Paul Roderick

University of Southampton, Southampton, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (188)1016.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Conservative kidney management (CKM) is recognised as an alternative to dialysis for a significant number of older adults with multi-morbid chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD5). However, little is known about the way CKM is delivered or how it is perceived. Aim: To determine the practice patterns for CKM of older patients with CKD5, to inform service development and future research. Objectives: i) To describe the differences between renal units in the extent and nature of CKM. ii) To explore how decisions are made about treatment options for older patients with CKD5. iii) To explore clinicians willingness to randomise patients with CKD5 to CKM versus dialysis. iv) To describe the interface between renal units and primary care in managing CKD5. v) To identify the resources involved and potential costs of CKM. Methods: Mixed methods study. Interviews with 42 patients aged >75 with CKD5 and 60 renal unit staff in a purposive sample of nine UK renal units. Interviews informed the design of a survey to assess CKM practice, sent to all 71 UK units. Nineteen general practitioners were interviewed concerning referral of CKD patients to secondary care. We sought laboratory data on new CKD5 patients aged >75 years to link with the nine renal units’ records to assess referral patterns. Results: 67/71 renal units completed the survey. Although terminology varied, there was general acceptance of the role of CKM. Only 52% of units were able to quantify the number of CKM patients. A wide range reflected varied interpretation of the designation ‘CKM’ by both staff and patients. It is used to characterise a future treatment option as well non dialysis care for end-stage kidney failure (ESKF, i.e. a disease state equivalent to being on dialysis), the number of patients in the latter group on CKM were relatively small (median 8 IQR 4.5-22). Patients’ expectations of CKM and dialysis were strongly influenced by renal staff. In a minority of units, CKM was not discussed. When discussed, often only limited information about illness progression was provided. Staff wanted more research into the relative benefits of CKM versus dialysis. There was almost universal support for an observational methodology and a quarter would definitely be willing to participate in a randomised clinical trial, indicating that clinicians placed value on high-quality evidence to inform decision making. Linked data indicated that most CKD5 patients were known to renal units. GPs expressed a need for guidance on when to refer older, multi-morbid patients with CKD5 to nephrology care. There was large variation in the scale and model of CKM delivery. In most, the CKM service was integrated within the service for all non-renal replacement therapy (RRT) CKD5 patients. A few units provided dedicated CKM clinics and some had dedicated modest funding for CKM. Conclusions: CKM is accepted across UK renal units but there is much variation in the way it is described and delivered. For best practice in CKM to be developed and systematised across all renal units in the UK, we recommend: a) a standard definition and terminology for CKM; b) research to measure the relative benefits of CKM and dialysis; and c) development of evidence-based staff training and patient education interventions.
    Health Services and Delivery Research journal. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is needed to establish the long-term benefit of bariatric surgery in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and body mass index (BMI) 30–39.9 kg/m2. However, willingness amongst this group to be randomised and undergo surgery is uncertain. This study assessed UK patients’ perceptions of their weight and diabetes, and associations with willingness to participate in RCTs involving bariatric surgery, amongst this population. Materials and Methods Postal survey of 1820 patients from four regions in England. Eligible patients were as follows: BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2, 18–74 years, diagnosis of T2DM ≥2 years. A reminder survey was sent after 4 weeks. Independent predictors influencing patients’ willingness to consider RCT participation were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Thirty-four per cent (614/1820) of patients responded. Weight was considered to be harder to control than diabetes [468/584 (80 %) vs. 107/600 (17 %)]. More people reported a negative impact on life for weight rather than diabetes [379/579 (63 %) vs. 180/574 (31 %)]. Feeling unsatisfied/very unsatisfied with weight loss ability was common 261/578 (45 %). Sixty-four per cent (379/594, CI = 60–68) were willing to consider participating in an RCT. In multivariate analysis, negative impact of weight on life (OR = 2.55, 95 % CI = 1.68–3.89, P < 0.001) and feeling unsatisfied with weight loss ability (OR = 2.47, 95 % CI = 1.55–3.95, P < 0.001) positively influenced patients’ willingness to participate in an RCT. Conclusion Strong patient interest supports the feasibility of such trials for this group. Perceptions of obesity negatively impacting on life and difficulties in achieving weight loss were common and influenced attitudes to potential participation in bariatric surgery RCTs.
    Obesity Surgery 11/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conservative kidney management (CKM) has been developed in the United Kingdom (UK) as an alternative to dialysis for older patients with stage 5 CKD (CKD5) and multiple comorbidities. This national survey sought to describe the current scale and pattern of delivery of conservative care in UK renal units and identify their priorities for its future development.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 may be offered a choice between dialysis and conservative management. Few studies have explored patients' reasons for choosing conservative management and none have compared the views of those who have chosen different treatments across renal units. Study Design: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. Settings & Participants: Patients 75 years or older recruited from 9 renal units. Units were chosen to reflect variation in the scale of delivery of conservative management. Methodology: Semi-structured interviews audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analytical Approach: Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: 42 interviews were completed, 4 to 6 per renal unit. Patients were sampled from those receiving dialysis, those preparing for dialysis, and those choosing conservative management. 14 patients in each group were interviewed. Patients who had chosen different treatments held varying beliefs about what dialysis could offer. The information that patients reported receiving from clinical staff differed between units. Patients from units with a more established conservative management pathway were more aware of conservative management, less often believed that dialysis would guarantee longevity, and more often had discussed the future with staff. Some patients receiving conservative management reported that they would have dialysis if they became unwell in the future, indicating the conditional nature of their decision. Limitations: Recruitment of older adults with frailty and comorbid conditions was difficult and therefore transferability of findings to this population is limited. Conclusions: Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 who have chosen different treatment options have contrasting beliefs about the likely outcomes of dialysis for those who are influenced by information provided by renal units. Supporting renal staff in discussing conservative management as a valid alternative to dialysis for a subset of patients will aid informed decision making. There is a need for better evidence about conservative management to support shared decision making for older people with chronic kidney failure.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/2014; · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial carriage in the upper respiratory tract is usually asymptomatic but can lead to respiratory tract infection (RTI), meningitis and septicaemia. We aimed to provide a baseline measure of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis carriage within the community. Self-swabbing and healthcare professional (HCP) swabbing were compared.
    BMJ Open 10/2014; 4(10):e005341. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Conservative Kidney Management (CKM) has developed in the UK as an alternative to dialysis for older patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5) and multiple comorbidities. We report on a national survey which aims to describe the current scale and pattern of delivery of conservative care in UK renal units and identify their priorities for its future development. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: A survey on practice patterns of CKM for patients aged over 75 years with CKD5 was sent to clinical directors of all 71 adult renal units in the UK in March 2013. Results: Sixty-seven units (94%) responded. All but one unit reported providing CKM for some patients. Terminology varied, although ‘conservative management’ was the most frequently used term (46%). Lack of an agreed definition of when a patient is receiving CKM made it difficult to obtain meaningful data on the numbers of such patients. 52% provided the number of CKM patients aged ≥75 in 2012; the median was 45 per unit (IQR: 20-83). The median number of symptomatic CKM patients who would otherwise have started dialysis was 8 (IQR: 4.5-22). CKM practice patterns varied: 35% had a written guideline; 23% dedicated CKM clinics; 45% dedicated staff; and 50% provided staff training on CKM. Most units (88%) provided primary care clinicians with information/advice regarding CKM. 80% identified a need for better evidence comparing outcomes on CKM versus dialysis and 65% considered it appropriate to enter patients into a randomized trial. Conclusions: CKM is provided in almost all UK renal units but with wide variation in scale and organization. Lack of common terminology and definitions hinders the development and assessment of CKM. Many survey respondents expressed support There is a need for clinical trials further research comparing outcomes with conservative care versus dialysis.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine whether the prevalence of CKD in England has changed over time. Design Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative Health Survey for England (HSE) random samples. Setting England 2003 and 2009/2010. Survey participants 13,896 Adults aged 16+ participating in HSE, adjusted for sampling and non-response, 2009/10 surveys combined. Main outcome measure Change in prevalence of eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 (as proxy for stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease [CKD]), from 2003 to 2009/10 based on a single serum creatinine measure using IDMS traceable enzymatic assay in a single laboratory; eGFR derived using MDRD and CKDEPI eGFR formulae. Analysis Multivariate logistic regression modelling to adjust time changes for socio-demographic and clinical factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, lipids). A correction factor was applied to the 2003 HSE serum creatinine to account for a storage effect. Results National prevalence of low eGFR (<60) decreased within each age and gender group for both formulae except males aged 65-74. Prevalence of both obesity and diabetes increased in this period, there was a decrease in hypertension. Adjustment for demographic and clinical factors led to a significant decrease in CKD between the surveyed periods. The fully adjusted odds ratio for eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 was 0.75 (0.61-0.92) comparing 2009/10 with 2003 using the MDRD equation, and was similar using the CKDEPI equation 0.73 (0.57-0.93). Conclusion The prevalence of a low eGFR indicative of CKD in England appeared to decrease over this seven year period, despite rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, two key causes of CKD. Hypertension prevalence declined and blood pressure control improved but this did not appear to explain the fall. Periodic assessment of eGFR and albuminuria in future HSEs is needed to evaluate trends in CKD.
    BMJ Open 09/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsWe wish to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of remote monitoring of heart failure patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices.MethodsREM-HF is a multicentre, randomized, non-blinded, parallel trial designed to compare weekly remote monitoring-driven management with usual care for patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices (ICD, CRT-D, or CRT-P). The trial is event driven, and the final analysis will be performed when 546 events have been observed or the study is terminated at the interim analysis. We have randomized 1650 patients to be followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Patients will remain in the trial up to study termination. The first patient was randomized in September 2011 and the study is expected to complete in early 2016. The primary combined endpoint is time to first event of all-cause death or unplanned hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. An economic evaluation will be performed, estimating the cost per quality-adjusted lifeyear, with direct costs estimated from the National Health Service perspective and quality of life assessed by the EQ-5D, Short-Form12, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaires. The study design has been informed by a feasibility study.ConclusionREM-HF is a multicentre randomized study that will provide important data on the effect of remote monitoring-driven management of implanted cardiac devices on morbidity and mortality, as well as the cost-effectiveness of this approach.Trial registration: UKCRN 10383.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 08/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is variation in time to listing and rates of listing for transplantation between renal units in the UK. While research has mainly focused on healthcare organization, little is known about patient perspectives of entry onto the transplant waiting list. This qualitative study aimed to explore patients' views and experiences of kidney transplant listing. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients aged under 75, who were on dialysis and on the transplant waiting list, not on the waiting list, undergoing assessment for listing or who had received a transplant. Patients were recruited from a purposive sample of nine UK renal units, which included transplanting and non-transplanting units and units with high and low wait-listing patterns. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Fifty-three patients (5–7 per renal unit) were interviewed. Patients reported that they had received little information about the listing process. Some patients did not know if they were listed or had found they were not listed when they had thought they were on the list. Others expressed distress when they felt they had been excluded from potential listing based on age and/or comorbidity and felt the process was unfair. Many patients were not aware of pre-emptive transplantation and believed they had to be on dialysis before being able to be listed. There was some indication that pre-emptive transplantation was discussed more often in transplant than non-transplant units. Lastly, some patients were reluctant to consider family members as potential donors as they reported they would feel ‘guilty’ if the donor suffered subsequent negative effects. Conclusions: Findings suggest a need to review current practice to further understand individual and organizational reasons for the renal unit variation identified in patient understanding of transplant listing. The communication of information warrants attention to ensure patients are fully informed about the listing process and opportunity for pre-emptive transplantation in a way that is meaningful and understandable to them.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is now recognized to be a worldwide problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality and there is a steep increase in the number of patients reaching end-stage renal disease. In many parts of the world, the disease affects younger people without diabetes or hypertension. The costs to family and society can be enormous. Early recognition of CKD may help prevent disease progression and the subsequent decline in health and longevity. Surveillance programs for early CKD detection are beginning to be implemented in a few countries. In this article, we will focus on the challenges and successes of these programs with the hope that their eventual and widespread use will reduce the complications, deaths, disabilities, and economic burdens associated with CKD worldwide.Kidney International advance online publication, 4 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.190.
    Kidney International 06/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To derive and validate a clinical prediction model to estimate the risk of liver disease diagnosis following liver function tests (LFTs) and to convert the model to a simplified scoring tool for use in primary care.
    BMJ Open 06/2014; 4(6):e004837. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ALT is one of the most commonly used tests to detect liver disease for further investigation, but its accuracy is uncertain. Currently there is no systematic review of diagnostic accuracy of ALT in detecting liver fibrosis using liver biopsy as reference standard.
    Gut 06/2014; 63(Suppl 1):A247. · 13.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel markers may help to improve risk prediction in CKD. One potential candidate is tissue advanced glycation end product accumulation, a marker of cumulative metabolic stress, which can be assessed by a simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence. Skin autofluorescence correlates with higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in people with diabetes or people requiring RRT, but its role in earlier CKD has not been studied.DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A prospective cohort of 1741 people with CKD stage 3 was recruited from primary care between August 2008 and March 2010. Participants underwent medical history, clinical assessment, blood and urine sampling for biochemistry, and measurement of skin autofluorescence. Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations between skin autofluorescence (categorical in quartiles) and all-cause mortality.RESULTS: In total, 1707 participants had skin autofluorescence measured; 170 (10%) participants died after a median of 3.6 years of follow-up. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (41%). Higher skin autofluorescence was associated significantly with poorer survival (all-cause mortality, P<0.001) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and age/sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that the highest quartile of skin autofluorescence was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.71 to 4.08; P<0.001 and hazard ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 2.86; P=0.003, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile). This association was not maintained after additional adjustment to include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, eGFR, albuminuria, and hemoglobin.CONCLUSIONS: Skin autofluorescence was not independently associated with all-cause mortality in this study. Additional research is needed to clarify whether it has a role in risk prediction in CKD.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteinuria assessment is key in investigating chronic kidney disease (CKD) but uncertainty exists regarding optimal methods. Albuminuria, reflecting glomerular damage, is usually measured, but non-albumin proteinuria (NAP), reflecting tubular damage, may be important. This study investigated the prevalence and associations of albuminuria and NAP, and the optimum number of urine specimens required.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e98261. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives Novel markers may help to improve risk prediction in CKD. One potential candidate is tissue advanced glycation end product accumulation, a marker of cumulative metabolic stress, which can be assessed by a simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence. Skin autofluorescence correlates with higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in people with diabetes or people requiring RRT, but its role in earlier CKD has not been studied. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A prospective cohort of 1741 people with CKD stage 3 was recruited from primary care between August 2008 and March 2010. Participants underwent medical history, clinical assessment, blood and urine sampling for biochemistry, and measurement of skin autofluorescence. Kaplan–Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations between skin autofluorescence (categorical in quartiles) and all-cause mortality. Results In total, 1707 participants had skin autofluorescence measured; 170 (10%) participants died after a median of 3.6 years of follow-up. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (41%). Higher skin autofluorescence was associated significantly with poorer survival (all-cause mortality, P<0.001) on Kaplan–Meier analysis. Univariate and age/sex-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that the highest quartile of skin autofluorescence was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.71 to 4.08; P<0.001 and hazard ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 2.86; P=0.003, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile). This association was not maintained after additional adjustment to include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, eGFR, albuminuria, and hemoglobin. Conclusions Skin autofluorescence was not independently associated with all-cause mortality in this study. Additional research is needed to clarify whether it has a role in risk prediction in CKD.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE In the U.K., one-third of patients receiving treatment with dialysis have diabetes. Guidelines from organizations representing patients with renal disease or diabetes advocate tight glycemic control in patients with end-stage renal disease, despite glucose-lowering trials having excluded these patients.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using national UK Renal Registry data, we tested whether glycemia as measured by hemoglobin (Hb) A1c (HbA1c) level is associated with death in adults with diabetes starting hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis between 1997 and 2006, and observed for at least 6 months. Of 7,814 patients, we excluded those who had died within 6 months; had received transplants; were lost/recovered; or lacked measures of HbA1c, ethnicity, or Hb. Categorizing HbA1c measured in the first 6 months of starting dialysis as <6.5% (<48 mmol/mol), 6.5-7.4% (48-57 mmol/mol) (reference value), 7.5-8.4% (58-68 mmol/mol), and ≥8.5% (≥69 mmol/mol), we adjusted in proportional hazards models for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, year, dialysis type, and Hb, and tested for interactions.RESULTSOf 3,157 patients observed for a median time of 2.7 years, 1,688 died. For patients ≥60 years of age, we found no association between HbA1c and death; among younger patients, relative to those with HbA1c values 6.5-7.4%, the hazard ratio for HbA1c level 7.5-8.4% was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), and for HbA1c level >8.5% was 1.5 (1.2-1.9). The projected difference in median survival time between younger patients with a reference HbA1c value versus >8.5% was 1 year.CONCLUSIONS In the absence of trials, and confounding notwithstanding, these observational data support improved glycemic control in younger patients prior to and during dialysis.
    Diabetes care 02/2014; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of severe and complex obesity is increasing worldwide and surgery may offer an effective and lasting treatment. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are the two main surgical procedures performed. This open parallel-group randomised controlled trial will compare the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of gastric band (Band) versus gastric bypass (Bypass) in adults with severe and complex obesity. It has an internal pilot phase (in two centres) with integrated qualitative research to establish effective and optimal methods for recruitment. Adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m2 or more, or a BMI of 35 kg/m2 or more and other co-morbidities will be recruited. At the end of the internal pilot the study will expand into more centres if the pre-set progression criteria of numbers and rates of eligible patients screened and randomised are met and if the expected rates of retention and adherence to treatment allocation are achieved. The trial will test the joint hypotheses that Bypass is non-inferior to Band with respect to more than 50% excess weight loss and that Bypass is superior to Band with respect to health related quality of life (HRQOL, EQ-5D) at three years. Secondary outcomes include other weight loss measures, waist circumference and remission/resolution of co-morbidities; generic and symptom-specific HRQOL; nutritional blood test results; resource use; eating behaviours and adverse events. A core outcome set for reporting the results of obesity surgery will be developed and a systematic review of the evidence for sleeve gastrectomy undertaken to inform the main study design. By-Band is the first pragmatic study to compare the two most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures for severe and complex obesity. The design will enable and empower surgeons to learn to recruit and participate in a randomised study. Early evidence shows that timely recruitment is possible.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00786323.
    Trials 02/2014; 15(1):53. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal replacement therapy rates are inversely related to socioeconomic status (SES) in developed countries. The relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and SES is less clear. This study examined the relationships between SES and CKD and albuminuria in England. Data from the Health Survey for England 2009 and 2010 were combined. The prevalence of CKD 3-5 and albuminuria was calculated, and logistic regression used to determine their association with five individual-level measures and one area-level measure of SES. The prevalence of CKD 3-5 was 5.2% and albuminuria 8.0%. Age-sex-adjusted CKD 3-5 was associated with lack of qualifications [odds ratio (OR) 2.27 (95% confidence interval 1.40-3.69)], low income [OR 1.50 (1.02-2.21)] and renting tenure [OR 1.36 (1.01-1.84)]. Only tenure remained significant in fully adjusted models suggesting that co-variables were on the causal pathway. Albuminuria remained associated with several SES measures on full adjustment: low income [OR 1.55 (1.14-2.11)], no vehicle [OR 1.38 (1.05-1.81)], renting [OR 1.31 [1.03-1.67)] and most deprived area-level quintile [OR 1.55 (1.07-2.25)]. CKD 3-5 and albuminuria were associated with low SES using several measures. For albuminuria this was not explained by known measured causal factors.
    Journal of Public Health 11/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet 11/2013; 382:S90. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Teachers are a key part of the wider public health workforce in England. We conducted a survey to find out how they are trained for this role during their initial teacher education (ITE). Between 2011 and 2012, we sent an online questionnaire to 220 ITE course managers and conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 19 course managers to explore issues in more depth. The response rate to the questionnaire was 34% (n = 74). Although most of the course managers felt inclusion of health and well-being training in ITE was important, provision across courses was variable. Topics which are public health priorities [e.g. sex and relationships education (SRE) and drugs, alcohol and tobacco] were covered by fewer courses than other topics (e.g. child protection, emotional health and anti-bullying). Perceived barriers to training included lack of time and a belief that health and well-being were low priorities in educational policy. Not all of tomorrow's teachers are being adequately prepared for their role in helping to address public health priorities. Educational policy does not appear to be supporting the priorities of public health policy, and this is a key barrier to health promotion training in ITE.Keywords children, educational settings, health promotion.
    Journal of Public Health 10/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,016.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • University of Southampton
      • • Academic Unit of Primary Care and Population Science
      • • Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development
      • • Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2010
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health
      • • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Portsmouth
      Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Division of Applied Health Sciences
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • The George Institute for Global Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • University of Dundee
      • Undergraduate Tayside Centre for General Practice
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • The Bracton Centre, Oxleas NHS Trust
      Дартфорде, England, United Kingdom
    • East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust
      Cantorbery, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University College London
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom