R B Lôbo

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (90)69.75 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 61,528 weight records from 22,246 Nellore animals born between 1984 and 2002 were used to compare different multiple-trait analysis methods for birth to mature weights. The following models were used: standard multivarite model (MV), five reduced-rank models fitting the first 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 genetic principal components, and five models using factor analysis with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 factors. Direct additive genetic random effects and residual effects were included in all models. In addition, maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were included as random effects for birth and weaning weight. The models included contemporary group as fixed effect and age of animal at recording (except for birth weight) and age of dam at calving as linear and quadratic effects (for birth weight and weaning weight). The maternal genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual (co)variance matrices were assumed to be full rank. According to model selection criteria, the model fitting the three first principal components (PC3) provided the best fit, without the need for factor analysis models. Similar estimates of phenotypic, direct additive and maternal genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual (co)variances were obtained with models MV and PC3. Direct heritability ranged from 0.21 (birth weight) to 0.45 (weight at 6 years of age). The genetic and phenotypic correlations obtained with model PC3 were slightly higher than those estimated with model MV. In general, the reduced-rank model substantially decreased the number of parameters in the analyses without reducing the goodness-of-fit.
    Livestock Science. 04/2013; 152(s 2–3):135–142.
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    ABSTRACT: This study used multivariate statistics to identify clusters of animals with similar expected progeny difference (EPD) and also identify leading traits that discriminate between bulls. Various linear selection indices based on specific selection criteria were proposed. Records were collected from 880 young Nelore bulls submitted to performance testing in central Brazil between 2001 and 2012. Pre-weaning average daily gain and weights at 210 days with direct and maternal effects were used in the analysis, in addition to post-weaning weight, scrotal circumference at 365 and 450 days, carcass finish and rib eye area. EPDs were classified into three groups, and the EPD means of two of these groups stood out and were considered important based on principal component analysis that associated higher values of direct EPD of weights, average daily weight gain and scrotal circumference. The EPDs for weight at 210, 365 and 450 days, pre- and post-weaning daily gain and scrotal circumference at 365 and 450 days were major causes of variation. Each linear selection index proposed (SI(1), SI(2), SI(3), SI(4) and SI(5)) defined a specific approach meaning that a different selection index should be used depending on breeding goals and selection criteria.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 02/2013; · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Components of (co)variance and genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted weights at ages 120 (W120), 240 (W240), 365 (W365) and 450 (W450) days of Polled Nellore cattle raised on pasture and born between 1987 and 2010. Analyses were performed using an animal model, considering fixed effects: herd-year-season of birth and calf sex as contemporary groups and the age of cow as a covariate. Gibbs Samplers were used to estimate (co)variance components, genetic parameters and additive genetic effects, which accounted for great proportion of total variation in these traits. High direct heritability estimates for the growth traits were revealed and presented mean 0.43, 0.61, 0.72 and 0.67 for W120, W240, W365 and W450, respectively. Maternal heritabilities were 0.07 and 0.08 for W120 and W240, respectively. Direct additive genetic correlations between the weight at 120, 240, 365 and 450 days old were strong and positive. These estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.98. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were negative for W120 and W240. The estimates ranged from -0.31 to -0.54. Estimates of maternal heritability ranged from 0.056 to 0.092 for W120 and from 0.064 to 0.096 for W240. This study showed that genetic progress is possible for the growth traits we studied, which is a novel and favorable indicator for an upcoming and promising Polled Zebu breed in Tropical regions. Maternal effects influenced the performance of weight at 120 and 240 days old. These effects should be taken into account in genetic analyses of growth traits by fitting them as a genetic or a permanent environmental effect, or even both. In general, due to a medium-high estimate of environmental (co)variance components, management and feeding conditions for Polled Nellore raised at pasture in tropical regions of Brazil needs improvement and growth performance can be enhanced.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75423. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for live weight of Nellore cattle from Performance Test of Young Bulls using random regression models. Data of weights and ages of 925 weaned males was used. The animal model included the fixed effect of contemporary group, age of the animal at weighing as a covariate and as random effects it was considered the effect of additive genetic and permanent environment of the animal. The residue was modeled considering four classes of variances. The models were compared based on the Bayesian information criteria of Akaike and Schwartz. The model polynomial of fourth and sixth order for the direct additive genetic effects and permanent environment of the animal, respectively was the most appropriate to describe the changes in the variances of the weights during the period in which the animals participating in the performance test young bulls. Heritability estimates showed moderate magnitudes and indicated that direct selection will promote improvement of selection criteria adopted. Furthermore, due to high positive correlation between the estimated weights, it was suggested selecting the best animals before at 365 days of age, because it is the period in which the animals have a higher growth rate and thus you can select animals heavier and less delayed.
