Pavel Uhrin

Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (40)162.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate fractalkine (CX3CL1) protein expression in wild type (wt) retina and its alterations during retinal degeneration in mouse model (rd10) of retinitis pigmentosa. Forms of retinal protein CX3CL1, total protein and mRNA levels of CX3CL1 were analyzed at postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 14, 22, 30, 45, and 60 by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Cellular sources of CX3CL1 were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH) and using transgenic (CX3CL1cherry) mice. The immunoblots revealed that in both, wt and rd10 retinas, a membrane integrated ∼100 kDa CX3CL1 form and a cleaved ∼85 kDa CX3CL1 form were present at P5. At P10, accumulation of another presumably intra-neuronal ∼95 kDa form and a decrease in the ∼85-kDa form were observed. From P14, a ∼95 kDa form became principal in wt retina, while in rd10 retinas a soluble ∼85 kDa form increased at P45 and P60. In comparison, retinas of rd10 mice had significantly lower levels of total CX3CL1 protein (from P10 onwards) and lower CX3CL1 mRNA levels (from P14), even before the onset of primary rod degeneration. ISH and mCherry reporter fluorescence showed neurons in the inner retina layers as principal sites of CX3CL1 synthesis both in wt and rd10 retinas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CX3CL1 has a distinctive course of expression and functional regulation in rd10 retina starting at P10. The biological activity of CX3CL1 is regulated by conversion of a membrane integrated to a soluble form during neurogenesis and in response to pathologic changes in the adult retinal milieu. Viable mature neurons in the inner retina likely exhibit a dynamic intracellular storage depot of CX3CL1.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106562. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CD66e, CEACAM-5) is a cell-surface bound glycoprotein overexpressed and released by many solid tumors that has an autocrine function in cancer cell survival and differentiation. Soluble CEA released by tumors is present in the circulation of cancer patients, where it is used as a marker for cancer progression, but whether this form of CEA exerts any effects in the tumor microenvironment is unknown. Here we present evidence that soluble CEA is sufficient to induce pro-angiogenic endothelial cell behaviors including adhesion, spreading, proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor microvascularisation in vivo. CEA-induced activation of endothelial cells was dependent on integrin beta-3 signals that activate the FAK and c-Src kinase and their downstream MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt effector pathways. Notably, while interference with VEGF signaling had no effect on CEA-induced endothelial cell activation, downregulation with the CEA receptor in endothelial cells attenuated CEA-induced signaling and tumor angiogenesis. Corroborating these results clinically, we found that tumor microvascularization was higher in colorectal cancer patients exhibiting higher serum levels of soluble CEA. Together, our results elucidate a novel function for soluble CEA in tumor angiogenesis.
    Cancer Research 10/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Podoplanin, a mucin-like plasma membrane protein, is expressed by lymphatic endothelial cells and responsible for separation of blood and lymphatic circulation through activation of platelets. Here we show that podoplanin is also expressed by thymic fibroblastic reticular cells (tFRC), a novel thymic medulla stroma cell type associated with thymic conduits, and involved in development of natural regulatory T cells (nTreg). Young mice deficient in podoplanin lack nTreg owing to retardation of CD4(+)CD25(+) thymocytes in the cortex and missing differentiation of Foxp3(+) thymocytes in the medulla. This might be due to CCL21 that delocalizes upon deletion of the CCL21-binding podoplanin from medullar tFRC to cortex areas. The animals do not remain devoid of nTreg but generate them delayed within the first month resulting in Th2-biased hypergammaglobulinemia but not in the death-causing autoimmune phenotype of Foxp3-deficient Scurfy mice.
