P LuValle

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States

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Publications (28)85.74 Total impact

  • Xinying Li, Phyllis LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2), c-Fos, and c-Jun belong to the bZIP family of transcription factors. Promoters of c-Fos, c-Jun, cyclin D1, and cyclin A are targets of ATF-2 in primary mouse chondrocytes. An ATF-2 expression vector was co-transfected with either c-Fos or c-Jun promoters in mutant ATF-2 chondrocytes in order to show by luciferase assay that ATF-2 increased promoter activity of c-Fos, but not c-Jun. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that ATF-2 bound with the c-Fos promoter at the -294 cyclic AMP response element (CRE) site, but did not bind to the TPA responsive element (TRE) or activating protein-1 (AP1) sites of the c-Jun promoter. Dominant-negative (dn) c-Fos inhibited cyclin D1 promoter activity. However, dn c-Jun had minimal effect on this same promoter activity. c-Fos was capable of interactions with both the cyclin D1 CRE and AP1 sites, while c-Jun co-operated specifically with the cyclin D1 CRE site. Neither c-Fos nor c-Jun had any effect on cyclin A promoter activity. c-Fos was unable to bind to the cyclin A AP1 or CRE sites. In contrast c-Jun was competent in interactions with cyclin A AP1-2 as well as the CRE.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2010; 112(1):211-6. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lamin A (LaA) is a component of the nuclear lamina, an intermediate filament meshwork that underlies the inner nuclear membrane (INM) of the nuclear envelope (NE). Newly synthesized prelamin A (PreA) undergoes extensive processing involving C-terminal farnesylation followed by proteolysis yielding non-farnesylated mature lamin A. Different inhibitors of these processing events are currently used therapeutically. Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is most commonly caused by mutations leading to an accumulation of a farnesylated LaA isoform, prompting a clinical trial using farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) to reduce this modification. At therapeutic levels, HIV protease inhibitors (PI) can unexpectedly inhibit the final processing step in PreA maturation. We have examined the dynamics of LaA processing and associated cellular effects during PI or FTI treatment and following inhibitor washout. While PI reversibility was rapid, with respect to both LaA maturation and associated cellular phenotype, recovery from FTI treatment was more gradual. FTI reversibility is influenced by both cell type and rate of proliferation. These results suggest a less static lamin network than has previously been observed.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(5):e10874. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Dustin S Vale-Cruz, Qin Ma, Janet Syme, Phyllis A LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Endochondral ossification is the process of skeletal bone growth via the formation of a cartilage template that subsequently undergoes mineralization to form trabecular bone. Genetic mutations affecting the proliferation or differentiation of chondrocytes result in skeletal abnormalities. Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) modulates expression of cell cycle regulatory genes in chondrocytes, and mutation of ATF-2 results in a dwarfed phenotype. Here we investigate the regulatory role that ATF-2 plays in expression of the pocket proteins, cell cycle regulators important in cellular proliferation and differentiation. The spatial and temporal pattern of pocket protein expression was identified in wild type and mutant growth plates. Expression of retinoblastoma (pRb) mRNA and protein were decreased in ATF-2 mutant primary chondrocytes. pRb mRNA expression was coordinated with chondrogenic differentiation and cell cycle exit in ATDC5 cells. Type X collagen immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize a delay in differentiation in response to loss of ATF-2 signaling. Chondrocyte proliferation was also affected by loss of ATF-2. These studies suggest pRb plays a role in chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and growth plate development by modulating cell cycle progression. ATF-2 regulates expression of pRb within the developing growth plate, contributing to the skeletal phenotype of ATF-2 mutant mice through the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.
