I C Rose

London Research Institute, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (20)68.46 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Approximately 30% of a breeding colony of Sprague-Dawley rats homozygous for an autosomal recessive mutation mf ("mutilated foot") associated with a peripheral sensory neuropathy have been found unexpectedly to suffer spontaneous epileptiform attacks. Seizures ranged from brief episodes of compulsive running to tonic-clonic convulsions lasting for up to 30 s, recurring at intervals of hours or days. EEG recordings during seizures showed high-voltage 8-10 Hz spike trains that abated over the ensuing 1-2 min. Interictal records were usually normal. Twice-daily kindling of the amygdala (200 microA sinewave for 1.0 s) was unexpectedly ineffective. Most of the rats that had suffered spontaneous seizures failed to develop kindled afterdischarges, even after 30 kindling stimulations. Other mf rats developed prolonged high-amplitude kindled afterdischarges that were arrested at stage 2 and failed to evolve into convulsive seizures. Hippocampal dentate granule cells of kindled mf rats, stained for zinc by Timm's method, showed significantly less mossy fibre sprouting than wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats after the same number of kindled afterdischarges. A minority of the mf rats tested (2 of 14) kindled normally. Auditory stimulation (n = 23) or stroboscopic flicker (n = 14) failed to elicit seizures or running fits in any mf rat. Peripheral neuropathy corresponding to that in the mf rat, with resistance to kindling and diminished mossy fibre sprouting, have also been reported in transgenic mice with defective p75NGFR neurotrophin receptors. A homologous genetic defect in the rat could account for most of the features of the mf phenotype.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/1998; 58(4):993-1001. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/1997; 58(4). · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • L J Herberg, A Grottick, I C Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in synaptic changes underlying long-term potentiation and some forms of learning. It is unclear, however, whether NO contributes to long-term changes associated with the kindling of epileptic seizures. In the present study rats were treated, on the first 6 days of kindling, with L-arginine (L-Arg), the endogenous donor from which NO derives, or with L-nitro-arginine (L-No-Arg), a competitive inhibitor of NO synthesis, or with vehicle. Drugs were given in doses previously shown to affect learning or other behaviour. L-Arg (750 mg/kg IP) did not affect kindling or seizure severity. L-No-Arg (100 mg/kg) prolonged the duration of afterdischarges and convulsions on treatment days but did not advance kindling or affect seizures on subsequent days. A second experiment examined the possible role of NO in the development of resistance to seizures following prior seizures. Six or more stimuli were administered at 10-min intervals to fully-kindled rats after injection of L-No-Arg or vehicle. Vehicle-treated rats became progressively more resistant to afterdischarges and convulsions with successive stimulations but L-No-Arg-treated rats failed to do so. Rats injected with L-NO-Arg also showed an unexpected high mortality in the ensuing 24 h. L-No-Arg appeared to have no direct effect on the course of kindling but impaired the development of postictal resistance, and increased the duration and lethal after-effects of closely repeated seizures. The results do not support suggestions that antagonists of NO might prove clinically useful as anticonvulsants.
