Simon G. Haberle

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Publications (78)272.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cut-back of a sea-cliff at Hannant Inlet in remote South-West Tasmania has exposed Oligocene clays buried under Late Pleistocene "collu-vium" from which abundant wood fragments protrude. The two units are separated by a transitional interval defined by mixed Oligocene and Pleistocene microfloras. Microfloras preserved in situ in the clay provide a link between floras in Tasmania and other Southern Hemisphere landmasses following onset of major glaciation in East Antarctica during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (c. 34 Ma). The Late Pleistocene "colluvium" preserves abundant fossil pollen of the shrub conifer genus Pherosphaera (al. Microstrobos). Assuming the parent plants had the same upper subalpine-alpine ecology as living Pherosphaera hookeriana, the microflora provides evidence for cold, wet conditions in the Port Davey lowlands during a low sea-level stand. The same data highlight the failure of Pherosphaera to regain its Pleistocene distribution during the Postglacial period. Our data are inconclusive whether Late Pleistocene conditions in Hannant Inlet were periglacial, i.e., the Oligocene sediments were turbated by freeze-thaw processes, or have been reworked by fluvial processes into the Pleistocene "colluvium". Nevertheless, the inferred cold-climate is consistent with the former hypothesis. The sequence is sealed under cross-bedded coarse quartzite gravels of presumed Last Glacial Stage age.
    Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. 12/2014; 148(148):43-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. The objective of this study is to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 11/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    Michael-Shawn Fletcher, Sam W. Wood, Simon G. Haberle
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    ABSTRACT: We test the validity of applying the alternative stable state paradigm to account for the landscape-scale forest/non-forest mosaic that prevails in temperate Tasmania, Australia. This test is based on fine scale pollen, spore and charcoal analyses of sediments located within a small patch of non-forest vegetation surrounded by temperate forest. Following nearly 500 years of forest dominance at the site, a catastrophic fire drove an irreversible shift from a forested Cyperaceae-Sphagnum wetland to a non-forested Restionaceae wetland at ca.7000 cal yr BP. Persistence of the non-forest/Restionaceae vegetation state over 7000 years despite long fire-free intervals implies that fire was not essential for the maintenance of the non-forest state. We propose that reduced interception and transpiration of the non-forest state resulted in local waterlogging, presenting an eco-hydrological barrier to forest reestablishment over the succeeding 7000 years. We further contend that the rhizotamous nature of the non-forest species presented a reinforcing eco-physical barrier to forest development. Our results satisfy a number of criteria for consideration as an example of a switch between alternative stable states, including different origin and maintenance pathways, and provide insights into the role of threshold dynamics and hysteresis in forest/non-forest transitions.
    Ecology 09/2014; 95(9):2504. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New deglacial pollen and conifer stoma records from Tiancai Lake, northwestern Yunnan Province, southwestern China, an alpine lake in the southwest monsoon region, are presented in this study. Based on these records, the lithology of core TCYL1, and PCA analysis of pollen data between ~ 21 and 11.5 ka BP (calibrated 14C years), the deglacial vegetation and climate changes are discussed in detail. The results show that Tiancai Lake was above the upper limit of Picea/Abies forest (a treeline in the study area) between ~ 21 and 11.5 ka BP, and the climate was colder and drier than that of the Holocene. During this period eight significant vegetation changes are recorded that are considered to be responses to changing temperatures and variations in the southwest monsoon in southwestern China. The Heinrich Event 1 (H1), the Bølling/Allerød warm period (BA) and the Younger Dryas cold event (YD) are all clearly detected in this record. In addition, this study finds that the initial late glacial warming in northwestern Yunnan Province was at ~ 18.7 ka BP, which is coincident with the climate records in monsoonal Central Asia, the Indian Ocean, the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica, and is a response to solar insolation changes. A noted temperature increase between 15.8 and 14.4 ka BP occurred at the end of the H1 and before the BA, which indicates a strong pre-Bølling warming. Based on the study, we consider that the hypothesis about a slowdown of the ocean's thermohaline circulation is sufficient to explain these late glacial abrupt events.
    Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 07/2014; 406:9–21. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • David Tng, Simon Haberle, Feli Hopf, David Bowman
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    ABSTRACT: The datafile contains the composition and abundance of airborne pollen in the suburb of Sandy Bay (University of Tasmania), Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. The data was collected for the period between July 2007 to December 2010 as part of a large research program looking at atmospheric particles and human health and phenology of urban planted environments (see Tng, DYP, Hopf, F, Haberle, SG, Bowman, DMJS 2010, Seasonal pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Hobart, Tasmania: preliminary observations and congruence with flowering phenology. Australian Journal of Botany 58, 440–452).
    ACEAS. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo assess hypotheses about the role of anthropogenic fire in the maintenance and origin of a fine-scale vegetation mosaic of rain forest, eucalypt savanna and grassland.LocationBunya Mountains, subtropical eastern Australia.MethodsA time series of vegetation maps was compiled from historical and recent aerial photography and field surveys. Geospatial models were constructed of environmental domains for rain forest, savanna and grassland, and for areas of biome change. Grassland soils were analysed for carbon isotope ratios (δ13C), and radiocarbon (14C) dates were acquired for bulk samples from a range of depths.ResultsAnalysis revealed weak associations between topography and the distribution of rain forest, savanna and grassland, and their patterns of recent change. Grassland occupied an environmental domain intermediate between rain forest and savanna and was more than four times as likely to occur within a matrix of rain forest rather than savanna. There was a large proportional reduction in the area of both grassland (−35%) and savanna (−19%) between 1961 and 2006 because of the expansion of rain forest. However, the greater initial extent of savanna meant that the areal loss of savanna was an order of magnitude greater than for grassland (1433 vs. 146 ha). There was no evidence of abrupt changes in δ13C in grassland soil profiles, indicating stability of the vegetation over the last 2000 years.Main conclusionsThere is no simple gradient in ‘tree suitability’ from rain forest, through savanna, to treeless grassland on the Bunya Mountains. A general absence of fire since the 19th century has greatly reduced the extent of grassy savanna and grassland formations, to the advantage of rain forest. These results support the hypothesis that the vegetation mosaic on the Bunya Mountains is a cultural artefact and testament to millennia of skilful and persistent burning. We could not conclusively reject the hypothesis that the grasslands are Pleistocene relicts that have declined throughout the Holocene; nonetheless, an explanation more consistent with the evidence overall is that the grasslands must have had periods of expansion during the Holocene, probably as a consequence of severe fires that have destroyed patches of rain forest.
    Journal of Biogeography 04/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97925. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reconstructing past changes of the summer monsoon in southwestern China is key to understanding the paleoclimatic dynamics of the Indian summer monsoon (southwest monsoon), a major tropical system with impacts beyond the region. High-resolution pollen and conifer stoma data are presented from a sediment core (Tiancai Lake), located just below treeline in the Hengduan Mountains, northwestern Yunnan Province of China. These data record changes in vegetation and climate for the latest Pleistocene and Holocene (c. the last 12,230 cal. yr BP), and by comparing these results with the pollen records from the nearby Erhai Lake and Lugu Lake, a regional climate history in Yunnan Province can be inferred. During the period of 12,230–11,510 cal. yr BP, open alpine meadow around Tiancai Lake indicates a relatively cold and dry climate, corresponding to the Younger Dryas cold event (YD). Between 11,510 and ∼10,000 cal. yr BP, the vegetation types around Tiancai Lake changed into Picea and Abies forest and alpine Rhododendron shrubland, reflecting increases in the temperature and humidity. From ∼10,000 to 6100 cal. yr BP, Tsuga forest expanded persistently toward Tiancai Lake, indicating further climate changed towards warmer and wetter conditions. Between 6100 and 3410 cal. yr BP, Tsuga forest was the dominant vegetation type nearest to Tiancai Lake, denoting warm and humid climatic conditions, corresponding to the Holocene climatic optimum in the northwestern Yunnan Province. Tsuga forest in mountains around Lugu Lake shrank quickly at 3410 cal. yr BP, reflecting significant decline of humidity. Since 2930 cal. yr BP, Tsuga forest around Tiancai Lake shrank gradually, indicating a fluctuating decrease of temperature. These climatic changes reflect changes of the southwest monsoon, namely, warm and humid climate indicating strong southwest monsoon, cold and dry climate denoting weak southwest monsoon.
    Quaternary Science Reviews 01/2014; 86:35–48. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of the water resources of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) has long been contested, and the effects of the recent Millennium drought and subsequent flooding events have generated acute contests over the appropriate allocation of water supplies to agricultural, domestic and environmental uses. This water-availability crisis has driven demand for improved knowledge of climate change trends, cycles of variability, the range of historical climates experienced by natural systems and the ecological health of the system relative to a past benchmark. A considerable volume of research on the past climates of southeastern Australia has been produced over recent decades, but much of this work has focused on longer geological time-scales, and is of low temporal resolution. Less evidence has been generated of recent climate change at the level of resolution that accesses the cycles of change relevant to management. Intra-decadal and near-annual resolution (high-resolution) records do exist and provide evidence of climate change and variability, and of human impact on systems, relevant to natural-resource management. There exist now many research groups using a range of proxy indicators of climate that will rapidly escalate our knowledge of management-relevant, climate change and variability. This review assembles available climate and catchment change research within, and in the vicinity of, the MDB and portrays the research activities that are responding to the knowledge need. It also discusses how paleoclimate scientists may better integrate their pursuits into the resource-management realm to enhance the utility of the science, the effectiveness of the management measures and the outcomes for the end users.
    Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 07/2013; 60(5):561-571. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) in environmental samples is of great interest, e.g. for carbon cycle assessment, (bio-)char characterization and palaeo-environmental or archeological reconstruction. Here, an HPLC method (HPLC) is presented that reproducibly quantifies benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers for PyC in various kinds of environmental samples. It operates at low pH without requiring an organic modifier and was thoroughly tested with PyC reference materials and a peatland core that served as a feasibility and plausibility check. Compared to the established gas chromatography (GC) method, the HPLC method results in higher BPCA quantification reproducibility by showing a significantly smaller coefficient of variation (HPLC: 5%, GC: 16-23%). It works well with small sample amounts, as for instance from sediment cores and aerosol collectors, and requires less sample preparation work than the GC method. Moreover, the here presented HPLC method facilitates (13)C and (14)C analyses on PyC from environmental samples.
    Journal of Chromatography A 06/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Aim To assess the long-term impacts of landscape fire on a mosaic of pyrophobic and pyrogenic woody montane vegetation. Location South-west Tasmania, Australia. Methods We undertook a high-resolution multiproxy palaeoecological analysis of sediments deposited in Lake Osborne (Hartz Mountains National Park, southern Tasmania), employing analyses of pollen, macroscopic and microscopic charcoal, organic and inorganic geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility. Results Sequential fires within the study catchment over the past 6500 years have resulted in the reduction of pyrophobic rain forest taxa and the establishment of pyrogenic Eucalyptus-dominated vegetation. The vegetation change was accompanied by soil erosion and nutrient losses. The rate of post-fire recovery of widespread rain forest taxa (Nothofagus cunninghamii and Eucryphia spp.) conforms to ecological models, as does the local extinction of fire-sensitive rain forest taxa (Nothofagus gunnii and Cupressaceae) following successive fires. Main conclusions The sedimentary analyses indicate that recurrent fires over several centuries caused a catchment-wide transition from pyrophobic rain forest to pyrophytic eucalypt-dominated vegetation. The fires within the lake catchment during the 6500-year long record appear to coincide with highfrequency El Ni~no events in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, signalling a potential threat to these highly endemic rain forests if El Ni~no intensity amplifies as predicted under future climate scenarios.
    Journal of Biogeography 01/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The tropics are the major source of heat and moisture for the Australasian region. Determining the tropics' response over time to changes in climate forcing mechanisms, such as summer insolation, and the effects of relative sea level on exposed continental shelves during the Last Glacial period, is an ongoing process of re-evaluation. We present a synthesis of climate proxy data from tropical Australasia spanning the last 30,000 years that incorporates deep sea core, coral, speleothem, pollen, charcoal and terrestrial sedimentary records. Today, seasonal variability is governed largely by the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), influencing this region most strongly during the austral summer. However, the position of the ITCZ has varied through time. Towards the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, conditions were far wetter throughout the region, becoming drier first in the south. Universally cooler land and sea-surface tem-perature (SST) were characteristic of the Last Glacial Maximum, with drier conditions than previously, although episodic wet periods are noted in the fluvial records of northern Australia. The deglacial period saw warming first in the Coral Sea and then the Indonesian seas, with a pause in this trend around the time of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (c. 14.5 ka), coincident with the flooding of the Sunda Shelf. Wetter con-ditions occurred first in Indonesia around 17 ka and northern Australia after 14 ka. The early Holocene saw a peak in marine SST to the northwest and northeast of Australia. Modern vegetation was first established on Indonesia, then progressively south and eastward to NE Australia. Flores and the Atherton Tablelands show a dry period around 11.6 ka, steadily becoming wetter through the early Holocene. The mid-late Holocene was punctuated by millennial-scale variability, associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscil-lation; this is evident in the marine, coral, speleothem and pollen records of the region.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim The increased incidence of large fires around much of the world in recent decades raises questions about human and non-human drivers of fire and the likelihood of increased fire activity in the future. The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework for examining where human-set fires and feedbacks are likely to be most pronounced in temperate forests world-wide and to establish and test a methodology for evaluating this framework using palaeoecological records. Location Tasmania, north-western USA, southern South America and New Zealand. Methods We outline a conceptual framework for predicting the sensitivity of ecosystems to human impacts on fire regimes and then use a circum-Pacific comparison of existing historical reconstructions of fire, climate, human settlement and vegetation to evaluate this approach. Results Previous research investigating important controls on fire activity shows that the sensitivity of temperate ecosystems to human-set fires is modulated by the frequency of natural fire occurrence, fuel moisture and fuel type and availability. Palaeoecological data from four temperate regions suggest that the effects of anthropogenic burning are greatest where fire is naturally rare, vegetation is poorly adapted to fire and fuel biomass is abundant and contiguous. Alternatively, where fire activity is naturally high and vegetation is well adapted to fire, evidence of human influence on fire and vegetation is less obvious. Main conclusions Palaeofire records suggest that the most dynamic and persistent ecosystem transitions occur where human activities increase landscape flammability through fire–vegetation feedbacks. Rapid forest transitions in biomass-rich ecosystems such as New Zealand and areas of Tasmania and southern South America illustrate how landscapes experiencing few fires can shift past tipping points to become fire-prone landscapes with new alternative stable state communities. Comparisons of palaeoecological data from different regions with similar biophysical gradients but different human settlement histories can provide new opportunities for understanding ecosystem vulnerability to fire–climate–human interactions.
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 01/2013; · 7.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The tropics are the major source of heat and moisture for the Australasian region. Determining the tropics' response over time to changes in climate forcing mechanisms, such as summer insolation, and the effects of relative sea level on exposed continental shelves during the Last Glacial period, is an ongoing process of re-evaluation. We present a synthesis of climate proxy data from tropical Australasia spanning the last 30,000 years that incorporates deep sea core, coral, speleothem, pollen, charcoal and terrestrial sedimentary records. Today, seasonal variability is governed largely by the annual migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), influencing this region most strongly during the austral summer. However, the position of the ITCZ has varied through time. Towards the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, conditions were far wetter throughout the region, becoming drier first in the south. Universally cooler land and sea-surface tem-perature (SST) were characteristic of the Last Glacial Maximum, with drier conditions than previously, although episodic wet periods are noted in the fluvial records of northern Australia. The deglacial period saw warming first in the Coral Sea and then the Indonesian seas, with a pause in this trend around the time of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (c. 14.5 ka), coincident with the flooding of the Sunda Shelf. Wetter con-ditions occurred first in Indonesia around 17 ka and northern Australia after 14 ka. The early Holocene saw a peak in marine SST to the northwest and northeast of Australia. Modern vegetation was first established on Indonesia, then progressively south and eastward to NE Australia. Flores and the Atherton Tablelands show a dry period around 11.6 ka, steadily becoming wetter through the early Holocene. The mid-late Holocene was punctuated by millennial-scale variability, associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscil-lation; this is evident in the marine, coral, speleothem and pollen records of the region.
