Pei-Hua Lu

Nanjing Medical University, Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (80)253.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Use of the conventional cancer chemotherapy (i.e. vincristine) is limited in tumor cells exhibiting pre-existing or acquired resistance. Here we found that C6 ceramide (C6) dramatically sensitized vincristine's activity. In vitro, C6 and vincristine co-administration induced substantial necrosis and apoptosis in multiple human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by a profound AMPK activation, subsequent p53 activation, mTORC1 in-activation and Bcl-2/HIF-1α downregulation. Such synergistic effects were attenuated by AMPK in-activation through genetic mutation or shRNA silencing. Co-administration-activated p53 translocated to mitochondria, and formed a complex with cyclophilin-D, leading to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and cell necrosis. Disrupting p53-Cyp-D complexation through pharmacological or genetic means reduced co-stimulation-induced cytotoxicity. In vivo, a liposomal C6 was synthesized, which dramatically enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of vincristine on HCT-116 or A2780 xenografts. Together, C6 sensitizes vincristine-induced anti-cancer activity in vivo and in vitro, involving activating AMPK-p53 signaling. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Carcinogenesis 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgv094 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) dysregulation is a general feature of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other solid tumors, and is associated cancer progression. In the current study, we demonstrate that microRNA-101 (miR-101) inhibits CRC cells probably through down-regulating sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1). Our results showed that exogenously expressing miR-101 inhibited CRC cell (HT-29 and HCT-116 lines) growth in vitro. At the molecular level, miR-101 dramatically down-regulated SphK1 mRNA and protein expression, causing pro-apoptotic ceramide production in above CRC cells. On the other hand, inhibition of miR-101 through expressing antagomiR-101 increased SphK1 expression to down-regulate ceramide level in HT-29 cells. miR-101 expression increased the in vitro anti-CRC activity of conventional chemo-agents: paclitaxel and doxorubicin. CRC cells with SphK1-shRNA knockdown showed similar phenotypes as the miR-101-expressed CRC cells, presenting with elevated level of ceramide and high sensitivity to paclitaxel or doxorubicin. In vivo, HCT-116 xenograft growth in severe combined immuno-deficient (SCID) mice was dramatically inhibited by over-expressing miR-101. Further, miR-101 enhanced paclitaxel-induced anti-HCT-116 activity in vivo. Together, these results indicate that miR-101 exerts its anti-CRC activities probably through down-regulating SphK1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.06.041 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The colorectal cancer is the leading contributor of cancer-related mortality. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in 2 complexes (mTORC1/2), is frequently dysregulated and constitutively activated in colorectal cancers. It represents an important drug target. Here we found that INK-128, the novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor of mTOR, blocked both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in colorectal cancer cells (both primary and transformed cells). The immunoprecipitation results showed that the assembly of mTORC1 (mTOR-Raptor association) and mTORC2 (mTOR-Rictor-Sin1 association) was also disrupted by INK-128. INK-128 inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth and survival, and induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cancer cell death. Further, INK-128 showed no effect on Erk/MAPK activation, while MEK/Erk inhibition by MEK-162 enhanced INK-128-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Meanwhile, INK-128 downregulated Fascin1 (FSCN1)/E-Cadherin expressions and inhibited HT-29 cell in vitro migration. In vivo, daily INK-128 oral administration inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in mice, which was further enhanced by MEK-162 administration. Finally, we found that INK-128 sensitized 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-mediated anti-HT-29 activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our preclinical studies strongly suggest that INK-128 might be investigated for colorectal cancer treatment in clinical trials.
    Cancer biology & therapy 01/2015; 16(1):34-42. DOI:10.4161/15384047.2014.972274 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) regulates injury-mediated astrocyte activation and contributes to glioma pathogenesis via modulation of β-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism behind cross-talk between GRβ and β-catenin/TCF in the progression of glioma. Here, we reported that GRβ knockdown reduced U118 and Shg44 glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that GRβ knockdown decreased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity without affecting β-catenin/TCF complex. Both GRα and GRβ directly interact with TCF-4, while only GRβ is required for sustaining TCF/LEF activity under hormone-free condition. GRβ bound to the N-terminus domain of TCF-4 its influence on Wnt signaling required both ligand- and DNA-binding domains (LBD and DBD, respectively). GRβ and TCF-4 interaction is enough to maintain the TCF/LEF activity at a high level in the absence of β-catenin stabilization. Taken together, these results suggest a novel cross-talk between GRβ and TCF-4 which regulates Wnt signaling and the proliferation in gliomas.
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have yielded inconclusive results regarding the relationship between anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and the sensitivity to chemotherapy in the patients with breast cancer. The purpose of the current study was therefore to elaborate their relationship.Methods, findings: A total of 23 previously published eligible studies involving 2,467 cases were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Negative Bcl-2 expression was associated with good chemotherapy response in breast cancer patients (total objective response [OR]: risk ratio [RR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.32, p = 0.026; total complete response [CR]: RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.24-2.24, p = 0.001; pathological CR: RR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.38-2.69, p < 0.001). In further stratified analyses, this association remained for sub-groups of response in neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting, especially pathological CR. Besides, negative Bcl-2 expression was significantly associated with good OR and pathological CR in anthracycline-based chemotherapy subgroup. Furthermore, there were significant links between negative Bcl-2 expression and taxane-based chemotherapy with pathological CR, but not OR. The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that Bcl-2 expression is a predictive factor for chemotherapy sensitivity in breast cancer patients. They could also potentially benefit further clinical treatment for breast cancers.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; 32(1):105. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-32-105 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The earlier studies have shown that Fascin1 (FSCN1), the actin bundling protein, is over-expressed in colorectal cancers, and is associated with cancer cell progression. Here, we aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating FSCN1 expression by focusing on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and its regulator microRNA-451. We found that microRNA-451 was over-expressed in multiple colorectal cancer tissues, and its expression was correlated with mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and FSCN1 expression. In cultured colorectal cancer HT-29 cells, knockdown of FSCN1 by RNAi inhibited cell migration and proliferation. Activation of mTORC1 was required for FSCN1 expression, HT-29 cell migration and proliferation, as RAD001 and rapamycin, two mTORC1 inhibitors, suppressed FSCN1 expression, HT-29 cell migration and proliferation. Meanwhile, forced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the negative regulator of mTORC1, by its activators or by the genetic mutation, inhibited mTORC1 activation, FSCN1 expression, cell migration and proliferation. In HT-29 cells, we found that over-expression of microRNA-451 inhibited AMPK activation, causing mTORC1 over-activation and FSCN1 up-regulation, cells were with high migration ability and proliferation rate. Significantly, these effects by microRNA-451 were largely inhibited by mTORC1 inhibitors or the AMPK activator AICAR. On the other hand, knockdown of miRNA-451 by the treatment of HT-29 cells with miRNA-451 antagomir inhibited mTORC1 activation and FSCN1 expression. The proliferation and migration of HT-29 cells after miRNA-45 knockdown were also inhibited. Our results suggested that the over-expressed microRNA-451 in colon cancer cells might inhibit AMPK to activate mTORC1, which mediates FSCN1 expression and cancer cell progression.
    Cellular Signalling 07/2013; 26(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.07.017 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates plumbagin-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in both primary cultured human colon cancer cells and cell lines. Knocking-down of AMPKα by the target shRNA significantly inhibits plumbagin-induced cytotoxicity in cultured colon cancer cells, while forced activation of AMPK by introducing a constitutively active AMPK (CA-AMPK), or by the AMPK activator, inhibits HT-29 colon cancer cell growth. Our Western-blots and immunoprecipitation (IP) results demonstrate that plumbagin induces AMPK/ Apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/ TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) association to activate pro-apoptotic c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)-p53 signal axis. Further, after plumbagin treatment, activated AMPK directly phosphorylates Raptor to inhibit mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation and Bcl-2 expression in colon cancer cells. Finally, we found that exogenously-added short-chain ceramide (C6) enhances plumbagin-induced AMPK activation and facilitates cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. Our results suggest that AMPK might be the key mediator of plumbagin's anti-tumor activity.