    Psychopharmacology 06/1995; 119(1):115-23. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • L J Herberg, I C Rose
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    ABSTRACT: A single stimulus applied once daily to the limbic system commonly leads to convulsive seizures yet seizures are relatively infrequent during intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a procedure that involves many hundreds of similar stimuli. The present study examined the possible role of electrode site, interstimulus interval, afterdischarge and reinforcement thresholds and postictal refractoriness in accounting for this paradox. Electrode location was an overriding factor: seizures were never seen with hypothalamic implants posterior to the level of the ventromedial nucleus but were elicited by the majority of more rostral reward sites. Frequent repeated stimulation by ICSS did not in itself prevent subsequent kindling or reverse the effects of earlier kindling; on the contrary, seizures induced by ICSS showed a progressive increase in severity similar to the progression produced by conventional kindling. Individual convulsive seizures, as in previous studies, conferred transient protection against further seizures whether from ICSS or from kindling. More prolonged protection occassionally developed after repeated convulsive seizures: protection was accompanied by continuous EEG slow-waves corresponding in presentation to clinical petit mal status. Prolonged resistance to seizures has also been reported after tonic-clonic status epilepticus causing temporal lobe damage. The relative infrequency of seizures during ICSS ordinarily appears to depend on the siting of the electrodes, on distinct short- and long-term postictal refractory states, and on the rat learning to restrict stimulus input to subseizural levels.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 02/1994; 18(3):411-20. · 10.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine is thought to be an important factor in addiction to tobacco but its psychopharmacological properties are still uncertain. In the present study, rats were trained to operate a pedal to obtain threshold-current, variable-interval hypothalamic stimulation. Response rates were printed out at 10 min intervals to provide a continuous record of facilitatory or depressant effects by injected nicotine. Responding was enhanced in all rats but this depended on dose, time after injection, and previous exposure to the drug. In the first 10 min after injection, responding by drug-naive rats was either unaffected (40-130 [mu]g/kg s.c, as base) or strongly depressed (400 [mu]g/kg). This phase was followed by prolonged (>50 min) dose-dependent facilitation. Higher doses (1.3 mg/kg) caused prostration. Chronic exposure to nicotine (400 [mu]g/kg x 10 at 2-5 day intervals) reduced the initial depressant effect; it also augmented subsequent responding, but only in the early minutes after injection; the latter finding indicates that apparent sensitization to chronic nicotine may depend primarily on tolerance to its depressant effects, rather than on receptor upregulation. Stimulant and depressant effects of nicotine were prevented by pretreatment with the centrally acting antagonist, mecamylamine (2.0 mg/kg s.c), but not by the peripheral antagonist, hexamethonium (1.0 mg/kg s.c.) or by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, hyoscine (scopolamine; 100-300 [mu]g/kg s.c). Self-stimulation was unaffected by mecamylamine alone. Thus the inhibitory action of nicotine is unlikely to be due to depolarization block, peripheral activity or muscarinic activity. Its facilitatory and depressant effects appear to be narrowly time- and dose-specific, thus accounting for divergent findings in many studies. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
    Behavioural Pharmacology 07/1993; 4(4). · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine is thought to be an important factor in addiction to tobacco but its psychopharmacological properties are still uncertain. In the present study, rats were trained to operate a pedal to obtain threshold-current, variable-interval hypothalmic stimulation. Response rates were printed out at 10min intervals to provide a continuous record of facilitatory or depressant effects by injected nicotine. Responding was enhanced in all rats but this depended on dose, time after injection, and previous exposure to the drug. In the first 10min after injection, responding by drug-naive rats was either unaffected (40-130mg/kg s.c., as base) or strongly depressed (400µg/kg). This phase was followed by prolonged (>50min) dose-dependent facilitation. Higher doses (1.3mg/kg) caused prostration. Chronic exposure to nicotine (400µg/kg x 10 at 2-5 day intervals) reduced the initial depressant effect; it also augmented subsequent responding, but only in the early minutes after injection; the latter finding indicates that apparent sensitization to chronic nicotine may depend primarily on tolerance to its depressant effects, rather than on receptor upregulation. Stimulant and depressant effects of nicotine were prevented by pretreatment with the centrally acting antagonist, mecamylamine (2.0mg/kg s.c.), but not by the peripheral antagonist, hexamethonium (1.0mg/kg s.c.) or by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, hyoscine (scopolamine; 100-300µg/kg s.c.). Self-stimulation was unaffected by mecamylamine alone. Thus the inhibitory action of nicotine is unlikely to be due to depolarization block, peripheral activity or muscarinic activity. Its facilitatory and depressant effects appear to be narrowly time- and dose-specific, thus accounting for divergent findings in many studies.
