[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurological diseases resulting from proteins containing expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) are characteristically associated with insoluble neuronal inclusions, usually intranuclear, and neuronal death. We describe here oligomeric and polymeric aggregates formed in cells by expanded polyQ. These aggregates are not dissociated by concentrated formic acid, an extremely effective solvent for otherwise insoluble proteins. Perinuclear inclusions formed in cultured cells by expanded polyQ can be completely dissolved in concentrated formic acid, but a soluble protein oligomer containing the expanded polyQ and released by the formic acid is not dissociated to monomer. In Huntington's disease, a formic acid-resistant oligomer is present in cerebral cortex, but not in cerebellum. Cortical nuclei contain a polymeric aggregate of expanded polyQ that is insoluble in formic acid, does not enter polyacrylamide gels, but is retained on filters. This finding shows that the process of polymerization is more advanced in the cerebral cortex than in cultured cells. The resistance of oligomer and polymer to formic acid suggests the participation of covalent bonds in their stabilization.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2003; 100(5):2409-14. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated mild heat shock (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro. In this study, we have tested whether RMHS can reduce the accumulation of heavily damaged proteins, such as oxidized and glycoxidized proteins involved in the development of many pathological consequences of aging. Cultured human skin fibroblasts were subjected to RMHS and were subsequently incubated either with glyoxal (0.1-1 mM) generating Nepsilon-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), or with tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BHP 10-700 microM) producing oxidized proteins. About 50% more carbonylated-proteins were produced in control cells treated with t-BHP than in cells previously exposed to RMHS. More dramatically, a treatment with 0.1 mM glyoxal for 48 h generated CML only in control cells. Such modulation of the level of damaged proteins is most likely related to the beneficial effects of hormesis resulting from exposure to mild stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repeated mild heat shock (RMHS) has beneficial hormesis-like effects on various characteristics of human skin fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence in vitro. We have tested whether RMHS could reduce the accumulation of oxidized and glycoxidized proteins, which is a major age-related change. Levels of carbonylated proteins, furosine, Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine-rich proteins and advanced glycation end products increased during serial passaging of fibroblasts in culture. However, the extent of accumulation of oxidized and glycoxidized proteins was significantly reduced in RMHS cells. The basal concentration of reduced glutathione was higher and that of oxidized glutathione was lower in RMHS cells. Whereas the basal level of heat shock protein HSP27 decreased in both RMHS and control cells during serial passaging, the increase of the basal level of HSP70 with increasing passage level was significantly higher in RMHS cells. These results show that the slower accumulation of damaged proteins in fibroblasts exposed to RMHS results partly from the increased ability of these cells to cope with oxidative stress, and to synthesize HSP responsible for protein capping and refolding.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 01/2002; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycation and glycoxidation protein products are formed upon binding of sugars to NH(2) groups of lysine and arginine residues and have been shown to accumulate during aging and in pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. Because the proteasome is the major intracellular proteolytic system involved in the removal of altered proteins, the effect of intracellular glycation on proteasome function has been analyzed in human dermal fibroblasts subjected to treatment with glyoxal that promotes the formation of N epsilon-carboxymethyl-lysine adducts on proteins. The three proteasome peptidase activities were decreased in glyoxal-treated cells as compared with control cells, and glyoxal was also found to inhibit these peptidase activities in vitro. In addition, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a crucial enzyme for the regulation of the intracellular redox status, was dramatically reduced in glyoxal-treated cells. Further analysis was performed to determine whether glycated proteins are substrates for proteasome degradation. In contrast to the oxidized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, both N epsilon-carboxymethyl-lysine- and fluorescent-glycated enzymes were resistant to degradation by the 20 S proteasome in vitro, and this resistance was correlated with an increased conformational stability of the glycated proteins. These results provide one explanation for why glycated proteins build up both as a function of disease and aging. Finally, N epsilon-carboxymethyl-lysine-modified proteins were found to be ubiquitinated in glyoxal-treated cells suggesting a potential mechanism by which these modified proteins may be marked for degradation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2002; 276(49):45662-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGE), which form from the non-enzymatic reaction of proteins and sugars, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Recently, a compound [N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB)] has been described which cleaves alpha,beta-dicarbonyl compounds. In the present study we used diabetic C57BL/6 mice to determine if PTB altered renal AGE levels and reduced diabetic glomerulosclerosis.