    SpringerPlus 12/2012; 1(1):49.
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    ABSTRACT: In most studies on beef cattle longevity, only the cows reaching a given number of calvings by a specific age are considered in the analyses. With the aim of evaluating all cows with productive life in herds, taking into consideration the different forms of management on each farm, it was proposed to measure cow longevity from age at last calving (ALC), that is, the most recent calving registered in the files. The objective was to characterize this trait in order to study the longevity of Nellore cattle, using the Kaplan-Meier estimators and the Cox model. The covariables and class effects considered in the models were age at first calving (AFC), year and season of birth of the cow and farm. The variable studied (ALC) was classified as presenting complete information (uncensored = 1) or incomplete information (censored = 0), using the criterion of the difference between the date of each cow's last calving and the date of the latest calving at each farm. If this difference was >36 months, the cow was considered to have failed. If not, this cow was censored, thus indicating that future calving remained possible for this cow. The records of 11 791 animals from 22 farms within the Nellore Breed Genetic Improvement Program ('Nellore Brazil') were used. In the estimation process using the Kaplan-Meier model, the variable of AFC was classified into three age groups. In individual analyses, the log-rank test and the Wilcoxon test in the Kaplan-Meier model showed that all covariables and class effects had significant effects (P < 0.05) on ALC. In the analysis considering all covariables and class effects, using the Wald test in the Cox model, only the season of birth of the cow was not significant for ALC (P > 0.05). This analysis indicated that each month added to AFC diminished the risk of the cow's failure in the herd by 2%. Nonetheless, this does not imply that animals with younger AFC had less profitability. Cows with greater numbers of calvings were more precocious than those with fewer calvings.
    animal 10/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of body composition traits measured by ultrasound, growth traits and visual scores, as well as their genetic associations, in Nelore cattle. A total of 9,765; 13,285; 13,061; 12,811; 3,484; 3,484; 3,483 and 3,303 records of weight at time of ultrasound measure (W550), 12(th)-13(th) rib longissimus muscle area (LMA) and backfat thickness (BF); rump fat thickness (RF); visual scores for body structure (S), finishing precocity (F), muscling (M) and sheath and navel characteristics (N), respectively, were used. The model included contemporary group (defined as year and season of birth, sex, and management group) as a fixed effect and age of dam at calving and age of the animal (linear and quadratic effects) as covariates. The direct additive genetic effect was included as a random effect. The analyses also included 46,157 observations of weight adjusted to 120 days. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multi-trait animal model. The heritability estimates for W550, LMA, BF, RF, S, F, M and N were 0.37 ± 0.030; 0.33 ± 0.03; 0.24 ± 0.02; 0.28 ± 0.03; 0.24 ± 0.04; 0.38 ± 0.05; 0.29 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.06, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between visual scores and LMA were moderate and positive, ranging from 0.37 to 0.44. Similar results were obtained for the estimated genetic correlations between F and M with fat thickness measures (BF and RF). Low genetic correlation were estimated between N and S and between N and the body composition traits, indicating that selection for body composition traits and S will not affect sheath and navel size. The estimated genetic correlations between W120 and W550 and S were high (0.87 and 0.91) and moderate with LMA (0.49 and 0.55), F (0.37 and 0.41) and M (0.47 and 0.55). The visual scores and ultrasound-measured body composition traits have enough genetic variation for selection purposes in Nelore cattle. Selection based on visual scores for body structure, finishing precocity and muscling should lead to desired changes in body composition, albeit much more slowly than direct selection on those traits measured by ultrasound. Selection for higher weights at early ages should lead to favorable changes in yearling longissimus muscle area and visual scores.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters of body weight at 210 (BW210) and 365 (BW365) days of age in relation to rib eye area (REA), subcutaneous back fat thickness (BF) and rump fat (RF), and their respective genetic trends, in Nelore beef cattle. Estimates of genetic parameters and breeding values for the studied traits were obtained using the REML method. The direct and maternal heritability estimates were respectively: 0.25±0.02 and 0.21±0.01, for BW210, and 0.29±0.02 and 0.09±0.01, for BW365. The heritability estimates for transformed REA, BF and RF were 0.29±0.03, 0.21±0.02 and 0.23±0.03, respectively. There were genetic associations between BW210 and REA, BW365 and REA, and BF and RF, while the other correlations were low. The selection process that was conducted at the farms participating in the breeding program, taking the proposed selection index into consideration, caused genetic changes to these traits.