    Mechanisms of development 01/2008; 125(9-10):843-56. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) is expressed ubiquitously in mammals. Mice deficient in ATF-2 (ATF-2 m/m) are slightly smaller than their normal littermates at birth. Approximately 50% of mice born mutant in both alleles die within the first month. Those that survive develop a hypochondroplasia-like dwarfism, characterized by shortened growth plates and kyphosis. Expression of ATF-2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. We have previously shown that ATF-2 targets the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. Here, we demonstrate that Bcl-2, a cell death inhibitor that regulates apoptosis, is expressed within the growth plate in proliferative and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. However, Bcl-2 expression declines in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The Bcl-2 promoter contains a CRE at -1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl-2 promoter activity. We show here that the absence of ATF-2 in growth plate chondrocytes corresponds to a decline in Bcl-2 promoter activity, as well as a reduction in Bcl-2 protein levels. In addition, we show that ATF-2 as well as CREB, a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF-2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl-2 promoter. These data identify the Bcl-2 gene as a novel target of ATF-2 and CREB in growth plate chondrocytes.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 06/2007; 101(2):477-87. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Phyllis Luvalle, Qin Ma, Frank Beier
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 02/2003; 85-A Suppl 2:133-6. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Frank Beier, Phyllis LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, delayed ossification, and hypercalcemia. Activating mutations in the PTH/PTHrP receptor have been identified as the molecular cause of this disorder. Although these mutations have been shown to increase cAMP accumulation, little is known about possible target genes of the downstream signaling pathways that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Here we demonstrate that JMC mutations of the PTH/PTHrP receptor induce activation of the cyclin D1 and cyclin A promoters in primary mouse chondrocytes and rat chondrosarcoma cells. Induction of cyclin D1 expression is required for stimulation of E2F-dependent transcription by mutant receptors. Activation of the cyclin D1 and cyclin A promoters requires a functional cAMP response element in both genes. Inhibition of protein kinase A or the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein blocks the stimulation of both promoters by mutant receptors, whereas inhibition of activating transcription factor 2, c-Fos, or c-Jun has only minor effects. In summary, our data suggest that stimulation of cell cycle gene expression and cell cycle progression by mutant PTH/PTHrP receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of JMC.
    Molecular Endocrinology 10/2002; 16(9):2163-73. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exact coordination of growth plate chondrocyte proliferation is necessary for normal endochondral bone development and growth. Here we show that PTHrP and TGF control chondrocyte cell cycle progression and proliferation by stimulating signaling pathways that activate transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter. The TGF pathway activates the transcription factor ATF-2, whereas PTHrP uses the related transcription factor CREB, to stimulate cyclin D1 promoter activity via the CRE promoter element. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression with antisense oligonucleotides causes a delay in progres- sion of chondrocytes through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, reduced E2F activity, and decreased proliferation. Growth plates from cyclin D1- deficient mice display a smaller zone of proliferating chondrocytes, confirming the requirement for cyclin D1 in chondrocyte proliferation in vivo. These data identify the cyclin D1 gene as an essential component of chondrocyte proliferation as well as a fundamental target gene of TGF and PTHrP during skeletal growth.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2002; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beier, F
    Molecular biology of the cell. 01/2001; 12:3852-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Exact coordination of growth plate chondrocyte proliferation is necessary for normal endochondral bone development and growth. Here we show that PTHrP and TGFbeta control chondrocyte cell cycle progression and proliferation by stimulating signaling pathways that activate transcription from the cyclin D1 promoter. The TGFbeta pathway activates the transcription factor ATF-2, whereas PTHrP uses the related transcription factor CREB, to stimulate cyclin D1 promoter activity via the CRE promoter element. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression with antisense oligonucleotides causes a delay in progression of chondrocytes through the G1 phase of the cell cycle, reduced E2F activity, and decreased proliferation. Growth plates from cyclin D1-deficient mice display a smaller zone of proliferating chondrocytes, confirming the requirement for cyclin D1 in chondrocyte proliferation in vivo. These data identify the cyclin D1 gene as an essential component of chondrocyte proliferation as well as a fundamental target gene of TGFbeta and PTHrP during skeletal growth.
    Mol Biol Cell. 01/2001; 12(12):3852-63.
  • P LuValle, F Beier
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    ABSTRACT: Growth of endochondral bones is regulated by the coordinated proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal growth plates. Many skeletal diseases are caused by pathogenic disruptions of these two processes. While the intracellular mechanisms regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are poorly understood, recent evidence from studies using genetically altered mice and from experiments in cultured chondrocytes point to a prominent role of cell cycle proteins in this context. This article summarizes our current understanding of the expression, regulation, and function of cell cycle genes in chondrocytes.
    Frontiers in Bioscience 06/2000; 5:D493-503. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • F Beier, A C Taylor, P LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Endochondral bone growth is regulated through the proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Mice deficient for the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) gene show reduced proliferation of chondrocytes. Here we demonstrate that the cyclin A gene is a target of ATF-2 in chondrocytes. Serum stimulation of chondrogenic rat chondrosarcoma cells induces cyclin A expression. A cyclic AMP response element (CRE) is necessary for optimal activity and serum inducibility of the cyclin A promoter and confers regulation by ATF-2. Phosphorylation and activity of ATF-2 are enhanced dramatically upon serum stimulation of rat chondrosarcoma cells. Mutation of the CRE or overexpression of dominant-negative ATF-2 inhibits serum induction of the cyclin A promoter. Chondrocytes from ATF-2-deficient mice display reduced and delayed induction of cyclin A upon serum stimulation. The ATF-2-related transcription factor CRE-binding protein contributes to the activity of the cyclin A CRE in chondrocytes, whereas c-Jun and c-Fos regulate the promoter independently of the CRE. Our data suggest that the reduction in cyclin A levels in chondrocytes from ATF-2-deficient mice contributes to their phenotype of reduced chondrocyte proliferation and dwarfism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2000; 275(17):12948-53. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Zenobia Ali, Frank Beier, Todd Leask, Phyllis LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal development requires the integration of multiple extracellular signals into coordinated cellular responses. Repair of bone can be described as a regenerative process and, in essence, is the recapitulation of the molecular and cellular processes involved in formation of bone. The appendicular and axillary skeletal elements are formed by endochondral ossification, whereas most of the craniofacial bones are formed by intramembranous ossification. This article focuses on the signals and mechanisms that control endochondral bone formation and repair.Curr Opin Orthop 1999, 10:466-471© Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
    Current Opinion in Orthopaedics 11/1999; 10(6):466-471.