    Behavioural pharmacology 02/1993; 4(4):419-427. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • L J Herberg, I C Rose, M Mintz
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    ABSTRACT: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) has been reported to be critically involved in the development and propagation of epileptic seizures, while extracellular adenosine appears to be important for making seizures stop. In the present study, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist [N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA); 2.0 nmol/side, or vehicle] was injected bilaterally into the SNr shortly before each of the first five of a series of daily kindling stimuli delivered to the rat amygdala. Injections did not affect the acquisition of kindled afterdischarges or the rate at which seizures developed over subsequent kindling sessions, but convulsions occurring 48-72 h after treatment were significantly shortened. Thus, purinergic mechanisms in the SNr do not appear to be specifically involved in the acquisition of kindled seizures but may contribute to a postictal inhibitory process that shortens the convulsive component.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 02/1993; 44(1):113-7. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-HT3 receptors are abundant in central dopamine (DA) terminal areas. They do not affect basal DA turnover but appear to modulate DA release by e.g. morphine and nicotine. The interpretation of these findings is uncertain, and it is unclear whether 5-HT3 receptors also influence the activity of compounds such as amphetamine and cocaine, which act more directly on the DA synapse. Variable-interval (VI), threshold-current hypothalamic self-stimulation can provide a continuous index of central dopaminergic activity, but is relatively insensitive to changes in 5-HT and thus offers a means of investigating this question. In the present study, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (GR 38032F) (1.0 to 1000 micrograms/kg sc), had no effect on VI self-stimulation, nor did a 100 micrograms/kg dose affect facilitation of responding by d-amphetamine (500 micrograms/kg ip). Ondansetron (100 micrograms/kg) reduced the initial depression of self-stimulation by high-dose nicotine (400 micrograms/kg), but not the ensuing facilitation. Similar results were obtained in rats "sensitized" to nicotine by prior chronic exposure. These results support the proposal that 5-HT3 receptors, normally quiescent under basal conditions, mediate the excitatory effect of compounds acting upstream from the DA neuron, such as nicotine, but do not affect the dopaminergic synapse directly.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 02/1993; 91(1):1-11. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether behavioral depression and suppression of food intake by cholecystokinin (CCK) is contributed to by aversive gastrointestinal effects such as nausea. In the present study we examined the effect of a new antiemetic agent, ondansetron, a specific antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, on suppression of variable-interval self-stimulation by the CCK analogue caerulein. Responding by rats for brain-stimulation reward is especially sensitive to CCK, and provides a convenient means of investigating this question. Caerulein (30 micrograms/kg, s.c.), injected alone, was followed by a profound (ca. 80%) reduction in the rate of self-stimulation, lasting about 30 min. Ondansetron (1.0-1000 micrograms/kg, s.c.) injected on its own had no effect on self-stimulation rate, and a 100-micrograms/kg dose did not lessen the depressant action of caerulein. The behavioural depressant effects of CCK are thus unlikely to depend on brain mechanisms for nausea and vomiting involving 5-HT3 receptors.
    Neuroscience Letters 07/1992; 140(1):16-8. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the kindling of seizures may depend on the induction of genes encoding enzymes involved in neurotransmission. Experimental seizures are followed by an especially rapid and massive induction of brain ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an enzyme which catalyses the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of polyamines. The latter compounds have been shown to act as positive allosteric modulators of the NMDA receptor, and also to play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. The induction of ODC by seizures has accordingly been suggested to play a pivotal role in the changes in synaptic structure and function that underlie kindling. In the present study we examined the progress of kindling during treatment with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC. We found that progressive increase in the duration and severity of kindled seizures and in the duration of local afterdischarges was unaffected by daily injections of DFMO in doses previously shown to cause substantial depression of brain ODC activity. Treatment with DFMO also failed to produce significant anticonvulsant or proconvulsant effects. Progressive increase in seizure activity during kindling is therefore unlikely to depend to any appreciable extent on enhanced synthesis of polyamines by ODC.