    Immunology letters 07/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organs intended for transplantation are generally stored in the cold for better preservation of their function. However, following transplantation and re-perfusion, the micro-vasculature of transplanted organs often proves activated. Extensive leukocyte adhesion and micro-thrombus formation contributes to failure of the transplanted organ. In this study we analyzed cold-induced changes to the activation status of cultured endothelial cells possibly contributing to organ failure. We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to temperatures below 37°C (mostly to 8°C) for 30 minutes and upon rewarming to 37°C kept incubating them for up to 24 hours. We also in vivo locally exposed mice to cold. The exposure to low temperatures induced, in HUVECs, expression of the pro-thrombotic factors plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor (TF) and of the inflammatory adhesion molecules, E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, upon rewarming for 30 minutes, we detected activation of the inflammatory NF-κB pathway, as measured by transient NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and IκBα degradation. Using butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we further demonstrated that cold-induced NF-κB activation depends on ROS production. Local exposure to cold also, in vivo, induced ROS production, ICAM-1 expression and resulted in leukocyte infiltration. Our results point to a causative link between ROS production and NF-κB activation, suppression of which had been shown to be beneficial during hypothermic storage and subsequent rewarming of organs for transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2013; · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is still a major burden for our society with high incidence of morbidity and mortality each year. Molecular mechanisms underlying the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) associated with sepsis are still ill defined and most therapies developed to target the acute inflammatory component of the disease are insufficient. Recently the role of nuclear receptors (NRs) became a major topic of interest in transcriptional regulation of inflammatory processes. Nuclear receptors, such as the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs), have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory properties by interfering with the NFκB pathway. We identified the nuclear envelope protein, interferon stimulated gene 12 (ISG12), which directly interacts with NRs. ISG12 is a co-factor stimulating nuclear export of NRs, thereby reducing the anti-inflammatory potential of NRs such as NR4A1. To examine the role of ISG12 in acute inflammatory processes we used recently generated ISG12 deficient mice. We can clearly demonstrate that lack of ISG12 prolongs survival in experimental sepsis and endotoxemia. Furthermore we can show that several acute inflammatory parameters, such as systemic IL6 cytokine levels, are downregulated in septic ISG12-/- animals. Consistently, similar results were obtained in in vitro experiments in peritoneal macrophages derived from ISG12 deficient mice. In contrast, mice deficient for the nuclear receptor NR4A1 exhibited an exacerbated innate immune response, and showed a significantly higher mortality after lethal endotoxemic challenge. This dramatic phenotype could be restored in ISG12/NR4A1 double deficient mice. We conclude from our data in vitro and in vivo that ISG12 is a novel modulator of innate immune responses regulating anti-inflammatory nuclear receptors such as NR4A1.
    Immunobiology 04/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro screening of 17 Alpine lichen species for their inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and nuclear factor kappa B revealed Cetrelia monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. As conceivable source for novel anti-inflammatory compounds. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic crude extract resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 constituents, belonging to depsides and derivatives of orsellinic acid, olivetolic acid and olivetol. The two depsides imbricaric acid (4) and perlatolic acid (5) approved dual inhibitory activities on microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (IC50 = 1.9 and 0.4 µM, resp.) and on 5-lipoxygenase tested in a cell-based assay (IC50 = 5.3 and 1.8 µM, resp.) and on purified enzyme (IC50 = 3.5 and 0.4 µM, resp.). Additionally, these two main constituents quantified in the extract with 15.22% (4) and 9.10% (5) showed significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation in luciferase reporter cells with IC50 values of 2.0 and 7.0 µM, respectively. In a murine in vivo model of inflammation, 5 impaired the inflammatory, thioglycollate-induced recruitment of leukocytes to the peritoneum. The potent inhibitory effects on the three identified targets attest 4 and 5 a pronounced multi-target anti-inflammatory profile which warrants further investigation on their pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76929. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Johannes M Breuss, Pavel Uhrin
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis involves a series of tightly regulated cellular processes initiated primarily by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The urokinase-type plasminogen activator system, consisting of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its cellular receptor uPAR and its inhibitor PAI-1, participates in the realization of these VEGF-induced processes by activating pericellular proteolysis, increasing vascular permeability and by supporting endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF-A, mediated by VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), activates the plasminogen activator system and pericellular proteolysis. Subsequently, it leads to redistribution of uPAR in a complex with integrin α 5β 1 to focal adhesions at the leading edge of endothelial cells, thereby redistributing the tools enabling matrix degradation and cell invasion. Furthermore, interaction of uPAR with additional cognate ligands and neighboring, signaling competent receptors, as, for example, epidermal growth factor receptor provides further angiogenesis modulating stimuli, all of which are the topic of this short review.