    Quaternary Science Reviews 01/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The Australian region spans some 60 of latitude and 50 of longitude and displays considerable regional climate variability both today and during the Late Quaternary. A synthesis of marine and terrestrial climate records, combining findings from the Southern Ocean, temperate, tropical and arid zones, identifies a complex response of climate proxies to a background of changing boundary conditions over the last 35,000 years. Climate drivers include the seasonal timing of insolation, greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, sea level rise and ocean and atmospheric circulation changes. Our compilation finds few climatic events that could be used to construct a climate event stratigraphy for the entire region, limiting the usefulness of this approach. Instead we have taken a spatial approach, looking to discern the patterns of change across the continent. The data identify the clearest and most synchronous climatic response at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 AE 3 ka), with unambiguous cooling recorded in the ocean, and evidence of glaci-ation in the highlands of tropical New Guinea, southeast Australia and Tasmania. Many terrestrial records suggest drier conditions, but with the timing of inferred snowmelt, and changes to the rainfall/runoff relationships, driving higher river discharge at the LGM. In contrast, the deglaciation is a time of con-siderable south-east to north-west variation across the region. Warming was underway in all regions by 17 ka. Post-glacial sea level rise and its associated regional impacts have played an important role in determining the magnitude and timing of climate response in the north-west of the continent in contrast to the southern latitudes. No evidence for cooling during the Younger Dryas chronozone is evident in the region, but the Antarctic cold reversal clearly occurs south of Australia. The Holocene period is a time of considerable climate variability associated with an intense monsoon in the tropics early in the Holocene, giving way to a weakened monsoon and an increasingly El Niño-dominated ENSO to the present. The influence of ENSO is evident throughout the southeast of Australia, but not the southwest. This climate
    Quaternary Science Reviews 01/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    J M Kale Sniderman, Simon G Haberle
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    ABSTRACT: Early Pleistocene vegetation in upland southeastern Australia included diverse rainforests and sclerophyll forests, which alternated on precessional timescales. The nature and timing of transitions between these biomes, and the role of fire in maintaining or driving transitions between them, are uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution pollen record from Stony Creek Basin, a small Early Pleistocene palaeolake in southeastern Australia. The pollen record documents a pattern of vegetation change, over ca. 10 ka at ca. 1590–1600 ka, between sclerophyll forests, dominated by Eucalyptus, Callitris (Cupressaceae) or Casuarinaceae, and rainforests dominated by either angiosperms or conifers of the family Podocarpaceae. Transitions between these biomes typically occurred within ca. 1–2 ka. The associated charcoal record suggests that greatest biomass combustion occurred when local vegetation was dominated by Eucalyptus, and the least biomass combustion occurred when local vegetation was dominated by Podocarpaceae. However, local fires burnt in both sclerophyll and angiosperm-dominated rainforest vegetation, at least once every several centuries. Fire was very rare (less than about one fire per millennium) only when the local vegetation was rainforest dominated by Podocarpaceae. This suggests that fire was an irregular presence in both sclerophyll-and angiosperm-dominated rainforest biomes during the late Neogene, though was largely absent in Podocarpaceae-dominated rainforests.
    Journal of Quaternary Science 04/2012; 27(3). · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giant vertebrates dominated many Pleistocene ecosystems. Many were herbivores, and their sudden extinction in prehistory could have had large ecological impacts. We used a high-resolution 130,000-year environmental record to help resolve the cause and reconstruct the ecological consequences of extinction of Australia's megafauna. Our results suggest that human arrival rather than climate caused megafaunal extinction, which then triggered replacement of mixed rainforest by sclerophyll vegetation through a combination of direct effects on vegetation of relaxed herbivore pressure and increased fire in the landscape. This ecosystem shift was as large as any effect of climate change over the last glacial cycle, and indicates the magnitude of changes that may have followed megafaunal extinction elsewhere in the world.
    Science 03/2012; 335(6075):1483-6. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47–48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the range of variability characteristic of these ecosystems over many centuries and probably millennia.
    Climate of the Past 03/2012; 8(2):451-466. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    Terra Australis, 34 edited by S. Haberle and B. David, 02/2012: chapter Holocene Landscape Change in the sclerophyll woodlands of the Wet Tropics of northeastern Australia: pages 329-341; Australian National University Press.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
272.97 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Australian National University
      • • School of Culture, History & Language
      • • Department of Archaeology & natural history
      • • Research School of Asia & the Pacific
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Tasmania
      • School of Plant Science
      Hobart Town, Tasmania, Australia
    • Asia Pacific College
      Isio, Western Visayas, Philippines
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2000–2004
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • School of Geography and Environmental Science
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1999
    • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
      Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá, Panama
  • 1995–1998
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Plant Sciences
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom