ABSTRACT: Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) has hitherto been associated with thyroid hormone beta receptor (TRbeta) mutations which cluster in two regions (alphaalpha 310-353 and alphaalpha 429-461) of the hormone-binding domain and closely approximate the ligand-binding cavity. Here, we describe a third cluster of RTH mutations extending from alphaalpha 234-282 which constitute a third boundary of the ligand pocket. One mutant, T277A, exhibits impaired transactivation which is disproportionate to its mildly reduced ligand affinity (Ka). T3-dependent recruitment of coactivators (SRC-1, ACTR) by mutant receptor-RXR heterodimers was reduced in comparison with wild-type. Cotransfection of SRC-1 restored transactivation by T277A. In the TRbeta crystal structure this helix 3 residue is surface-exposed and is in close proximity to residues L454 and E457 in helix 12 which are known to be critical for coactivator interaction, suggesting that they all constitute part of a receptor-coactivator interface. The transcriptional function of other mutants (A234T, R243W/Q, A268D, Delta276I, A279V, R282S) in this cluster correlated with their reduced Ka and they inhibited wild-type TRbeta action in a dominant negative manner. DNA binding, heterodimerization and corepressor recruitment were preserved in all mutants, signifying the importance of these attributes for dominant negative activity and correlating with the absence of natural mutations in regions bordering the third cluster which mediate these functions.
The EMBO Journal 09/1998; 17(16):4760-70. · 9.20 Impact Factor