    Cell adhesion & migration 10/2012; 6(6). · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Pavel Uhrin, Johannes M Breuss
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-initiated angiogenesis requires both coordinated proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix provided by the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase receptor (uPA/uPAR) system and regulation of cell-migration provided by integrin-matrix interaction. Previously we have shown that stimulation of pericellular proteolysis induced by VEGF occurs via the VEGF receptor-2 leading to redistribution of uPAR to focal adhesions at the leading edge of endothelial cells. In our recent work published in Cardiovascular Research, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the uPAR-dependent modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial migration. By applying a micropatterning technique we described that VEGF stimulation results in complex formation between uPAR and α 5β 1-integrin on the cell surface. The subsequent internalization of this complex, important for receptor redistribution, was demonstrated by flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Targeting of the interaction site between uPAR and α 5β 1 impairs receptor internalization and leads to the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro and in an angiogenesis model in vivo. This proof-of-principle that the interface of uPAR and α 5β 1-integrin may represent a promising site to therapeutically target tumor angiogenesis raises hope for the development of an anti-angiogenic approach that is limited to only the mobilizing effect of VEGF to endothelial cells, and does not interfere with the inarguably positive effect of VEGF as survival factor.
    Cell adhesion & migration 10/2012; 7(1). · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the sprouting of blood vessels form pre-existing vasculature after injury or in neoplastic diseases, is initiated by growth factor-induced endothelial cell migration. Recently, the major angiogenic growth factor VEGF165 has become the target of therapeutic interventions. However, this approach has been clinically proven to be of limited efficacy, which might be due to the fact that tumour angiogenesis is not only induced by VEGF, but also by a variety of other growth factors. Thus, the identification of a common downstream mediator of growth-factor-induced endothelial cell migration is mandatory to effectively interfere with (tumour-) angiogenesis. We found that the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-system, which affects proteolytic as well as adhesive capacities, represents an essential regulatory mechanism in growth factor-induced endothelial cell migration and invasion. This mechanism was not limited to VEGF165, but mediated pro-angiogenic endothelial cell behaviour induced by various growth factors. Thus, VEGF165, VEGF-E, FGF-2, EGF as well as HGF induced a PI3k-dependent activation of pro-uPA when bound to uPAR, which led to an increase in cell surface fibrinolytic activity. As a consequence, uPAR became internalised and redistributed via LDLR-proteins. Interference with these events led to a reduced migratory response of endothelial cells towards VEGF in vitro as well as endothelial cell invasion in vivo. These data give first evidence that the uPA-system, which represents the only level-of-evidence-1 cancer biomarker system for prognosis and/or prediction in node negative breast cancer, might directly affect (tumour-) angiogenesis.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2012; 108(2):357-66. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Innate and adaptive immune responses alter numerous homeostatic processes that are controlled by nuclear hormone receptors. NR4A1 is a nuclear receptor that is induced in vascular pathologies, where it mediates protection. Objective: The underlying mechanisms that regulate the activity of NR4A1 during vascular injury are not clear. We therefore searched for modulators of NR4A1 function that are present during vascular inflammation. Methods and Results: We report that the protein encoded by interferon stimulated gene 12 (ISG12), is a novel interaction partner of NR4A1 that inhibits the transcriptional activities of NR4A1 by mediating its Crm1-dependent nuclear export. Using 2 models of vascular injury, we show that ISG12-deficient mice are protected from neointima formation. This effect is dependent on the presence of NR4A1, as mice deficient for both ISG12 and NR4A1 exhibit neointima formation similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions: These findings identify a previously unrecognized feedback loop activated by interferons that inhibits the vasculoprotective functions of NR4A nuclear receptors, providing a potential new therapeutic target for interferon-driven pathologies.