    Cellular Signalling 05/2013; 25(10). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.05.026 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our study shows that coadministration of curcumin and an orally bioactive alkylphospholipid perifosine results in a significant increase in colorectal cancer cell apoptosis and a marked inhibition of cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. This novel combinatorial regimen leads to changes of multiple cell signaling pathways including inactivation of Akt and nuclear factor-κB as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Further, perifosine and curcumin synergistically increase intracellular level of reactive oxygen species and ceramide, and downregulate the expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 in colorectal cancer cells. These changes at molecular level together account for the cancer cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. We conclude that perifosine sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to curcumin by modulating multiple signaling pathways. Adding perifosine with curcumin may represent an effective therapy regimen against colorectal cancers, and possible other aggressive tumors.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2012; 131(11):2487-98. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27548 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the relationship between p53 status and the response to neoadjuvant radiation-based therapy in patients with rectal cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between p53 status and response to radiation-based therapy in rectal cancer. A total of 30 previously published eligible studies including 1,830 cases were identified and included in this meta-analysis. Wild-type form of p53 status (low expression of p53 protein and/or wild-type p53 gene) was associated with pathologic response in rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant radiation-based therapy (good response: risk ratio [RR] = 1.30; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.14-1.49; p<0.001; complete response RR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.19-2.30; p = 0.003; poor response RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.75-0.96; p = 0.007). In further stratified analyses, this association remained for sub-groups of good and poor response in neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) setting, good and complete response in chemoradiotherapy (CRT) setting. And the association between response and the presence of p53 gene mutations was stronger than that between response and protein positivity. The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that P53 status is a predictive factor for response in rectal cancer patient undergoing neoadjuvant radiation-based therapy.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45388. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045388 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many epidemiological studies have found that leptin correlates to body fat extent and breast cancer. Leptin exerts its physiological action through the leptin receptor (LEPR). However, published data on the association between LEPR alleles and breast cancer occurrence have led to in contradictory results. A total of 10 studies were identified to the meta-analysis, including 4,644 cases and 5,485 controls for LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism, 5 studies with 2,759 cases and 4,464 controls for rs1137100 polymorphism, and 2 studies for rs8051542, rs8051542, and rs8051542 polymorphisms. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer risk associated with LEPR genotypes were estimated. Elevated breast cancer risk was associated with LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism when all studies were pooled in the meta-analysis (allele contrast model: OR = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.551-0.997). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were also found among Asians for allele contrast model (OR 0.414, 95 % CI 0.312-0.550) and dominant model (OR 0.537, 95 % CI 0.370-0.781); for Africans, significantly increased risks were also found for allele contrast model (OR 0.716, 95 % CI 0.595-0.861), homozygote codominant (OR 0.537, 95 % CI 0.370-0.781) and dominant model (OR 1.595, 95 % CI 1.207-2.108). And significantly elevated breast cancer risk was associated with LEPR rs1137100 polymorphism for allele contrast (OR = 0.666, 95 % CI = 0.603-0.720) and homozygote codominant models (OR = 0.344, 95 % CI = 0.282-0.421). For LEPR rs8179183, rs4655537, and rs3762274 polymorphisms, no significant associations were detected in all comparison models. This pooled analysis suggested that rs1137101 and rs1137100 polymorphisms were significantly correlated with breast cancer risk and the A allele of LEPR rs1137101 variant and the G allele of LEPR rs1137100 variant were low-penetrant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Further, no significant associations existed between LEPR rs8179183, rs4655537, and rs3762274 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2012; 136(1):231-9. DOI:10.1007/s10549-012-2228-9 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have yielded inconclusive results regarding the relationship between tumor suppressor protein TP53 