    Epilepsy Research 04/1992; 11(1):3-7. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two specific 5-HT1A agonists, 8-OH-DPAT (0-300 micrograms/kg), and buspirone (0-3.0 mg/kg), were tested on variable-interval, threshold-current self-stimulation of rat lateral hypothalamus. Buspirone produced a prolonged monotonic depression of responding, whereas the effects of 8-OH-DPAT were biphasic: 3.0 micrograms/kg produced a sustained enhancement of responding while higher doses (100-300 micrograms/kg) produced a relatively short-lasting depression. This biphasic pattern parallels previously reported effects of 8-OH-DPAT on food intake and on various other behaviours. Threshold-current self-stimulation is highly sensitive to alterations in dopaminergic transmission but relatively insensitive to changes in 5-HT. Thus the facilitatory effect of low-dose 8-OH-DPAT seems most plausibly interpreted in terms of enhanced dopaminergic transmission. This could be brought about by 5HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibiton of 5-HT release and consequent disinhibition of dopaminergic transmission. Depression of self-stimulation by higher doses of 8-OH-DPAT may reflect the activity of 8-OH-DPAT at postsynaptic 5-HT receptors, with consequent inhibition of DA transmission. Suppression of responding after buspirone at all doses tested may reflect the action of this compound as a partial agonist at postsynaptic 5-HT receptors, and/or its effects on other systems.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 02/1991; 83(1-2):139-48. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • L J Herberg, I C Rose
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    ABSTRACT: D-Cycloserine (DCS) binds with high affinity to the glycine site associated with the NMDA receptor in rat brain. Systemic injections of DCS have been reported to facilitate performance on learning tasks, possibly by promoting long-term changes at the NMDA receptor complex. In the present study, DCS failed to affect spontaneous locomotor activity or variable-interval self-stimulation response rate. Cycloleucine, a competitive antagonist of glycine at the glycine site, produced a brief depression of self-stimulation, but only after relatively large doses which were not antagonised by injection of DCS in the dose reported to be optimal for the facilitation of learning. Improvements in learning and retention reported after administration of DCS are therefore unlikely to be accounted for by nonassociative motivational, or performance, factors.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 09/1990; 36(4):735-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • L J Herberg, I C Rose
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    ABSTRACT: A range of agonists and antagonists active at different glutamate/aspartate (Glu/Asp) receptor subtypes were injected into rat ventral tegmental (VTA) sites downstream from self-stimulation electrodes in the medial forebrain bundle. Control injections were made into the contralateral tegmentum. Variable-interval (VI 10 s) self-stimulation was not significantly affected by a specific antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type receptors (D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (2-AP5), 10 and 50 nmol). Broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonists viz cis-2,3-piperidine dicarboxylate (cPDA) (10 and 50 nmol), gamma-D-glutamylaminomethyl sulphonic acid (GAMS) (10 nmol) and p-chlorobenzoyl-2,3-piperazine dicarboxylic acid (pCB PzDA) (2.0 and 10 nmol), active at kainate, quisqualate, as well as NMDA receptors, all produced significant depression of responding when injected into the ipsilateral, but not the contralateral, tegmentum. Compounds inhibiting Glu/Asp reuptake had variable effects: strong depression with dihydrokainic acid (7.5 nmol), or no significant effect (L-threo-3-hydroxyaspartic acid, 2.0 and 10 nmol). The receptor agonist, NMDA (10 nmol), depressed responding regardless of injection side; kainic and responding regardless of injection side; kainic and quisqualic acid elicited myoclonic and other non-specific responses in preliminary tests, and were not examined further; enhanced responding was not seen. The side-specific blockade of responding by non-NMDA antagonists indicates the existence of non-NMDA EAA terminals in the VTA, signalling the receipt of hypothalamic brain-stimulation reward. Caudally directed EAA projections terminating on A10 dopamine cell bodies may account for depression of self-stimulation by EAA antagonists.