    Circulation 03/2012; 110(6). · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-initiated angiogenesis requires coordinated proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix provided by the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase receptor (uPA/uPAR) system and regulation of cell migration provided by integrin-matrix interaction. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the uPAR-dependent modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial migration. We used flow cytometry to quantify integrins at the cell surface. Stimulation of human and murine endothelial cells with VEGF resulted in internalization of α5β1-integrins. Micropatterning and immunocytochemistry revealed co-clustering of uPAR and α5β1-integrins and retrieval via clathrin-coated vesicles. It was also contingent on receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. VEGF-induced integrin redistribution was inhibited by elimination of uPAR from the endothelial cell surface or by inhibitory peptides that block the uPAR-integrin interaction. Under these conditions, the migratory response of endothelial cells upon VEGF stimulation was impaired both in vitro and in vivo. The observations indicate that uPAR is an essential component of the network through which VEGF controls endothelial cell migration. uPAR is a bottleneck through which the VEGF-induced signal must be funnelled for both focused proteolytic activity at the leading edge and for redistribution of integrins.
    Cardiovascular Research 02/2012; 94(1):125-35. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse stimuli can feed into the MAPK/ERK cascade; this includes receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, integrins, and scavenger receptors (LDL receptor-related protein (LRP)). Here, we investigated the consequence of concomitant occupancy of the receptor tyrosine kinases (by EGF, basic FGF, VEGF, etc.) and of LRP family members (by LDL or lactoferrin). The simultaneous stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase by its cognate ligand and of LRP-1 (by lactoferrin or LDL) resulted in sustained activation of ERK, which was redirected to the cytoplasm. Accordingly, elevated levels of active cytosolic ERK were translated into accelerated adhesion to vitronectin. The sustained ERK response was seen in several cell types, but it was absent in cells deficient in LRP-1 (but not in cells lacking the LDL receptor). This response was also contingent on the presence of urokinase (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR), because it was absent in uPA−/− and uPAR−/− fibroblasts. Combined stimulation of the EGF receptor and of LRP-1 delayed nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated ERK. This shift in favor of cytosolic accumulation of phospho-ERK was accounted for by enhanced proteasomal degradation of dual specificity phosphatases DUSP1 and DUSP6, which precluded dephosphorylation of cytosolic ERK. These observations demonstrate that the ERK cascade can act as a coincidence detector to decode the simultaneous engagement of a receptor tyrosine kinase and of LRP-1 and as a signal integrator that encodes this information in a spatially and temporally distinct biological signal. In addition, the findings provide an explanation of why chronic elevation of LRP-1 ligands (e.g. PAI-1) can predispose to cancer.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(29):25663-25674. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse stimuli can feed into the MAPK/ERK cascade; this includes receptor tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, integrins, and scavenger receptors (LDL receptor-related protein (LRP)). Here, we investigated the consequence of concomitant occupancy of the receptor tyrosine kinases (by EGF, basic FGF, VEGF, etc.) and of LRP family members (by LDL or lactoferrin). The simultaneous stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase by its cognate ligand and of LRP-1 (by lactoferrin or LDL) resulted in sustained activation of ERK, which was redirected to the cytoplasm. Accordingly, elevated levels of active cytosolic ERK were translated into accelerated adhesion to vitronectin. The sustained ERK response was seen in several cell types, but it was absent in cells deficient in LRP-1 (but not in cells lacking the LDL receptor). This response was also contingent on the presence of urokinase (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR), because it was absent in uPA(-/-) and uPAR(-/-) fibroblasts. Combined stimulation of the EGF receptor and of LRP-1 delayed nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated ERK. This shift in favor of cytosolic accumulation of phospho-ERK was accounted for by enhanced proteasomal degradation of dual specificity phosphatases DUSP1 and DUSP6, which precluded dephosphorylation of cytosolic ERK. These observations demonstrate that the ERK cascade can act as a coincidence detector to decode the simultaneous engagement of a receptor tyrosine kinase and of LRP-1 and as a signal integrator that encodes this information in a spatially and temporally distinct biological signal. In addition, the findings provide an explanation of why chronic elevation of LRP-1 ligands (e.g. PAI-1) can predispose to cancer.