overexpression and/or TP53 gene mutations and the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. The purpose of the current study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between TP53 status and response to chemotherapy in breast cancer. A total of 26 previously published eligible studies including 3,476 cases were identified and included in this meta-analysis. TP53 status (over expression of TP53 protein and/or TP53 gene mutations) was associated with good response in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (total objective response: risk ratio [RR]= 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.09-1.33, p<0.001; pathological objective response: RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.20-1.57, p<0.01; total complete response: RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.15-1.53, p<0.001; pathological complete response: RR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.25-1.68, p<0.001). In further stratified analyses, this association also existed among the studies using anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the association between response and the presence of gene alterations was stronger than that between response and immunohistochemistry positivity. The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that TP53 status is a predictive factor for response in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Further larger and well-designed prospective studies are required to evaluate the predictive role of TP53 status in clinical practice.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39655. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039655 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nogo-A, oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) are known as myelin-associated proteins that inhibit axon growth by binding a common receptor, the Nogo66 receptor (NgR). In the CNS, Nogo-A, OMgp and MAG are predominantly expressed by oligodendrocytes. As our previous study revealed that oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) did not inhibit neurite outgrowth, it is not clear whether these myelin-associated proteins are expressed in OPCs, and what functions they perform if they are expressed in OPCs. In the present study, with OPCs induced from neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from rat embryonic spinal cord, and oligodendrocytes differentiated from OPCs, we have observed the expression patterns of Nogo-A, OMgp, MAG and NgR in NPCs, OPCs and oligodendrocytes by immunostaining and western blot assay. We found that Nogo-A could be detected in all tested cells; OMgp could be detected in OPCs and oligodendrocytes, but not in NPCs; MAG was only detected in oligodendrocytes; while NgR could be detected in NPCs and OPCs, but not in oligodendrocytes. These results indicated that the expression pattern of MAG and NgR in OPCs was totally different from that of oligodendrocytes, which might be one of the factors that led to the discrepancy between the two cells in promoting neurite outgrowth. By respectively blocking Nogo-A, OMgp and NgR expressed on OPCs with their corresponding antibodies, we further investigated their roles in the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs, as well as the possible signal pathways involved in. Our results showed that when OPCs were cultured under proliferation condition, blocking Nogo-A, OMgp or NgR did not affect the proliferation of OPCs, but could all significantly prolong their processes. And this effect on OPC processes might involve the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. When OPCs were cultured under differentiation condition (containing tri-iodothyronine, T3), blocking Nogo-A, OMgp or NgR could all inhibit the differentiation of OPCs, and this effect might involve the extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (Erk1/2) signaling pathway. These results suggested that under proliferation environment, the functions of Nogo-A, OMgp and NgR expressed in OPCs might be to control the length of processes, thus maintaining the morphology of OPCs. While in differentiation environment, the functions of Nogo-A, OMgp and NgR expressed in OPCs turned to promote the differentiation of OPCs, thus facilitating the maturation of oligodendrocytes. And NgR, as the common receptor for Nogo-A and OMgp, might be the main molecule that mediated these functions in OPCs.
    Brain research 02/2012; 1437:1-15. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.12.008 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our meta-analysis was to assess the association between UGT1A7 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Case?control studies containing available polymorphic alleles (UGT1A7*1,*2,*3, and*4) and genotypes categorized according to enzymatic activity (High, Intermediate, and Low) were chosen to assess this association. Twenty-one case?control studies were identified. Meta-analysis indicated that UGT1A7 had a significant effect on cancer risk. In subgroup analysis, a significantly increased risk was associated with East Asians, hepatocellular cancer, and colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis suggested that there is a cancer risk associated with UGT1A7*3, Intermediate, and Low activity UGT1A7 genotypes, which is most evident in Asian individuals.