  • F Beier, A C Taylor, P LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: The gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1/Waf1) is up-regulated in many differentiating cells, including maturing chondrocytes. Since strict control of chondrocyte proliferation is essential for proper bone formation and since p21 is likely involved in this control, we initiated analyses of the mechanisms regulating expression of p21 in chondrocytes. p21 expression and promoter activity was strongly increased during the differentiation of chondrogenic MCT cells. We have identified a 68-base pair fragment conferring transcriptional up-regulation of the p21 gene in chondrocytes. The activity of this fragment required active Raf-1 in MCT cells as well as in primary mouse chondrocytes. Inhibition of downstream factors of Raf-1 (MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and Ets2) also repressed the activity of the 68-base pair fragment in MCT cells. The chemical MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 reduced protein levels of p21 in MCTs and primary mouse chondrocytes. These data suggest that signaling through the Raf-1 pathway is necessary for the optimal expression of p21 in chondrocytes and may play an important role in the control of bone formation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1999; 274(42):30273-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • F Beier, P LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: The collagen X gene is expressed exclusively by differentiated, hypertrophic chondrocytes. The mechanisms controlling collagen X expression remain largely unknown. Here we show that collagen X promoter activity can be induced by serum stimulation of chondrogenic MCT cells. The serum response is conferred by a 462 nucleotide promoter fragment. Both the c-Raf/MEK/ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways are required for this effect, whereas phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase A repress promoter activation. These data are the first to demonstrate serum inducibility of the collagen X promoter and to identify signal transduction pathways involved.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1999; 262(1):50-4. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coordinated proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes controls longitudinal growth of endochondral bones. While many extracellular factors regulating these processes have been identified, much less is known about the intracellular mechanisms transducing and integrating these extracellular signals. Recent evidence suggests that cell cycle proteins play an important role in the coordination of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our current knowledge of the function and regulation of cell cycle proteins in endochondral ossification is summarized.
    Matrix Biology 05/1999; · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • F Beier, A C Taylor, P LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Endochondral bone growth is regulated through the rates of proliferation and differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. While little is known about the intracellular events controlling these processes, the protein kinase c-Raf, a central component of the cellular signal transduction machinery, has recently been shown to be expressed only by differentiated, hypertrophic chondrocytes. The involvement of c-Raf in the transcriptional regulation of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific collagen X gene was investigated using cotransfections of collagen X reporter plasmids and expression vectors for mutant c-Raf proteins. Both activated and dominant-negative forms of c-Raf reduced the activity of the collagen X promoter to approximately 30%. The element mediating the repressing effect of activated c-Raf was located between nucleotides -2864 and -2410 of the promoter, whereas the effect of the dominant-negative form of c-Raf was conferred by the 462 nucleotides immediately upstream of the transcription start site. Inhibition of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2, downstream components of Raf-signaling, also caused repression of basal collagen X promoter activity. These data suggest that c-Raf regulates collagen X promoter activity positively and negatively through different cis-acting elements and represent the first evidence of c-Raf activity described in hypertrophic chondrocytes.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/1999; 72(4):549-57. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endochondral bone growth is regulated by the rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. However, the intracellular mechanisms regulating these processes are poorly understood. Recently, interruption of the gene encoding the transcription factor activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) was shown to inhibit proliferation of chondrocytes in mice [Reimold, A. M., et al. (1996) Nature (London) 379, 262–265]. The target genes of ATF-2 that are responsible for this phenotype remain unknown. Here we report that the cyclin D1 gene is a direct target of ATF-2 in chondrocytes. ATF-2 is present in nuclear extracts from chondrogenic cell lines and binds, as a complex with a CRE-binding protein (CREB)/CRE modulator protein, to the cAMP response element (CRE) in the cyclin D1 promoter. Mutation of the cyclin D1 CRE caused a 78% reduction in the activity of the promoter in chondrocytes. Overexpression of ATF-2 in chondrocytes enhanced activity of the cyclin D1 promoter 3.5-fold. In contrast, inhibition of endogenous ATF-2 or CREB by expression of dominant-negative inhibitors of CREB and ATF-2 significantly reduced the activity of the promoter in chondrocytes through the CRE. In addition, levels of cyclin D1 protein are greatly reduced in the chondrocytes of ATF-2-deficient mice. These data identify the cyclin D1 gene as a direct target of ATF-2 in chondrocytes and suggest that reduced expression of cyclin D1 contributes to the defective cartilage development of these mice.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1999; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    S W Volk, P Luvalle, T Leask, P S Leboy