Mice with stable hyperglycaemia induced by streptozotocin were given daily subcutaneous injections of either PTB (10 microg/g) or saline for 12 weeks. Renal-collagen bound AGE and urinary AGE-peptides were measured by ELISA using an anti-AGE-RNase antibody. Renal collagen-released Nepsilon(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and pentosidine were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Glomerular lesions (volume and mesangial/total surface area) were evaluated by computer-assisted image analysis. We determined urinary protein/creatinine ratio as a functional parameter. AGE localization was examined by immunohistochemistry using the anti-AGE-RNase antibody.
Renal collagen-bound AGE were decreased and urinary AGE excretion was increased in PTB-treated diabetic mice. However, collagen-released CML and pentosidine were similar in both groups. Glomerular histology and morphometric analysis revealed also no differences between PTB-and saline-treated diabetic mice. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio was unaffected by PTB-treatment. AGE staining by anti-AGE-RNase antibody was present in Bowman's capsules, glomerular basement membranes and cortical tubules. It was decreased in all structures in PTB-treated diabetic mice.
In summary, PTB decreased renal AGE accumulation but did not ameliorate glomerular lesions or proteinuria. Thus, cleavage of AGE by PTB is not sufficient to prevent development of diabetic nephropathy in C57BL/6 mice.
Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 09/2001; 3(4):230-9. · 5.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ageing is associated with a decrease in the ability of cells to cope with environmental challenges. This is due partly to the attenuation of a primordial stress response, the so-called heat shock (HS) response, which induces the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), composed of chaperones and proteases. The attenuation of the HS response during ageing may be responsible for the accumulation of damaged proteins as well as abnormal regulation of cell death. Maintenance of the HS response by repeated mild heat stress causes anti-ageing hormetic effects on cells and organisms. Here, we describe the molecular mechanism and the state of the HS response as well as the role of specific HSPs during ageing, and discuss the possibility of hormetic modulation of ageing and longevity by repeated mild stress.
Cell Biology International 02/2001; 25(9):845-57. · 1.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of renal tubular function. We have investigated whether glycated proteins could impair the NO production by examining the effects of Amadori products (AP-BSA) and advanced glycation end products (AGE-BSA) on primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells. Nitric oxide synthase activity was assessed by measurement of the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline and by production of NO, after short-term (30 min) or long-term (1 or 3 days) incubation. Short incubations of PTE cells with either 200 microg/ml AP-BSA or 40 microg/ml AGE-BSA significantly decreased NO production. AP-BSA (3000 microg/ml) inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent NOS activity even though above 50 microg/ml it increased Ca(2+)-independent NOS activity. In contrast, 40 microg/ml AGE-BSA inhibited both isoforms of NOS. Longer incubations with 200 microg/ml AP-BSA or 250 microg/ml AGE-BSA decreased NO release and inhibited Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent NOS activities. APs did not affect NO release by S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), while 250 microg/ml AGEs decreased it. After 3 days incubation, glycation products had no effect on the NOS cell content. Cell viability and proliferation were not modified under these experimental conditions, suggesting that the fall in NO production was not due to there being fewer cells. These data indicate that APs and AGEs directly inhibit NOS activity, and additionally that AGEs quench released NO. Thus, both types of glycated proteins alter the production of NO by PTE cells and could participate in the renal tubule dysfunction associated with aging and diabetes.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2000; 1502(3):481-94. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the ability of N(6)-furfuryladenine (kinetin) to protect against oxidative and glycoxidative protein damage generated in vitro by sugars and by an iron/ascorbate system. At 50 microM, kinetin was more efficient (82% inhibition) than adenine (49% inhibition) to inhibit the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-pentosidine formation in slow and fast glycation/glycoxidation models. Kinetin also inhibited the formation of BSA-carbonyls after oxidation significantly more than adenine did. However both compounds inhibited the advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation to the same extent (59-68% inhibition). At 200 microM, kinetin but not adenine, limited the aggregation of BSA during glycation. These data suggest that kinetin is a strong inhibitor of oxidative and glycoxidative protein-damage generated in vitro.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2000; 276(3):1265-70. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular and extracellular proteins are subject to a variety of spontaneous non-enzymatic modifications which affect their structure, function and stability. Protein oxidation and glycation are tightly linked and are implicated in the development of many pathological consequences of aging. Although multiple endogenous pathways in the cell can prevent the formation of oxidized and glycated proteins, and repair and degrade abnormal proteins, such abnormal proteins do accumulate during aging. The heat shock response involving the family of stress-proteins or the so-called heat shock proteins (HSP), represents the quickest and highly conserved response to proteotoxic insults. Since repeated mild heat stress is able to prevent the onset of various age-related changes during cellular aging in vitro, we suggest that treatments which increase HSP expression should reduce the extent of accumulation of abnormal proteins during aging. Such modulation of aging is an example of hormesis, which is characterized by the beneficial effects resulting from the cellular responses to mild repeated stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue content of advanced glycation end products (AGE) increases with age and contributes to the changes in structure and function of the renal and cardiovascular systems. The effect of chronic food restriction on this AGE accumulation was investigated in lean WAG/Rij rats. A 30% food restriction performed from 10 to 30 mo in female rats reduced their mean body weight from 240 +/- 7 to 160 +/- 12 g, but did not modify their survival. AGE collagen content increased from 14.3 +/- 5.5 to 104.7 +/- 13.0 arbitrary units per microgram (AU/microg) of hydroxyproline (OHPro) in kidney between 10 and 30 mo, and from 9.7 +/- 1.2 to 310.6 +/- 34.6 AU/microg OHPro in the abdominal aorta. Food restriction reduced AGE accumulation to 21.4 +/- 3.3 and 74.6 +/- 16.5 AU/microg OHPro in kidney and aorta of 30-mo-old animals. Similar results were found for collagen prepared from isolated glomeruli (7.8 +/- 1.2, 81.2 +/- 16.1, and 10.3 +/- 4.3 AU/microg OHPro in 10-mo, 30-mo, and restricted 30-mo-old rats). Reduction of intrarenal and arterial AGE accumulation by food restriction was confirmed by immunostaining in optical microscopy. Age-related changes in arterial and kidney structures as polyuria and proteinuria were mainly prevented by food restriction. These data indicate that chronic food restriction reduces the accumulation of AGE and preserves the structure and function of the renal and cardiovascular systems in learn rats, although it did not affect survival of the animals between 10 and 30 mo.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2000; 11(8):1488-97. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) is believed to be a factor in the development of aging nephropathy. We have attempted to establish a link between the formation of AGEs and the onset of renal impairment with aging, indicated by albuminuria, using a fluorescence assay and immunohistochemical detection of AGEs in the renal extracellular matrix in rats. The fluorescence of collagenase-digested Type IV collagen from GBM increased with age, from 1.65 +/- 0.05 AU/mM OHPro (3 months) and 1.58 +/- 0.04 (10 months) to 2.16 +/- 0.06 (26 months) (p < 0.001) and 2.53 +/- 0.18 (30 months) (p < 0.001). In contrast, the extent of early glycation products significantly decreased from 5.35 +/- 0.25 nmol HCHO/nmol OHPro at 3 months to 3.14 +/- 0.19 at 10 months (p < 0.001), 3.42 +/- 0.38 at 26 months, and 0.74 +/- 0.08 at 30 months (p < 0.001). The urinary fluorescence of circulating AGE rose from 2.42 +/- 0.15 AU/mg protein (3 months), 1.69 +/- 0.07 (10 months), to 4.63 +/- 0.35 (26 months) (p < 0.01) and 4.73 +/- 0.72 (30 months), while the serum fluorescence increased from 0.39 +/- 0.02 AU/mg protein at 3 months and 0.43 +/- 0.02 at 10 months to 0.59 +/- 0.04 at 26 months (p < 0.001) and 0.54 +/- 0.03 at 30 months (p < 0.04). Polyclonal antibodies raised against AGE RNase showed faint areas of AGE immunoreactivity in mesangial areas in the nephrons of young rats. The immunolabeling of Bowman's capsule, the mesangial matrices, and the peripheral loops of glomerular and tubule basement membranes increased with rat age. The increase in circulating AGE peptides parallels the accumulation of AGEs in the nephron, and this parallels the pattern of extracellular matrix deposition, suggesting a close link between AGE accumulation and renal impairment in aging rats.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 08/1997; 45(8):1059-68. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with the loss of preferential urinary excretion of Amadori-product glycated albumin. We have measured the binding of 125I-labeled glycated albumin to the renal brush-border membrane vesicles from young and old rats to determine whether a specific receptor-mediated endocytosis system may be involved. 125I-Glycated albumin was specifically bound by renal brush-border membrane vesicles in a time- and temperature-dependent manner; the binding was concentration-dependent, saturable and reversible. Scatchard plots gave an apparent dissociation constant Km of 488 +/- 17 nM, and a number of binding sites N of 33.5 +/- 3.4 pmol/mg protein/min in membrane vesicles from young (3 months old) rats; the binding of native [125I]albumin, gave a Km of 1194 +/- 200 nM (P < 2%) and N of 82.4 +/- 16.3 pmol/mg protein/min (P < 3%). Vesicles from 10-month-old rats had a similar Km (619.6 +/- 135.3 nM) and N (21.91 +/- 2.98 pmol/mg protein/min), while those from older (30 months old) rats had significantly increased Km (1344 +/- 237 nM, P < 3%) and N (81.3 +/- 10.9 pmol/mg protein/min, P < 1%) for 125I-glycated albumin binding. 125I-Glycated HSA was not displaced by unlabeled native HSA in less than 100-fold excess and native [125I]HSA was only displaced by a 10-fold excess of unlabeled glycated HSA. The binding of native [125I]HSA was partly inhibited (85%) by unlabeled glycated HSA. Thus, there appear to be two different binding sites, one for glycated and the other for native albumin, lying close together; and the glycation site on albumin is the discriminatory recognition factor.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/1996; 1282(1):93-100. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Albumin glycation was investigated in old rats to elucidate the link between the preferential excretion of glycated albumin and age-related microalbuminuria. Postprandial blood glucose and the glycated albumin in the serum and urine of 3-, 10- and 30-month-old Wistar rats and in streptozotocin diabetic rats were determined. Blood glucose increased from 1.46 +/- 0.046 g l-1 in 3-month-old rats to 2.08 +/- 0.06 (10 months) and 1.75 +/- 0.23 (30 months) (P < 0.05). Albumin glycation level in the serum increased from 0.79 +/- 0.07 nmol HCHO/nmol albumin (3 months) to 1.41 +/- 0.14 (10 months) and 1.73 +/- 0.21 (30 months) (P < 0.05); urinary level increased from 1.63 +/- 0.39 nmol HCHO/nmol albumin (3 months) to 2.92 +/- 0.57 (10 months) and 2.39 +/- 0.36 (30 months) (P < 0.01). The percent glycated albumin in serum rose from 3.33 +/- 0.64 to 6.81 +/- 0.63 and 6.99 +/- 1.79% of total albumin (P < 0.05), whereas the urine percentage decreased from 12.81 +/- 3.97 to 12.64 +/- 2.87 and 2.63 +/- 0.97% (P < 0.05) in 3-, 10- and 30-month-old rats, respectively. Editing decreased with aging from 4.28 +/- 0.83 (3 months) to 1.84 +/- 0.32 (10 months) and 0.52 +/- 0.14 (30 months) (P < 0.01). Editing in microproteinuric diabetic rats was lower (0.95 +/- 0.08) than in 3-month-old control rats (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 02/1995; 78(1):63-71. · 3.26 Impact Factor