    Cancer Investigation 11/2011; 29(10):645-54. DOI:10.3109/07357907.2011.626477 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Annals of surgery 09/2011; 254(4):663-4; author reply 664. DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e318230616c · 7.19 Impact Factor
  • Mutagenesis 07/2011; 26(5):675-6; author reply 677. DOI:10.1093/mutage/ger029 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite its potent antitumor effect, clinical use of Doxorubicin is limited because of serious side effects including myocardial toxicity. Understanding the cellular mechanism involved in this process in a better manner is beneficial for optimizing Doxorubicin treatment. In the current study, the authors focus on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the said process. In this study, the authors discovered for the first time that Doxorubicin induces AMPK activation in cultured rat embryonic ventricular myocardial H9c2 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent LKB1 activation serves as the upstream signal for AMPK activation by Doxorubicin. Evidence in support of the activation of AMPK contributing to Doxorubicin-induced H9c2 cell death/apoptosis--probably by modulating multiple downstream signal targets, including regulating JNK, p53, and inhibiting mTORC1--is provided in this article.
    Cell biochemistry and biophysics 07/2011; 60(3):311-22. DOI:10.1007/s12013-011-9153-0 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular basis for induction of apoptosis in melanoma cells by vincristine remains unknown. Here we tested the potential involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in this process. We found for the first time that vincristine induces AMPK activation (AMPKα, Thr 172) and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, Ser 79) (a downstream molecular target of AMPK) phosphorylation in cultured melanoma cells in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent LKB1 activation serves as the upstream signal for AMPK activation. AMPK inhibitor (compound C) or AMPKα siRNA knockdown inhibits vincristine induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis, while AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-riboside (AICAR) enhances it. AMPK activation is involved in vincristine induced p53 phosphorylation and stabilization, the latter is known to mediate melanoma cell apoptosis. Further, activation of AMPK by vincristine inhibits mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) in B16 melanoma cells, which serves as another important mechanism to induce melanoma cell apoptosis. Our study provides new insights into understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of vincristine induced cancer cell death/apoptosis. We suggest that combining AMPK activator AICAR with vincristine may have potential to be used as a new therapeutic intervention against melanoma.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 07/2011; 226(7):1915-25. DOI:10.1002/jcp.22522 · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2011; 129(3):1011-3. DOI:10.1007/s10549-011-1563-6 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Published data on the association between mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) gene rs889312 polymorphism and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Crude ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of association between them. A total of seven eligible articles including 26,015 cases and 33,962 controls based on the search criteria were involved in this meta-analysis. We observed that the MAP3K1 rs889312 polymorphism was significantly correlated with breast cancer risk from the fixed effects model when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (the allele contrast model: OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.12; the homozygote codominant: OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.29; the heterozygote codominant: OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11; the dominant model: OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.13; the recessive model: OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25). No significant association was found in the BRCA1 mutation carriers in all genetic models. When stratified by BRCA2 mutation carriers status, statistically significantly elevated risk was found in this meta-analysis (C vs. A: OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.23; CC vs. AA: OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.71; the recessive model: OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.05-1.65). There was no evidence for significant association between MAP3K1 rs889312 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 positive cohort for all comparison models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the MAP3K1 rs889312 C allele is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing breast cancer, and there is limited evidence to indicate that MAP3K1 rs889312 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2011; 126(3):663-70. DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-1151-1 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2011; 126(3):835-7. DOI:10.1007/s10549-010-1342-9 · 4.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

859 Citations
253.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2015
    • Nanjing Medical University
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      • • Department of General Surgery
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2012
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2006–2012
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • Department of Neurology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2007–2010
    • Renji Hospital
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • University of Louisville
      • Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center
      Louisville, KY, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • Second Military Medical University, Shanghai
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China