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of BMP signaling in chondrocyte differentiation remain unidentified. We have previously reported that BMP-2 markedly stimulates type X collagen expression in prehypertrophic chick sternal chondrocytes, and that type X collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free (SF) conditions are elevated 3- to 5-fold within 24 h. To better define the molecular mechanisms of induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy by BMPs, we examined the effect of BMPs on type X collagen production by 15-day chick embryo sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. Two populations of chondrocytes were used: one representing resting cartilage isolated from the caudal third of the sterna and the second representing prehypertrophic cartilage from the cephalic third of the sterna. BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 all effectively promoted chondrocyte maturation of cephalic sternal chondrocytes as measured by high levels of alkaline phosphatase, diminished levels of type II collagen, and induction of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific marker, type X collagen. To test whether BMP control of type X collagen expression occurs at the transcriptional level, we utilized plasmid constructs containing the chicken collagen X promoter and 5' flanking regions fused to a reporter gene. Constructs were transiently transfected into sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. A 533 bp region located 2.4-2.9 kb upstream from the type X collagen transcriptional start site was both necessary and sufficient for strong BMP responsiveness in cells destined for hypertrophy, but not in chondrocytes derived from the lower sterna.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/1998; 13(10):1521-9. · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • G Dourado, P LuValle
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    ABSTRACT: Collagen X is expressed specifically in hypertrophic chondrocytes within cartilage that is undergoing endochondral ossification. The chicken collagen X gene is transcriptionally regulated, and under the control of multiple cis elements within the distal promoter region (-4,442 to -558 base pairs from the transcription start) as well as the proximal region (-558 to +1). Our previous data (LuValle et al., [1993] J. Cell Biol. 121:1173-1179) demonstrated that the proximal sequence directed high reporter gene activity in the three cell types tested (hypertrophic chondrocytes, immature chondrocytes, and fibroblasts), while distal elements acted in an additive manner to repress the effects of the proximal sequence on reporter gene activity in non-collagen X expressing cells only (immature chondrocytes and fibroblasts). We show here that elements within the proximal sequence (nucleotides -557 to -513) are necessary for the cell-specific expression of type X collagen by hypertrophic chondrocytes. These elements bind to proteins of 100 kDa in all three cell types, and 47 kDa in non-collagen X expressing cells. Reporter gene activity in hypertrophic chondrocytes is reduced to the levels seen in non-collagen X-expressing cells in the absence of these elements.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/1998; 70(4):507-16. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The type X collagen gene is specifically expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Transcription of the type X collagen gene by these differentiated cells is turned on at the same time as transcription of several other cartilage specific genes is switched off and before mineralization of the matrix begins. Analysis of type X collagen promoters for regulatory regions in different cell culture systems and in transgenic mice has given contradictory results suggesting major differences among species. To approach this problem, we have determined the nucleotide sequences of the two introns and upstream promoter sequences of the human and mouse type X collagen genes and compared them with those of bovine and chick. Within the promoter regions, we found three boxes of homology which are nearly continuous in the human gene but have interruptions in the murine gene. One of these interruptions was identified as a complex 1.9 kb repetitive element with homology to LINE, B1, B2 and long terminal repeat sequences. Regulatory elements of the human type X collagen gene are located upstream of the region where the repetitive element is inserted in the mouse gene, making it likely that the repetitive element is inserted between the coding region and regulatory sequences of the murine gene without interfering with its expression pattern. We also compared the sequences of the introns of both genes and found strong conservation. Comparisons of the mammalian sequences with promoter and first intron sequences of the chicken type X collagen gene revealed that only the proximal 120 nucleotides of the promoter were conserved, whereas all other sequences displayed no obvious homology to the murine and human sequences.
    Matrix Biology 01/1997; 15(6):415-22. · 3.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

669 Citations
85.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2010
    • University of Florida
      • • Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology
      • • College of Medicine
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2002
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997–2002
    • The University of Calgary
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1989–1993
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Boston, MA, United States