    Behavioural Brain Research 09/1990; 39(3):230-9. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • M Mintz, I C Rose, L J Herberg
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid kindling procedure was used to distinguish between the anticonvulsant activity of drugs and their ability to retard the kindling process. MK-801 is a specific ligand at the phencyclidine (PCP) recognition site, and acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA-type glutamate/aspartate receptors. Intraperitoneal injections of MK-801 (0.5-4.0 mg/kg IP) significantly reduced the cumulated effect of 12 2-hr kindling stimulations, as determined from behavioral measures of seizure activity in immediately ensuing 24-hr drug-free kindling sessions; however, the corresponding electrographic effects did not reach significance. MK-801 also showed significant anticonvulsant activity when injected in fully kindled rats. Higher doses tested were accompanied by locomotor and postural effects. The anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, clonazepam, formulated with a proprietary diluent (as Rivotril, Roche), injected in anticonvulsant doses during the first 12 kindling sessions (0.64 mg/kg IP, repeated after 9 hr) did not significantly affect the course of subsequent sessions of drug-free kindling. Systemic injections of kynurenic acid (300-600 mg/kg IP 4 hours), a nonspecific antagonist of glutamate receptors in vitro, were without significant anticonvulsant or antikindling activity. Activity of NMDA-sensitive glutamate/aspartate receptors associated with the PCP recognition site may induce lasting facilitation of neural transmission; this facilitation may be responsible for the remote propagation and progressive enhancement of seizure activity kindled in the amygdala. The facilitatory process appears to be antagonised by MK-801.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 05/1990; 35(4):815-21. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic administration of caerulein (10-100 micrograms/kg SC), a potent analogue of cholecystokinin, caused a profound dose-related depression of variable-interval self-stimulation, followed by progressive recovery within 60 min. Intracerebroventricular injection of caerulein (3-1000 ng) was not more effective than systemic injection, while injections into the nucleus accumbens (3-100 ng bilaterally) were without detectable effect. Systemic injections of L-364,718 (70-700 micrograms/kg IP), a specific competitive antagonist of CCKA ("peripheral-type") receptors, had no effect on self-stimulation when given alone. When given in combination with caerulein, L-364,718 (200 micrograms/kg IP) significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of caerulein (30 micrograms/kg SC); however, this dose, and higher doses of L-364,718, failed to confer complete protection. It is concluded that self-stimulation performance may be subject to modulation by CCK receptors distributed predominantly in the peripheral nervous system and that some but not all of these receptors are CCKA receptors.
    Psychopharmacology 02/1990; 101(3):384-9. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • L J Herberg, I C Rose
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    ABSTRACT: MK-801 is a ligand at phencyclidine recognition sites associated with NMDA-coupled cation channels, where it acts as a potent noncompetitive antagonist of central glutamate/aspartate (NMDA-type) receptors. Low doses (10-100 micrograms/kg IP) produced a dose-related and prolonged (greater than 1 h) enhancement of variable-interval self-stimulation responding. Higher doses (300 micrograms/kg) caused flaccid ataxia and disrupted responding. Ketamine HCl (3.0-100 mg/kg IP), a dissociative anaesthetic binding to the phencyclidine site, produced a similar response pattern, but facilitation was less prolonged and occurred over a narrower dose range. Kynurenic acid (3.0-300 mg/kg IP), a nonselective competitive antagonist of glutamate receptors, produced only depression of responding, possibly the result of kynurenate-induced blockade of central kainate and/or quisqualate receptors. The behavioural stimulant effects of MK-801 appear to be an intrinsic and essential feature of selective NMDA antagonists, and these effects of MK-801 differ qualitatively and quantitatively from the well-known facilitatory effects of dopamine-dependent stimulants.
    Psychopharmacology 02/1989; 99(1):87-90. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • I C Rose, M Mintz, L J Herberg
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic treatment with haloperidol (approximately 4.8 mg/rat/day PO for 18 days) severely impaired variable-interval hypothalamic self-stimulation. Cessation of treatment was followed by a strong rebound increase in response rates at submaximal currents, to well above pretreatment rates. The rebound increase in responding was not prevented (and at submaximal currents was actually enhanced) by treatment with l-dopa plus benserazide (respectively 240 and 60 mg/kg/day PO) for 6 days after withdrawal of haloperidol. This result is at variance with previously reported findings.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 08/1988; 30(3):585-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Upward or downward shifts in the level of brain GABAergictransmission have been held to be necessary and sufficient to promote release of endogenous ligands ('endocoids') for the benzodiazepine (BZD) recognition site. To investigate this possibility, variable-interval self-stimulation performance was used to monitor 'intrinsic' benzodiazepine-like and anti- benzodiazepine activity by the 'neutral' benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) (10 or 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Rats were pretreated with either a GABA synthesis blocking agent (isoniazid, 130 mg/kg subcutaneously), or with a GABA agonist (progabide, 30 or 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally). The lower dose of Ro 15-1788 (10 mg/kg), without pretreatment, did not affect self-stimulation; higher doses (30 mg/kg) caused a brief (<20 min) depression. Isoniazid (130 mg/kg) depressed self-stimulation, but did not modify the activity of Ro 15-1788. In rats pretreated with progabide (100 mg/kg), low doses of Ro 15- 1788 (10 mg/kg) that were previously without effect now caused a sharp fall in responding. These findings can be interpreted as showing that even low doses of Ro 15-1788 may affect self-stimulation under certain conditions, and that they do so by competing with an endogenous ligand for the benzodiazepine site, released by upward shifts in GABAergic activity. Alternative explanations in terms of altered receptor function seem less feasible. The results imply that the action of the endogenous ligand would not resemble that of a typical benzodiazepine, but that of an inverse agonist (that is, proconflict and proconvulsant); this conclusion agrees with recent biochemical evidence.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 01/1988; 2(1):5-12. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discriminative stimulus effect of midazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine, was used for testing the effects of drugs thought to act as antagonists at different sites in the proposed benzodiazepine receptor complex. Rats were trained in a standard two-bar operant conditioning procedure with food reinforcers delivered on a tandem schedule. The 0.4 mg/kg dose of midazolam used for training was well discriminated, typically yielding at least 95% correct responding. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788 blocked the discriminative effect of midazolam but did not influence generalization to pentobarbitone (7.5 mg/kg). The indirect GABA antagonist picrotoxin attenuated both generalization to pentobarbitone and its response rate-reducing effect. Picrotoxin had no effect on the discriminative effect of midazolam at 0.4 mg/kg but it blocked the effect of 0.1 mg/kg. Even in doses which reduced overall response rates, nicotine did not block discrimination of midazolam (0.4 mg/kg). The results are consistent with models which postulate a GABA-linked ion channel which is a site of action for barbiturates and which is "downstream" of the benzodiazepine receptor itself.
    Psychopharmacology 02/1986; 89(2):183-8. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some characteristics of the discriminative stimulus (cue) effects of midazolam, a short-acting benzodiazepine, have been determined in rats. A standard two-bar operant conditioning procedure with food reinforcers delivered on a tandem schedule was used. The 0.4 mg/kg dose of midazolam used for training was well discriminated, typically yielding at least 95% correct responding. Other benzodiazepines increased the percentage of drug-appropriate responding in a dose-related manner and were generalized at doses which had little effect on the overall rate of responding. Doses of pentobarbitone which greatly reduced the overall rate of responding were also generalized with midazolam. Amphetamine, oxotremorine, picrotoxin, morphine, nicotine, quipazine and Ro 15-1788 were not generalized, even at doses which severely suppressed overall response rates. The midazolam cue possesses a considerable degree of specificity and provides a potentially useful assay for drug action at the benzodiazepine receptor complex.
    Psychopharmacology 02/1985; 87(2):233-7. · 4.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

274 Citations
68.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–1995
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Psychology
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 1989
    • Experimental Psychology Society
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom