[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is abundant in synovium and synovial fluids, where it probably contributes to vascular permeability and angiogenesis in arthritic joints. To investigate the probable sources of VEGF in synovium, we compared the ability of several cytokines (TGF-beta, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), IL-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) that are associated with arthritis and angiogenesis, to stimulate secretion of VEGF protein by human synovial fibroblasts. TGF-beta was the strongest inducer of VEGF secretion; six times more VEGF was secreted when cells were stimulated by TGF-beta than when stimulated by PDGF or IL-1 for 24 h. TNF-alpha and bFGF did not stimulate any secretion of VEGF. The stimulatory effects of TGF-beta and IL-1 on VEGF secretion were additive. Hypoxic culture alone also stimulated VEGF secretion, but more importantly, hypoxic culture conditions doubled the rate of VEGF secretion stimulated by the cytokines TGF-beta and IL-1. When dermal and synovial fibroblasts were stimulated identically by hypoxia and cytokines (TGF-beta and IL-1), synovial fibroblasts secreted four times more VEGF than did dermal fibroblasts. Thus in rheumatoid arthritis, the capacity of synovial fibroblasts in the hypoxic environment to secrete large amounts of VEGF in response to cytokines such as TGF-beta probably contributes significantly to angiogenesis in the synovium.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular permeability factor (VPF, also known as vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF), is a potent microvascular permeability enhancing cytokine and a selective mitogen for endothelial cells. It has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and ascites fluid accumulation. Since development of the destructive synovial pannus in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with changes in vascular permeability (synovial fluid accumulation), synovial cell hyperplasia, and angiogenesis, we examined synovial fluids (SFs) and joint tissue for the expression and local accumulation of VPF/VEGF. VPF/VEGF was detected in all of 21 synovial fluids examined and when measured by an immunofluorimetric assay, ranged from 6.9 to 180.5 pM. These levels are biologically significant, since < 1 pM VPF/VEGF can elicit responses from its target cells, endothelial cells. Levels of VPF/VEGF were highest in rheumatoid arthritis fluids (n = 10), with a mean value (+/- SEM) of 59.1 +/- 18.0 pM, vs. 21.4 +/- 2.3 pM for 11 SFs from patients with other forms of arthritis (p = 0.042). In situ hybridization studies that were performed on joint tissues from patients with active RA revealed that synovial lining macrophages strongly expressed VPF/VEGF mRNA, and that microvascular endothelial cells of nearby blood vessels strongly expressed mRNA for the VPF/VEGF receptors, flt-1 and KDR. Immunohistochemistry performed on inflamed rheumatoid synovial tissue revealed that the VPF/VEGF peptide was localized to macrophages within inflamed synovium, as well as to microvascular endothelium, its putative target in the tissue. Together, these findings indicate that VPF/VEGF may have an important role in the pathogenesis of RA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/1994; 180(1):341-6. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have implicated tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA), a well established animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis. Precisely how TNF is involved in CIA is not yet clear. In this study the effects of TNF on CIA were examined, independent of its potential effects on the immune response, by performing peri-articular injection of TNF in combination with passive immunization of rats. A sub-arthritic dose (5 mg) of affinity-purified anti-CII IgG, which alone was insufficient to induce spontaneous clinical arthritis, was used throughout the study. Obvious clinical arthritis that persisted for several days was rapidly induced by injections of 100 ng TNF into hindpaws of rats that were passively immunized shortly before the TNF injection. Injections of TNF in non-immunized control rats did not induce clinical arthritis, nor did buffer-only injections in passively immunized controls. The clinical arthritic response was a local phenomenon, limited only to the TNF-injected hindpaws. No swelling was observed in the opposite, buffer-injected hindpaws, indicating the effects of TNF were not systemic. Depletion of peripheral blood phagocytes with anti-rat neutrophil antiserum before passive immunization completely abolished the ability of TNF to induce clinical arthritis, identifying phagocytic cells as the essential target cells in evoking this arthritic response. A role for complement activation was also demonstrated in this model through the use of a soluble recombinant version of CD35, the cell surface complement receptor type-1 (sCR1, BRL55730), which significantly reduced TNF-induced arthritis in phagocyte-replete rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether tumour necrosis factor (TNF) or transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) could alter the course