    Meat Science 02/2012; 91(3):352-7. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate (co)variance components using random regression on B-spline functions to weight records obtained from birth to adulthood. A total of 82 064 weight records of 8145 females obtained from the data bank of the Nellore Breeding Program (PMGRN/Nellore Brazil) which started in 1987, were used. The models included direct additive and maternal genetic effects and animal and maternal permanent environmental effects as random. Contemporary group and dam age at calving (linear and quadratic effect) were included as fixed effects, and orthogonal Legendre polynomials of age (cubic regression) were considered as random covariate. The random effects were modeled using B-spline functions considering linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment. Residual variances were grouped in five age classes. Direct additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects were modeled using up to seven knots (six segments). A single segment with two knots at the end points of the curve was used for the estimation of maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. A total of 15 models were studied, with the number of parameters ranging from 17 to 81. The models that used B-splines were compared with multi-trait analyses with nine weight traits and to a random regression model that used orthogonal Legendre polynomials. A model fitting quadratic B-splines, with four knots or three segments for direct additive genetic effect and animal permanent environmental effect and two knots for maternal additive genetic effect and maternal permanent environmental effect, was the most appropriate and parsimonious model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Selection for higher weight, such as at young ages, should be performed taking into account an increase in mature cow weight. Particularly, this is important in most of Nellore beef cattle production systems, where the cow herd is maintained on range conditions. There is limited modification of the growth curve of Nellore cattle with respect to the aim of selecting them for rapid growth at young ages while maintaining constant adult weight.
    animal 02/2012; 6(2):212-20. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 02/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Validity of comparisons between expected breeding values obtained from best linear unbiased prediction procedures in genetic evaluations is dependent on genetic connectedness among herds. Different cattle breeding programmes have their own particular features that distinguish their database structure and can affect connectedness. Thus, the evolution of these programmes can also alter the connectedness measures. This study analysed the evolution of the genetic connectedness measures among Brazilian Nelore cattle herds from 1999 to 2008, using the French Criterion of Admission to the group of Connected Herds (CACO) method, based on coefficients of determination (CD) of contrasts. Genetic connectedness levels were analysed by using simple and multiple regression analyses on herd descriptors to understand their relationship and their temporal trends from the 1999-2003 to the 2004-2008 period. The results showed a high level of genetic connectedness, with CACO estimates higher than 0.4 for the majority of them. Evaluation of the last 5-year period showed only a small increase in average CACO measures compared with the first 5 years, from 0.77 to 0.80. The percentage of herds with CACO estimates lower than 0.7 decreased from 27.5% in the first period to 16.2% in the last one. The connectedness measures were correlated with percentage of progeny from connecting sires, and the artificial insemination spread among Brazilian herds in recent years. But changes in connectedness levels were shown to be more complex, and their complete explanation cannot consider only herd descriptors. They involve more comprehensive changes in the relationship matrix, which can be only fully expressed by the CD of contrasts.
    Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 02/2012; 129(1):20-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The testis-specific protein Y-encoded gene (TSPY) is a Y-specific gene present in variable copy number in many mammalian species, including cattle. We tested the applicability of the TSPY gene as a Y-specific marker to predict preimplantation embryo sex in Nelore (Bos indicus) cattle. Two blastomeres were removed from each embryo. A total of 36 single blastomeres and the remaining cells of their 18 matched in vitro conceived embryos were screened for TSPY amplification by nested-PCR. The results obtained from a single blastomere and the remaining cells of the same embryo were concordant in all cases. All blastomeres (16/16) from eight embryos produced with sexed sperm (specific for production of male embryos) were TSPY-positive. We conclude that TSPY is a good male-specific marker, the usefulness of which is probably enhanced by the high copy number. Other methods that are less time-consuming, such as real-time PCR, could be improved with the use of the TSPY gene sequences to generate primers and/or probes. This is the first report to demonstrate the applicability of the TSPY gene for sexing single cells in cattle.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 10/2011; 10(4):3937-41. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG) and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72,731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore). Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM) procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001) for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS) and dam age at calving (DAC) had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 10/2011; 34(4):569-74. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interest in the effect of genotype × environment interaction is increasing because animal breeding programs have become geographically broader. Climate changes in the next decades are also expected to challenge the present breeding goals, increasing the importance of environmental sensitivity. The aim of this work was to analyze genotype × environment interaction effect on cattle BW using the environmental sensitivity predicted by random regression reaction norm models, including sex and age effects as additional dimensions in the study. Genetic parameters were estimated for adjusted BW of Brazilian Nelore cattle at different ages (120, 210, 365, and 450 d), using linear polynomials for random regression analysis. The analyses with sex as a fixed effect (total analyses) were compared with those with sex-separated progenies (male and female progeny analyses, respectively). (Co)variance components were estimated and breeding values calculated EPD. The results showed important differences in reaction norm model genetic parameter estimates according to different age and sex analyses. The results confirmed the presence of an important genotype × environment × sex × age interaction for Nelore cattle BW. The patterns in these results lead to a revision of the importance of sexual and developmental factors on plasticity and adaptation concepts.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2011; 89(11):3410-25. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Records from 75,941 Nelore cattle were used to determine the importance of genotype by environment interaction (GEI) in five Brazilian states. (Co)variance components were estimated by single-trait analysis (with yearling weight, W450, considered to be the same trait in all states) and multiple-trait analysis (with the record from each state considered to be a different trait). The direct heritability estimates for yearling weight were 0.51, 0.39, 0.44, 0.37 and 0.41 in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais, respectively. The across-state genetic correlation estimates between Goiás and Mato Grosso, Goiás and Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais ranged from 0.67 to 0.75. These estimates indicate that GEIs are biologically important. No interactions were observed between Goiás and São Paulo, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais, or São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul (0.82 to 0.97). Comparison of single and multiple-trait analyses showed that selection based on the former was less efficient in the presence of GEI, with substantial losses (up to 10%) during selection.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 07/2011; 34(3):435-42. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated genetic parameters for various phases of body and testicular growth until 550 days of age in Nelore cattle, using Bayesian inference, including correlation values and error estimates. Weight and scrotal records of 54,182 Nelore animals originating from 18 farms participating in the Brazilian Nelore Breeding Program (PMGRN) were included. The following traits were measured: weight at standard ages of 120 (W120), 210 (W210), 365 (W365), 450 (W450), and 550 (W550) days; weight gain between 120/210 (WG1), 210/365 (WG2), 365/450 (WG3), 450/550 (WG4), 120/365 (WG5), 120/450 (WG6), 120/550 (WG7), 210/450 (WG8), 210/550 (WG9), and 365/550 (WG10) days of age; scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365), 450 (SC450) and 550 (SC550) days of age, and testicular growth between 365/450 (TG1), 450/550 (TG2) and 365/550 (TG3) days of age. The model included contemporary group (current farm, year and two-month period of birth, sex, and management group) and age of dam at calving, divided into classes as fixed effects. The model also included random effects for direct additive, maternal additive and maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects. The direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.23 to 0.39, 0.13 to 0.39 and 0.32 to 0.56 for weights at standard ages, weight gains and testicular measures, respectively. The genetic correlations between weights (0.69 to 0.94) and scrotal circumferences (0.91 to 0.97) measured at standard ages were higher than those between weight gain and testicular growth (0.18 to 0.97 and 0.36 to 0.77, respectively). The weights at standard ages responded more effectively to selection, and also gave strong correlations with the other traits.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2011; 10(4):3127-40. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IGF2 and CYP21 genes in Nellore cattle participating in the Brazilian Animal Breeding Program. The SNPs were found in exon 6 of the IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) gene (RFLP/MboII) as well as in the promoter region of the CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase) gene (RFLP/HpaII) of these animals. The TC heterozygotes were significantly more frequent than CC and TT homozygotes in the RFLP/MboII polymorphism. The T allele was significantly more frequent than the C allele in RFLP/HpaII polymorphism. This population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for these SNPs. Association of these polymorphisms with expected progeny differences of reproductive and productive traits was investigated, but proved to be significant only for DP550 (expected progeny differenced for weight at 365 days - IGF2 - RFLP/MboII) and DP450 (expected progeny differenced for weight at 450 days - CYP21 - RFLP/HpaII). This is the first study on the occurrence of these two polymorphisms in this Zebu breed of cattle. A total of 147 Nellore animals participating in the Breeding Program of the Nellore Breed (PMGRN) under the management of the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (ANCP) in the city of Ribeirão Preto were analyzed.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2011; 10(3):2140-7. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We quantified the potential increase in accuracy of expected breeding value for weights of Nelore cattle, from birth to mature age, using multi-trait and random regression models on Legendre polynomials and B-spline functions. A total of 87,712 weight records from 8144 females were used, recorded every three months from birth to mature age from the Nelore Brazil Program. For random regression analyses, all female weight records from birth to eight years of age (data set I) were considered. From this general data set, a subset was created (data set II), which included only nine weight records: at birth, weaning, 365 and 550 days of age, and 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. Data set II was analyzed using random regression and multi-trait models. The model of analysis included the contemporary group as fixed effects and age of dam as a linear and quadratic covariable. In the random regression analyses, average growth trends were modeled using a cubic regression on orthogonal polynomials of age. Residual variances were modeled by a step function with five classes. Legendre polynomials of fourth and sixth order were utilized to model the direct genetic and animal permanent environmental effects, respectively, while third-order Legendre polynomials were considered for maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. Quadratic polynomials were applied to model all random effects in random regression models on B-spline functions. Direct genetic and animal permanent environmental effects were modeled using three segments or five coefficients, and genetic maternal and maternal permanent environmental effects were modeled with one segment or three coefficients in the random regression models on B-spline functions. For both data sets (I and II), animals ranked differently according to expected breeding value obtained by random regression or multi-trait models. With random regression models, the highest gains in accuracy were obtained at ages with a low number of weight records. The results indicate that random regression models provide more accurate expected breeding values than the traditionally finite multi-trait models. Thus, higher genetic responses are expected for beef cattle growth traits by replacing a multi-trait model with random regression models for genetic evaluation. B-spline functions could be applied as an alternative to Legendre polynomials to model covariance functions for weights from birth to mature age.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2011; 10(2):1227-36. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CYP21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase) gene is involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones. Bov-A2 is a retroposon that is common in ruminant genomes. The promoter region of bovine CYP21 contains a short interspersed nucleotide element of Bov-A2, which overlaps a putative Sp1 binding site. We looked for RFLP/HpaII polymorphism in the Bov-A2 element in bovine Zebu breeds by PCR-RFLP, and examined whether polymorphism in this element is associated with methylation. Among DNA samples from 135 Brazilian Zebu breed cattle, we identified an RFLP/HpaII polymorphism (T/C), which, based on a restriction methylation-sensitive assay employing HpaII and isoschizomer MspI enzymes (methylation-sensitive and -non-sensitive enzymes, respectively), appears to be a DNA methylation point. This is the first report of this polymorphism and on DNA methylation in the bovine CYP21 promoter region in Brazilian Zebu cattle.
    Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2011; 10(3):1409-15. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model was used to estimate genetic correlations between morphological traits (body structure, finishing precocity and muscling) in Nelore cattle evaluated at weaning and yearling. Visual scores obtained from 7651 Nelore cattle at weaning and from 4155 animals at yearling, belonging to the Brazilian Nelore Program, were used. Genetic parameters for the morphological traits were estimated by two-trait Bayesian analysis under a threshold animal model. The genetic correlations between the morphological traits evaluated at two ages of the animal (weaning and yearling) were positive and high for body structure (0.91), finishing precocity (0.96) and muscling (0.94). These results indicate that the traits are mainly determined by the same set of genes of additive action and that direct selection at weaning will also result in genetic progress for the same traits at yearling. Thus, selection of the best genotypes during only one phase of life of the animal is suggested. However, genetic differences between morphological traits were better detected during the growth phase to yearling. Direct selection for body structure, finishing precocity and muscling at only one age, preferentially at yearling, is recommended as genetic differences between traits can be detected at this age.
    Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 10/2010; 127(5):377-84. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Reproduction Fertility and Development - REPROD FERT DEVELOP. 01/2010; 22(1).

Publication Stats

273 Citations
69.75 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2013
    • University of São Paulo
      • Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine (FMRP)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2012
    • CEP America
      Emeryville, California, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • São Paulo State University
      • • Departamento de Zootecnia
      • • Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias
      • • Departamento de Ciências Exatas
      São Paulo, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano – Campus Guanambi
      Guanamby, Estado de Bahía, Brazil
  • 2010
    • Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)
      UDI, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 2009
    • Universidade Federal de Goiás
      Goianá, Goiás, Brazil
  • 1999–2009
    • Universidade de Ribeirão Preto
      Entre Rios, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1995
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Animal Science
      Lincoln, NE, United States