous tumors were more frequently KRAS or BRAF mutated (44%) than high-grade serous tumors (0.6%). KRAS or PIK3CA mutation did not correlate with progression-free survival or overall survival. Mutations in NRAS, PTEN, FBXW7, AKT2, AKT3, and FOXL2 were rare (<1%).
Somatic mutations are rare in type II EOCs, whereas type I EOCs contain distinct diseases with different driver mutations. In general, these tumors respond worse to standard paclitaxel carboplatin therapy. Clinical trials with molecular targeted therapy in the different subtypes of type I tumors are urgently needed using this theragnostic information.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 03/2014; 24(3):468-77. DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000089 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery.
A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants (n = 42) were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises.
Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were "time to complete" and "economy of motion" (P < 0.001). The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery.
Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014(2):507076. DOI:10.1155/2014/507076 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to describe the value of pelvic lymph node dissection (LND) after sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy in early-stage cervical cancer.
We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study in 8 gynecological oncology departments. In total, 645 women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA to IIB cervical cancer of squamous, adeno, or adenosquamous histologic type who underwent SN biopsy followed by pelvic LND were enrolled in this study. Radioisotope tracers and blue dye were used to localize the sentinel node, and pathologic ultrastaging was performed.
Among the patients with low-volume disease (micrometastases and isolated tumor cells) in the sentinel node, the overall survival was significantly better (P = 0.046) if more than 16 non-SNs were removed. No such significant difference in survival was detected in patients with negative or macrometastatic sentinel nodes.
Our findings indicate that in patients with negative or macrometastatic disease in the sentinel nodes, an additional LND did not alter survival. Conversely, our data suggest that the survival of patients with low-volume disease is improved when more than 16 additional lymph nodes are removed. If in a prospective trial our data are confirmed, we would suggest a 2-stage operation.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1097/IGC.0000000000000043 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and model the optimal combination of commonly studied serum biomarkers aimed at identifying recurrence in cervical cancer patients.
From a systematic literature search, nine biomarkers (CA-15.3, CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1, hsCRP, IL-6, SCC-Ag, TNF-α and VEGF) were selected for a serum analysis. Samples were derived from a historical cervical cancer cohort. Subjects with serum samples stored in a biobank were included when quality criteria were met, and one sample preceding and at least one following primary treatment was available. In case of recurrence, two additional post-recurrence samples were analyzed. Biomarker serum levels were quantified by enzyme linked or chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassays. Logistic regression and receiver operating curve analysis were employed for selection, modeling and comparison on the diagnostic accuracy of the tested biomarkers.
205 samples were analyzed from 75 subjects, of whom 19 (25.3%) had a recurrence. The area under the curve (AUC) of CA-15.3, CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF were all <0.750. Only SCC-Ag and hsCRP were included in the final model with an AUC of 0.822 (95%CI: 0.744-0.900) and 0.831 (95%CI: 0.758-0.905) respectively. Combined AUC was 0.870 (95%CI: 0.805-0.935). Rises in SCC-Ag and hsCRP significantly increased the odds for recurrence. Each ng/ml of SCC-Ag increase, related to an odds ratio (OR) of 1.117 (95%CI: 1.039-1.200). Comparably, the OR for hsCRP (in mg/ml) was 1.025 (95%CI: 1.012-1.038).
Combined testing of SCC-Ag and hsCRP yields the highest detection rate of disease recurrence during cervical cancer follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: - In the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, robot-assisted surgical procedures are performed weekly within the departments of Surgery, Gynaecology and Urology.- Training for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgical procedures can be divided into two parts: system training and procedure training. After completing training modules, medical specialists are proctored by a specialist experienced in robotic surgery until they fully master the procedure.- Centralization of robotic surgery results in high volume centres. Robot-assisted operations performed in these centres show a lower rate of post-operative complications, resulting in shorter hospital stay and a reduction in costs.- In high volume centres, adequate system training and procedure training can be provided. A good training leads to a more efficient use of operating time and moreover reduces the costs of the learning curve of the surgeon.- It is aimed that in the future, almost all technically difficult minimally invasive surgical procedures will be performed with the robotic surgical system.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 07/2013; 157(28):A5228.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pelvic serous carcinoma is usually advanced stage at diagnosis, indicating that abdominal spread occurs early in carcinogenesis. Recent discovery of a precursor sequence in the fallopian tube, culminating in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), provides an opportunity to study early disease events. This study aims to explore novel metastatic routes in STICs. A BRCA1 mutation carrier (patient A) who presented with a STIC and tubal intraluminal shedding of tumor cells upon prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) instigated scrutiny of an additional 23 women who underwent a PBSO and 40 patients with pelvic serous carcinoma involving the tubes. Complete serial sectioning of tubes and ovaries of patient A did not reveal invasive carcinoma, but subsequent staging surgery showed disseminated abdominal disease. STIC, intraluminal tumor cells, and abdominal metastases displayed an identical immunohistochemical profile (p53/WT1/PAX8/PAX2) and TP53 mutation. In 16 serous carcinoma patients (40%) tubal intraluminal tumor cells were found, compared with none in the PBSO group. This is the first description of a STIC, which plausibly metastasized without the presence of invasion through intraluminal shedding of malignant surface epithelial cells in the tube and subsequently spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. These findings warrant a reconsideration of the malignant potential of STICs and indicate that intraluminal shedding could be a risk factor for early intraperitoneal metastasis. Although rare in the absence of invasive cancer, we show that intraluminal shedding of tumor cells in the fallopian tubes from serous carcinoma cases are common and a likely route of abdominal spread.
The American journal of surgical pathology 05/2013; 37(8). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e318282da7f · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To compare preoperative sentinel node (SN) mapping with planar lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) to single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for differences in intraoperative SN retrieval time in surgically treated cervical cancer patients.
In cervical cancer patients planned for radical surgery, one day preoperatively, 220-290 MBq technetium-99m-nanocolloid was injected intracervically in four quadrants. Subsequent SN mapping was performed by either LSG (09.2009-03.2011) or SPECT-CT (03.2011-10.2012). The SN resection, by four armed robot assisted laparoscopy, was based on blue dye and technetium-99m and followed by pelvic lymph node dissection. Timing of perioperative care, including SN procedure times, was prospectively registered.
Out of the 62 subjects included, 33 (53.2%) underwent LSG and 29 (46.8%) SPECT-CT. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed. Bi- and unilateral SN visualization rates were 75.8% and 15.2% for LSG versus 86.2% and 6.9% for SPECT-CT (p=0.299 and p=0.305, respectively). Intraoperative bi/unilateral SN detection occurred in 84.8% and 9.1% of LSG subjects versus 89.7% and 3.4% for SPECT-CT (p=0.573 and p=0.616). Correlation in SN location between mapping and surgery was low for LSG (Spearman ρ=0.098; p=0.449) but high for SPECT-CT (ρ=0.798; p<0.001). Bilateral intraoperative SN retrieval times for LSG and SPECT-CT were 75.4±33.5 and 50.1±15.6 min, resulting in an average difference of 25.4 min (p=0.003).
SPECT-CT significantly reduces intraoperative SN retrieval with a clinically relevant time compared to LSG. The trend towards better bilateral visualization rates and significantly higher anatomical concordance may partly explain the observed difference in SN retrieval time.