[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine species of helminths, all nematodes, were recovered from the viscera of 48 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from Cumberland Island, Georgia. Both the overdispersed frequency distributions and the abundances of the four common species of helminths (Stephanurus dentatus, Metastrongylus apri, M. pudendotectus and Gongylonema pulchrum) did not vary significantly across the main and interactive effects of host sex and/or seasons. Whether or not the present low population densities of feral swine on Cumberland Island has influenced the pattern of fluctuations in abundances of helminth species across seasons as often observed in helminth communities from other hosts was not resolved. The apparent recent decline in prevalences and abundances, and the loss of certain species from the helminth communities of feral swine on the island may be explained partially by the decreasing transmission potentials of direct life cycle species caused by a recent marked reduction of numbers of individuals in the host population. Conversely, the apparent increased prevalence and abundance of three species of helminths (S. dentatus, M. apri and M. pudendotectus) may be related to their common utilization of earthworms as paratenic or intermediate hosts. Gongylonema pulchrum was the only helminth in which abundances seemed to remain unchanged. This was the only species that was not strictly host specific to feral swine. We found no evidence that helminth infections were responsible for morbidity or mortality in this feral swine population.
Journal of wildlife diseases 02/1988; 24(1):105-12. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hybridizing populations of mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) from the Davis Mountains of Texas were examined to determine similarities in species composition of their helminth communities and if abundances of helminth species in those communities varied across host species and seasonal factors. Only three cestode and three nematode species were recovered. There were very low abundances of species and little diversity in the helminth communities of both hosts. Common helminth species were shared by both deer, and the significant variance in abundances of three of the four most common helminth species appeared to result from differences in habitat preferences of the respective hosts. Our results indicated that analyses of helminth communities of deer from this geographical area do not provide a useful quantification technique for determining deer condition, degree of hybridization, or levels of intraspecific competition.
Journal of wildlife diseases 02/1987; 23(1):113-20. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four species of nematodes (Gongylonema pulchrum, Parabronema pecariae, Texicospirura turki, and Physocephalus sexalatus) and one species of cestode (Moniezia sp.) comprised the helminth fauna of adult collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from the plains in southern Texas. The community structure of the helminth fauna of peccaries from this region was basically dissimilar to that from the more humid Gulf coastal prairies of southern Texas in composition (by the conspicuous absence of certain species) and relative abundance of shared species. The distributions of each of the three common species of helminths (G. pulchrum, T. turki, and P. sexalatus) were overdispersed. The effects of selected habitat variables operating across host subpopulations (delineated by condition and sex) and of the extrinsic variable of season on the dispersion patterns of the three common species of helminths were examined. The hypothesis that heterogeneity within the host population, rather than across the collective host population, is the main factor generating overdispersion in natural parasite populations was not confirmed for the three common species of helminths. Overdispersion in P. sexalatus resulted from seasonal changes across the collective host population, with the greatest abundances occurring during the cool season. Aggregated abundances of G. pulchrum resulted from variation generated across host sex subpopulations, while the dispersion patterns of T. turki appeared to be unaffected by the habitat variables examined in this study.
Journal of wildlife diseases 08/1985; 21(3):254-63. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighty-six adult female white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), collected over a 12-mo period in the Texas Edwards Plateau, harbored six species of nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Gongylonema pulchrum, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia sp., and Apteragia odocoilei), and two cestodes (Moniezia sp. and Taenia hydatigena). The patterns of distribution of the three common species of gastrointestinal helminths (H. contortus, O. venulosum, and G. pulchrum) were overdispersed. When analyzed for the main and interactive effects of the extrinsic and intrinsic variables of season and physical condition, respectively, aggregated abundances in H. contortus and O. venulosum appeared to result from the main effect of seasonal changes operating over the collective populations of these two species rather than from the intrinsic factor of physical condition operating within selected subpopulations. Abomasal parasite counts do not appear to be a useful index for monitoring herd condition of white-tailed deer from this geographic region.
Journal of wildlife diseases 08/1985; 21(3):264-73. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three species of trematode [Orchipedium jolliei Schell, 1967; Prohyptiamus grusi Kocan, Waldrup, Ramakka, and Iverson, 1982; Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802)], three species of nematode (Tetrameres grusi Shumakovich, 1946; Synhimanthus sp.; Contracaecum sp.), and one species of cestode (Anomotaenia sp.) were recovered from 146 sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), collected in Alaska, Canada, and two areas in Texas. The only common and abundant species were O. jolliei and T grusi. Of cranes collected in Texas, those that came from the Canadian breeding grounds had significantly greater abundances of O. jolliei and T. grusi than those from Alaska. However, cluster analysis using rank abundances of helminth species across the four geographic regions and stepwise multiple discriminant analysis using the grouping variable of the presence or absence of a subspecies-specific pancreatic protein indicated that classification of cranes into populations based on helminth abundances was impractical as a management technique.
Journal of wildlife diseases 08/1984; 20(3):207-11. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seasonal variations in blood chemistry, urine chemistry, fat reserves, and crude protein levels of rumen contents were determined for free-ranging adult female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) in central Texas. Seasonal variations (P less than 0.05) existed for serum total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratios, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, phosphorus, and sodium; and urinary urea/creatinine (U/C) ratios, rumen crude protein, the kidney fat index (KFI), femur marrow fat (FMF), and dressed weights. Variations in BUN, urinary U/C ratios, dressed weights, KFI, and FMF were attributed partially to the nutritional demands of late gestation and lactation.
Journal of wildlife diseases 08/1984; 20(3):212-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor