[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myc levels are highly regulated and usually low in vivo. Dimerized with Max, it regulates most expressed genes and so directly and indirectly controls most cellular processes. Intranuclear diffusion of a functional c-Myc-eGFP, expressed from its native locus in murine fibroblasts and 3T3 cells or by transient transfection, was monitored using Two Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, revealing concentration and size (mobility) of complexes. With increased c-Myc-eGFP, a very immobile pool saturates as a 'mobile' pool increases. Both pools diffuse too slowly to be free Myc-Max dimers. Following serum stimulation, eGFP-c-Myc accumulated in the presence of the proteasome inhbitor MG132. Stimulating without MG132, Myc peaked at 2.5 hrs, and at steady was ~8 ± 1.3 nM. Inhbiting Myc-Max dimerization by Max-knockdown or drug treatment increased the 'mobile' c-Myc pool size. These results indicate that Myc populates macromolecular complexes of widely heterogenous size and mobility in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte activation is initiated by a global increase in messenger RNA synthesis. However, the mechanisms driving transcriptome amplification during the immune response are unknown. By monitoring single-stranded DNA genome wide, we show that the genome of naive cells is poised for rapid activation. In G0, ∼90% of promoters from genes to be expressed in cycling lymphocytes are polymerase loaded but unmelted and support only basal transcription. Furthermore, the transition from abortive to productive elongation is kinetically limiting, causing polymerases to accumulate nearer to transcription start sites. Resting lymphocytes also limit the expression of the transcription factor IIH complex, including XPB and XPD helicases involved in promoter melting and open complex extension. To date, two rate-limiting steps have been shown to control global gene expression in eukaryotes: preinitiation complex assembly and polymerase pausing. Our studies identify promoter melting as a third key regulatory step and propose that this mechanism ensures a prompt lymphocyte response to invading pathogens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The "CTCF code" hypothesis posits that CTCF pleiotropic functions are driven by recognition of diverse sequences through combinatorial use of its 11 zinc fingers (ZFs). This model, however, is supported by in vitro binding studies of a limited number of sequences. To study CTCF multivalency in vivo, we define ZF binding requirements at ∼50,000 genomic sites in primary lymphocytes. We find that CTCF reads sequence diversity through ZF clustering. ZFs 4-7 anchor CTCF to ∼80% of targets containing the core motif. Nonconserved flanking sequences are recognized by ZFs 1-2 and ZFs 8-11 clusters, which also stabilize CTCF broadly. Alternatively, ZFs 9-11 associate with a second phylogenetically conserved upstream motif at ∼15% of its sites. Individually, ZFs increase overall binding and chromatin residence time. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a conserved downstream DNA motif that destabilizes CTCF occupancy. Thus, CTCF associates with a wide array of DNA modules via combinatorial clustering of its 11 ZFs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in B lymphocytes arise stochastically during replication or as a result of targeted DNA damage by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Here we identify recurrent, early replicating, and AID-independent DNA lesions, termed early replication fragile sites (ERFSs), by genome-wide localization of DNA repair proteins in B cells subjected to replication stress. ERFSs colocalize with highly expressed gene clusters and are enriched for repetitive elements and CpG dinucleotides. Although distinct from late-replicating common fragile sites (CFS), the stability of ERFSs and CFSs is similarly dependent on the replication-stress response kinase ATR. ERFSs break spontaneously during replication, but their fragility is increased by hydroxyurea, ATR inhibition, or deregulated c-Myc expression. Moreover, greater than 50% of recurrent amplifications/deletions in human diffuse large B cell lymphoma map to ERFSs. In summary, we have identified a source of spontaneous DNA lesions that drives instability at preferred genomic sites.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent a threat to the genome because they can lead to loss of genetic information and chromosome rearrangements. The DNA repair protein p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) protects the genome by limiting nucleolytic processing of DSBs by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation, but whether it does so directly is not known. Here, we identify Rapl-interacting factor 1 (Rif1) as an Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) phosphorylation-dependent interactor of 53BP1, and show that absence of Rif1 results in 5'-3' DNA end resection in mice. Consistent with enhanced DNA resection, Rif1 deficiency impairs DNA repair in the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, interferes with class switch recombination in B lymphocytes, and leads to accumulation of chromosome DSBs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Aicda gene encodes Activation-Induced cytidine Deaminase (AID), an enzyme essential for remodeling antibody genes in mature B lymphocytes. AID is also responsible for DNA damage at oncogenes, leading to their mutation and cancer-associated chromosome translocation in lymphoma. We used fate mapping and AID(GFP) reporter mice to determine if AID expression in the mouse extends beyond lymphocytes. We discovered that AID(cre) tags a small fraction of non-lymphoid cells starting at 10.5 days post conception (dpc), and that AID(GFP+) cells are detectable at dpc 11.5 and 12.5. Embryonic cells are tagged by AID(cre) in the submandibular region, where conditional deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN causes squamous papillomas. AID(cre) also tags non-lymphoid cells in the embryonic central nervous system. Finally, in the adult mouse brain, AID(cre) marks a small fraction of diverse neurons and distinct neuronal populations, including pyramidal cells in cortical layer IV.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69208. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiencies in factors that regulate the DNA damage response enhance the incidence of malignancy by destabilizing the genome. However, the precise influence of the DNA damage response on regulation of cancer-associated rearrangements is not well defined. Here we examine the genome-wide impact of tumor protein P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) deficiency in lymphoma and translocation. While both activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and 53BP1 have been associated with cancer in humans, neither AID overexpression nor loss of 53BP1 is sufficient to produce malignancy. However, the combination of 53BP1 deficiency and AID deregulation results in B cell lymphoma. Deep sequencing of the genome of 53BP1(-/-) cancer cells and translocation capture sequencing (TC-Seq) of primary 53BP1(-/-) B cells revealed that their chromosomal rearrangements differ from those found in wild-type cells in that they show increased DNA end resection. Moreover, loss of 53BP1 alters the translocatome by increasing rearrangements to intergenic regions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes chromosomal translocations by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and oncogenes in the G1 phase. RPA is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that associates with resected DSBs in the S phase and facilitates the assembly of factors involved in homologous repair (HR), such as Rad51. Notably, RPA deposition also marks sites of AID-mediated damage, but its role in Ig gene recombination remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RPA associates asymmetrically with resected ssDNA in response to lesions created by AID, recombination-activating genes (RAG), or other nucleases. Small amounts of RPA are deposited at AID targets in G1 in an ATM-dependent manner. In contrast, recruitment in the S-G2/M phase is extensive, ATM independent, and associated with Rad51 accumulation. In the S-G2/M phase, RPA increases in nonhomologous-end-joining-deficient lymphocytes, where there is more extensive DNA-end resection. Thus, most RPA recruitment during class switch recombination represents salvage of unrepaired breaks by homology-based pathways during the S-G2/M phase of the cell cycle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are byproducts of normal cellular metabolism and obligate intermediates in antigen receptor diversification reactions. These lesions are potentially dangerous because they can lead to deletion of genetic material or chromosome translocation. The chromatin-binding protein 53BP1 and the histone variant H2AX are required for efficient class switch (CSR) and V(D)J recombination in part because they protect DNA ends from resection and thereby favor nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Here, we examine the mechanism of DNA end resection in primary B cells. We find that resection depends on both CtBP-interacting protein (CtIP, Rbbp8) and exonuclease 1 (Exo1). Inhibition of CtIP partially rescues the CSR defect in 53BP1- and H2AX-deficient lymphocytes, as does interference with the RecQ helicases Bloom (Blm) and Werner (Wrn). We conclude that CtIP, Exo1, and RecQ helicases contribute to the metabolism of DNA ends during DSB repair in B lymphocytes and that minimizing resection favors efficient CSR.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2012; · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-Myc HLH-bZIP protein has been implicated in physiological or pathological growth, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and differentiation at the cellular, tissue, or organismal levels via regulation of numerous target genes. No principle yet unifies Myc action due partly to an incomplete inventory and functional accounting of Myc's targets. To observe Myc target expression and function in a system where Myc is temporally and physiologically regulated, the transcriptomes and the genome-wide distributions of Myc, RNA polymerase II, and chromatin modifications were compared during lymphocyte activation and in ES cells as well. A remarkably simple rule emerged from this quantitative analysis: Myc is not an on-off specifier of gene activity, but is a nonlinear amplifier of expression, acting universally at active genes, except for immediate early genes that are strongly induced before Myc. This rule of Myc action explains the vast majority of Myc biology observed in literature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many tumors are characterized by recurrent translocations between a tissue-specific gene and a proto-oncogene. The juxtaposition of the Ig heavy chain gene and Myc in Burkitt's lymphoma and in murine plasmacytoma is a classic example. Regulatory elements within the heavy chain constant region locus are required for Myc translocation and/or deregulation. However, many genes are regulated by cis-acting elements at distances up to 1,000 kb outside the locus. Such putative distal elements have not been examined for the heavy chain locus, particularly in the context of Myc translocations. We demonstrate that a transgene containing the Ig heavy chain constant region locus, inserted into five different chromosomal locations, can undergo translocations involving Myc. Furthermore, these translocations are able to generate plasmacytomas in each transgenic line. We conclude that the heavy chain constant region locus itself includes all of the elements necessary for both the translocation and the deregulation of the proto-oncogene.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 109(34):13728-32. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) process and present antigens to T cells. Under steady-state conditions, antigen presentation by cDCs induces tolerance. In contrast, during infection or inflammation, cDCs become activated, express higher levels of cell surface MHC molecules, and induce strong adaptive immune responses. We recently identified a cDC-restricted zinc finger transcription factor, zDC (also known as Zbtb46 or Btbd4), that is not expressed by other immune cell populations, including plasmacytoid DCs, monocytes, or macrophages. We define the zDC consensus DNA binding motif and the genes regulated by zDC using chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing. By deleting zDC from the mouse genome, we show that zDC is primarily a negative regulator of cDC gene expression. zDC deficiency alters the cDC subset composition in the spleen in favor of CD8(+) DCs, up-regulates activation pathways in steady-state cDCs, including elevated MHC II expression, and enhances cDC production of vascular endothelial growth factor leading to increased vascularization of skin-draining lymph nodes. Consistent with these observations, zDC protein expression is rapidly down-regulated after TLR stimulation. Thus, zDC is a TLR-responsive, cDC-specific transcriptional repressor that is in part responsible for preventing cDC maturation in the steady state.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2012; 209(9):1583-93. · 13.21 Impact Factor