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(29):25663-74. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse stimuli can feed into the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade: this includes receptor-tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, integrins and scavenger receptors (LRP=LDL-receptor related protein). Here, we investigated the consequence of concomitant occupancy of the receptor tyrosine kinases (by EGF, bFGF, VEGF etc.) and of LRP family members (by LDL or lactoferrin). The simultaneous stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase by its cognate ligand and of LRP-1 (by lactoferrin or LDL) resulted in sustained activation of ERK, which was redirected to the cytoplasm. Accordingly, elevated levels of active cytosolic ERK were translated into accelerated adhesion to vitronectin. The sustained ERK response was seen in several cell types but it was absent in cells deficient in LRP-1 (but not in cells lacking the LDL-receptor). This response was also contingent on the presence of urokinase (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR), because it was absent in uPA(-/-) and uPAR(-/-) fibroblasts. Combined stimulation of the EGF-receptor and of LRP-1 delayed nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated ERK. This shift in favor of cytosolic accumulation of phospho-ERK was accounted for by enhanced proteasomal degradation of dual specificity phosphatases DUSP1 and DUSP6, which precluded dephosphorylation of cytosolic ERK. These observations demonstrate that the ERK-cascade can act as a coincidence detector to decode the simultaneous engagement of a receptor tyrosine kinase and of LRP-1 and as a signal intergrator that encodes this information in a spatially and temporally distinct biological signal. In addition, the findings provide an explanation why chronic elevation of LRP1 ligands (e.g., PAI-1) can predispose to cancer.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal was to examine the influence of indirubin-3'-monoxime (I3MO), a natural product-derived cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro, experimentally induced neointima formation in vivo, and related cell signaling pathways. I3MO dose-dependently inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation by arresting cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle as assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and flow cytometry. PDGF-induced activation of the kinases Akt, Erk1/2, and p38(MAPK) was not affected. In contrast, I3MO specifically blocked PDGF-, interferon-γ-, and thrombin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) responded to I3MO with increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity as assessed via [(14)C]l-arginine/[(14)C]l-citrulline conversion. The specific STAT3 inhibitor Stattic led to decreased VSMC proliferation, and transient expression of a constitutively active form of STAT3 overcame the I3MO-induced cell cycle arrest in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In a murine femoral artery cuff model, I3MO prevented neointima formation while reducing STAT3 phosphorylation and the amount of proliferating Ki67-positive cells. I3MO represses PDGF- and thrombin-induced VSMC proliferation and, in vivo, neointima formation, likely because it specifically blocks STAT3 signaling. This profile and its positive effect on endothelial NO production turns I3MO into a promising lead compound to prevent restenosis.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 12/2010; 30(12):2475-81. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During embryonic development, lymph sacs form from the cardinal vein, and sprout centrifugally to form mature lymphatic networks. Separation of the lymphatic from the blood circulation by a hitherto unknown mechanism is essential for the homeostatic function of the lymphatic system. O-glycans on the lymphatic endothelium have recently been suggested to be required for establishment and maintenance of distinct blood and lymphatic systems, primarily by mediating proper function of podoplanin. Here, we show that this separation process critically involves platelet activation by podoplanin. We found that platelet aggregates build up in wild-type embryos at the separation zone of podoplanin(+) lymph sacs and cardinal veins, but not in podoplanin(-/-) embryos. Thus, podoplanin(-/-) mice develop a "nonseparation" phenotype, characterized by a blood-filled lymphatic network after approximately embryonic day 13.5, which, however, partially resolves in postnatal mice. The same embryonic phenotype is also induced by treatment of pregnant mice with acetyl salicylic acid, podoplanin-blocking antibodies, or by inactivation of the kindlin-3 gene required for platelet aggregation. Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system.