of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Injection of 100 ng TNF or 500 ng TGF-beta 1 into ankle joints of normal rats induced a very limited inflammatory response, observable only upon histological analysis. However, when injected into ankle joints of rats 9 days after immunization with bovine type II collagen (CII), identical doses of TNF or TGF-beta 1 induced a sustained, clinically obvious inflammation and oedema that began within 8 h on average, as compared to 90 h in CII-immunized control rats given no injections or intra-articular injections of buffer. The incidence of arthritis at 2 weeks post-immunization was 100% for TNF-injected hindpaws, compared with 55% for the control groups, a statistically significant difference. In rats passively immunized with a subarthritic dose of affinity purified antibody to rat-CII, intra-articular injection of 100 ng TNF or 500 ng of TGF-beta 1 also induced intense, though transient arthritis. The rapid proinflammatory effects in CIA described in this study and the synergy demonstrated between anti-CII IgG and either cytokine, suggest that these cytokines can participate locally in the pathogenesis of arthritis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied the consequences of introducing human recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 (hrTGF-beta 1) into synovial tissue of the rat, to begin to better understand the significance of the fact that biologically active TGF-beta is found in human arthritic synovial effusions. Within 4-6 h after the intra-articular injection of 1 microgram of hrTGF-beta 1 into rat knee joints, extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was observed. Cytochemistry and high resolution histological techniques were used to quantitate the influx of PMNs, which peaked 6 h post-injection. In a Boyden chamber assay, hrTGF-beta 1 at 1-10 fg/ml elicited a chemotactic response from PMNs greater in magnitude than that evoked by FMLP, establishing that TGF-beta 1 is an effective chemotactic agent for PMNs in vitro as well as in vivo. That PMNs may represent an important source of TGF-beta in inflammatory infiltrates was strongly suggested by a demonstration that stored TGF-beta 1 was secreted during phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated degranulation in vitro. Acid/ethanol extracts of human PMNs assayed by ELISA contained an average of 355 ng of TGF/beta 1 per 10(9) cells potentially available for secretion during degranulation of PMNs. [3H]Thymidine incorporation in vivo and autoradiography of tissue sections revealed that widespread cell proliferation was triggered by TGF-beta 1 injection. Synovial lining cells and cells located deep within the subsynovial connective tissue were identified as sources of at least some of the new cells that contribute to TGF-beta 1-induced hyperplasia. Our results demonstrate that TGF-beta is capable of exerting pathogenic effects on synovial tissue and that PMNs may represent a significant source of the TGF-beta present in synovial effusions.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/1991; 173(5):1121-32. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have directly demonstrated that megakaryocytes are a major site of synthesis and storage of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF/beta 1) by combined immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical, and in situ hybridization methods. The presence of TGF/beta 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in mature megakaryocytes in adult rat spleen and bone marrow (BM) was established by in situ hybridization. Localization of TGF/beta 1 protein to intact alpha-granules of megakaryocytes, its putative storage site, was accomplished in glycol-methacrylate embedded porcine BM with an immunoperoxidase technique and light microscopy. The TGF/beta 1 was sequestered in intracytoplasmic granules in a pattern virtually identical to that of another alpha-granule marker protein, fibrinogen. This observation strongly suggests packaging of TGF/beta 1 into this organelle within megakaryocytes. That TGF/beta 1 mRNA was localized to megakaryocytes suggests that the TGF/beta 1 found in the alpha-granules in platelets originates with megakaryocyte synthesis. The alpha-granule localization of TGF/beta 1, as well as fibrinogen, was also demonstrated in isolated platelets at the ultrastructural level by electronmicroscopy (EM) and postembedding colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry, thus directly demonstrating that alpha-granules are the final storage site for TGF/beta 1 in mature platelets.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipocortin-I (p35) is a unique calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein of the lipocortin/calpactin family. Although several possibilities have been suggested, functions for the individual proteins of this family are not yet known with certainty. As an initial step in the identification of the biological function(s) of p35, we have used immunohistochemical methods to define precisely many of the cellular phenotypes that contain p35 in vivo. In all organs where p35 is found, we have observed a striking distribution of p35-positive cells. Typically it is highly enriched in a limited range of differentiated cell types while apparently totally absent from most others. Our identification of specific p35-positive cell types in vivo will now set limitations on likely possibilities for functions of this protein and thereby permit a more logical approach to the determination of its true function.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/1989; 141(2):284-93. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the cloned rat thymic endocrine epithelial cell line TEA3A1, treatment with dexamethasone leads to decreased levels of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and thromboxane B2. Dexamethasone treatment also leads to a decrease of both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activity measured in a cell-free assay. Dexamethasone-treated cells also have increased levels of lipocortin-I, a putative modulator of phospholipase A2 activity. The property of calcium-dependent binding of lipocortin to the particulate fraction was used to prepare cytosolic and particulate subcellular fractions which contained phospholiphase A2 activity but no lipocortin-I. Dexamethasone decreased phospholipase A2 activity in both cytosolic and particulate fractions even in the absence of lipocortin, suggesting the presence of a lipocortin-independent mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have evaluated the possible involvement of TGF-beta in rheumatoid arthritis by assay of 16 cell-free synovial fluids for the presence of its active and "latent" forms. Evidence has been obtained for TGF-beta-like activity in synovial effusions by four criteria: (a) TGF-beta receptor competition, (b) soft-agar colony formation of AKR-2B and NRK-49F indicator cells, (c) immunological neutralization of the biological activity, and (d) biochemical activation of a latent form.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/1989; 169(1):291-6. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat thymus has been identified as a tissue comparatively enriched in a 35-KD substrate of the epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase (lipocortin-1) (J Biol Chem 261:13784, 1986). A polyclonal antiserum prepared against the 35-KD protein was used to determine histological distribution of the protein in thymus. Frozen sections of rat thymus were examined after indirect labeling of the 35-KD protein with a rhodamine conjugate of secondary antibody. The antigen was localized primarily in the reticular network of the thymic epithelium, with no detectable labeling of resident thymocytes. Immunoblotting (Western blots) of cytosol extracts also demonstrated that thymocytes did not contain detectable amounts of the antigen. Cultured thymic epithelial cells (TEC), however, contained an abundance of two immunologically related protein bands with molecular weights similar but not identical to the antigen from the parental cell line (human A-431 carcinoma). Paraffin sections of rat and human thymus were subjected to an immunoperoxidase staining procedure, and it was observed that Hassall's corpuscles (keratinized epithelial cells) and other cortical and medullary TECs were intensely stained. The demonstration that the antigen is primarily associated with TEC in thymus, in conjunction with its distribution in other tissues, will aid in deducing its physiological role.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 12/1987; 35(11):1309-15. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary We have studied the consequences ofintroducing human recombinant transforming growth factor 01 (hrTGF-i61) into synovial tissue of the rat, to begin to better understand the significance of the fact that biologically active TGF-0 is found in human arthritic synovial effusions. Within 4-6 h after the intra-articular injection of 1 lAg ofhrTGF-f31 into rat kneejoints, extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was observed. Cytochemistry and high resolution histological techniques were used to quantitate the influx of PMNs, which peaked 6 h post- injection . In a Boyden chamber assay, hrTGF-/31 at 1-10 fg/ml elicited a chemotactic response from PMNs greater in magnitude than that evoked by FMLP, establishing that TGF-01 is an effective chemotactic agent for PMNs in vitro as well as in vivo. That PMNs may represent an important source ofTGF-0 in inflammatory infiltrates was strongly suggested by a demonstration that stored TGF-/31 was secreted during phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated degranulation in vitro. Acid/ethanol extracts ofhuman PMNs assayed by ELISA contained an average of 355 ng of TGF/ail per 109 cells potentially available for secretion during degranulation of PMNs. ( 3H)Thymidine incorporation in vivo and autoradiography of tissue sections revealed that widespread cell proliferation was triggered by TGF-01 injection . Synovial lining cells and cells located deep within the subsynovial connective tissue were identified as sources of at least some of the new cells that contribute to TGF-(31-induced hyperplasia . Our results demonstrate that TGF-0 is capable of exerting pathogenic effects on synovial tissue and that PMNs may represent a significant source of the TGF-0 present in synovial effusions .