[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infertility is an area of increasing in life science research. Although follicular maturation disorders and anovulation are the primary causations of infertility, its molecular mechanism is not well understood. Recent research has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) might play an important role in the regulation of ovarian follicle development and maturation. In this study, the expression of miRNAs in metaphase I (MI) oocytes treated with or without insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was observed by microRNA microarray analysis. Results show that 145 miRNAs were up-regulated and 200 miRNAs were down-regulated in MI oocytes after IGF-1 treatment. MiR-133b, which was up-regulated more than 30-fold, was chosen for further research. As a potential target of miR133b, transgelin 2 (TAGLN2) gene was down-regulated, at both transcription and translation levels, in miR-133b- over-expressed 293T cells, but TAGLN2 was up-regulated when the expression of miR-133b was inhibited. Furthermore, the expression level of TAGLN2 in the ovaries of 8-week- old mice was higher than that observed in 4-week-old mice. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that TAGLN2 was located in the cytoplasm. In general, our results indicate that miR-133b may play important roles in the growth and maturation of oocytes by regulating its potential target, TAGLN2, at both transcription and translation levels. Therefore, our research provides a potential new target for infertility therapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e100751. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) fibrils into plaques within the brain parenchyma and along cerebral blood vessels is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ42 oligomers and fibrils cause the breakdown of neural circuits, neuronal death and eventually dementia. Drugs that inhibit Aβ42 aggregation may be a novel direction in AD drug discovery. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), an active component of the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been shown to improve learning and memory in several pharmacological models of AD. However, the effects of CTS on the Aβ aggregation and toxicity are unclear. The current work shows the effectiveness of CTS on the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and toxicity to human neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we demonstrated that CTS can inhibit Aβ42 spontaneous aggregation using thioflavin T fluorescence assay and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of CTS on Aβ-induced oxidative cell death in cultured SH-SY5Y cells. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays showed that CTS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42. CTS also dramatically reduced Aβ42-induced cellular apoptosis and increased level of reactive oxygen species in these cells. Our study suggests that CTS may be useful in the inhibition or prevention of AD development and progression.
Neurochemical Research 11/2011; 37(3):622-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) can differentiate into diverse cell types, including adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and myogenic lineages. There are lots of BMSC accumulated in atherosclerosis vessels and differentiate into VSMC. However, it is unclear whether VSMC originated from BMSC (BMSC-SMC) could remodel the vessel in new tunica intima or promote the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, BMSC were differentiated into VSMC in response to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and shown to express a number of VSMC markers, such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain1 (SM-MHC1). BMSC-SMC became foam cells after treatment with 80 mg/L ox-LDL for 72 hours. Ox-LDL could upregulate scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) but downregulate the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and caveolin-1 protein expression, suggesting that modulating relative protein activity contributes to smooth muscle foam cell formation in BMSC-SMC. Furthermore, we found that BMSC-SMC have some biological characteristics that are similar to VSMC, such as the ability of proliferation and secretion of extracellular matrix, but, at the same time, retain some biological characteristics of BMSC, such as a high level of migration. These results suggest that BMSC-SMC could be induced to foam cells and be involved in the development of atherosclerosis.
International journal of biological sciences 01/2011; 7(7):937-46. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved enzymatically by nonamyloidogenic and amyloidogenic pathways. alpha-Secretase cleaves APP within beta amyloid protein (Abeta) sequence, resulting in the release of a secreted fragment of APP (sAPPalpha) and precluding Abeta generation. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), an active component of the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been shown to improve learning and memory in several pharmacological models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have shown previously that CTS modulated APP metabolism by elevation alpha-secretase activity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved were unclear. Here we reported that CTS increased alpha-secretase activity and sAPPalpha release. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism whereby CTS modulates alpha-secretase, we evaluated the involvement of three candidate alpha-secretase enzymes, a-disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 9, 10, or 17, in CTS-induced non-amyloidogenic APP metabolism. Results showed that CTS treatment of cortical neurons overexpressing Swedish mutant human APP695 markedly elevated ADAM10 protein, and the inhibitor of ADAM10 inhibited the CTS-induced increase in alpha-secretase activity, suggesting CTS modulated alpha-secretase activity by upregulation ADAM10 protein. By using several specific protein kinase inhibitors, we showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) mediated the CTS-induced alpha-secretase activation.
Brain research 08/2010; 1348:165-73. · 2.46 Impact Factor