    Blood 05/2010; 115(19):3997-4005. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor-gp130 ligand family play a role in angiogenesis in different tissues. We tested the effect of this cytokine family on the angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie system, which is involved in blood vessel maturation, stabilization, and regression. Oncostatin M (OSM) increased Ang2 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. Furthermore, OSM induced Ang2 expression in macrovascular endothelial cells isolated from the human aorta and in microvascular endothelial cells isolated from human heart. Our in vivo experiments revealed that mRNA expression of Ang2 in hearts of mice injected with OSM increased significantly, and levels of OSM mRNA significantly correlated with mRNA levels of Ang2 in human hearts. In addition, OSM increased the expression of its own receptors, gp130 and OSM receptor, in endothelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo, and levels of OSM mRNA significantly correlated with mRNA levels of gp130 and OSM receptor in human hearts. Our data, showing the effects of OSM on the Ang-Tie system in endothelial cells, in hearts of mice, and in human heart tissue, provide yet another link between inflammation and angiogenesis.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 03/2010; 8(3):596-604. · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteolysis of extracellular matrix is an important requirement for embryonic development and is instrumental in processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Efficient remodeling requires controlled spatio-temporal expression of both the proteases and their inhibitors. Protein C inhibitor (PCI) effectively blocks a range of serine proteases, and recently has been suggested to play a role in cell differentiation and angiogenesis. In this study, we mapped the expression pattern of PCI throughout mouse development using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We detected a wide-spread, yet distinct expression pattern with prominent PCI levels in skin including vibrissae, and in fore- and hindgut. Further sites of PCI expression were choroid plexus of brain ventricles, heart, skeletal muscles, urogenital tract, and cartilages. A strong and stage-dependent PCI expression was observed in the developing lung. In the pseudoglandular stage, PCI expression was present in distal branching tubules whereas proximal tubules did not express PCI. Later in development, in the saccular stage, PCI expression was restricted to distal bronchioli whereas sacculi did not express PCI. PCI expression declined in postnatal stages and was not detected in adult lungs. In general, embryonic PCI expression indicates multifunctional roles of PCI during mouse development. The expression pattern of PCI during lung development suggests its possible involvement in lung morphogenesis and angiogenesis.
    Journal of molecular histology 03/2010; 41(1):27-37. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of podoplanin in development of the sinus venosus myocardium comprising the sinoatrial node, dorsal atrial wall, and primary atrial septum as well as the myocardium of the cardinal and pulmonary veins. We analyzed podoplanin wild-type and knockout mouse embryos between embryonic day 9.5-15.5 using immunohistochemical marker podoplanin; sinoatrial-node marker HCN4; myocardial markers MLC-2a, Nkx2.5, as well as Cx43; coelomic marker WT-1; and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation markers E-cadherin and RhoA. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made and myocardial morphometry was performed. Podoplanin mutants showed hypoplasia of the sinoatrial node, primary atrial septum, and dorsal atrial wall. Myocardium lining the wall of the cardinal and pulmonary veins was thin and perforated. Impaired myocardial formation is correlated with abnormal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation of the coelomic epithelium due to up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated RhoA, which are controlled by podoplanin. Our results demonstrate an important role for podoplanin in development of sinus venosus myocardium.
    Developmental Dynamics 01/2009; 238(1):183-93. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is a CXC chemokine important in the homing process of stem cells to injured tissue. It has been implicated in healing and tissue repair. Growing evidence suggests that the glycoprotein-130 (gp130) ligand family is involved in repair processes in the heart. The aim of our study was to determine whether gp130 ligands could affect SDF-1 expression in cardiac cells. Human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs) and fibroblasts (HACFs) were treated with gp130 ligands. Protein and mRNA levels of SDF-1 were determined using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. mRNA levels of SDF-1 were determined in human and mouse heart samples by RT-PCR. HACMs and HACFs constitutively express SDF-1, which was significantly up-regulated by the gp130 ligand oncostatin M (OSM). This effect was counteracted by a p38 inhibitor and to a lesser extent by a PI3K inhibitor. mRNA expression of SDF-1 in hearts of mice injected with OSM increased significantly. Levels of OSM and SDF-1 mRNA correlated significantly in human failing hearts. Our data, showing that OSM induces SDF-1 protein secretion in human cardiac cells in vitro and murine hearts in vivo, suggest that OSM via the induction of SDF-1 might play a key role in repair and tissue regeneration.
    The FASEB Journal 12/2008; 23(3):774-82. · 5.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

535 Citations
162.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • • Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research
      • • Center for Physiology and Pharmacology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2008–2009
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Anatomy and Embryology
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Cardiology
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1996–2008
    • University of Vienna
      • • Institute of Immunology
      • • Laboratory for Clinical Experimental Physiology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1998
    • Ljubljana University Medical Centre
      • Department of Angiology
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia