Panchin YuV

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Moscow, Russia

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Publications (12)38.01 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is rare to be able to explain the behaviour of a whole animal at the level of the properties and connections of characterized CNS neurones. In a marine mollusc, Clione, and a lower vertebrate embryo, Xenopus, it is possible to make intracellular recordings during fictive swimming behaviour. This has allowed us to analyse the operation of two central pattern generators (CPGs) at the cellular level. Although the timeframes over which the two CPGs operate are different, there are significant similarities in their patterns of neural output. A detailed analysis of the neural networks involved reveals that the swimming CPGs of Clione and Xenopus have several common operating principles, which suggests that common mechanisms have evolved to perform similar tasks, despite differences in neuronal 'hardware'.
    Trends in Neurosciences 07/1993; 16(6):227-33. · 13.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (1) The buccal apparatus of the pteropod marine mollusc Clione limacina, isolated together with buccal ganglia, could perform rhythmic feeding movements. Movements of the radula and the hooks (which the Clione inserts into the body of its prey) as well as the electroneurogram of the radular nerve were recorded. Usually one could observe rhythmic radula movements alone, while the hooks were motionless. But sometimes the hooks also performed rhythmic movements which were more or less synchronous with those of the radula. The radula movement cycle consisted of the protraction and the retraction phases, which were occasionally followed by a quiescent phase. Corresponding to each radula movement was a burst of activity in the radular nerve, consisting of the protractor and the retractor components. (2) Isolated buccal ganglia were capable of feeding rhythm generation. Most of the buccal neurons exhibited rhythmic activity correlating with the activity in the radular nerve. According to the phase of activity in the feeding cycle, rhythmic neurons were divided into two groups - the protractor and the retractor ones. The neurons within each of the groups were electrically coupled with each other. The protractor and retractor neurons inhibited each other. (3) Protractor and retractor neurons were extracted from buccal ganglia by means of a microelectrode. Many isolated cells generated slow oscillations of membrane potential and bursts of spikes, the pattern of this activity being similar to that before isolation. (4) A model of the feeding rhythm generator is discussed. It consists of two (protractor and retractor) groups of neurons with mutual inhibitory connections, neurons of each group being endogenous bursters.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1989; 78(2):387-97. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In previous work carried out on the isolated pedal ganglia of the pteropod mollusc Clione limacina we described the activity of a neuronal element (type 12 neuron) and looked into its role in the locomotor rhythm generation (Arshavasky et al. 1985d). As we learned subsequently, the activity was recorded from the neuron axon passing in the pedal ganglia, while the neuron soma was located in the pleural ganglia and consequently was cut off in the course of pedal ganglia isolation. It thus became necessary to reinvestigate the properties of this neuron and its role in locomotory rhythm generation by using less reduced preparation of the central nervous system. The following results were obtained. (1) Each pleural ganglion contains only one neuron of this type, this cell is thus to be considered as the identified neuron. The neuron's axon reaches into the pedal ganglion via the pleuro-pedal connective. Then the axon divides into two branches terminating in the lateral regions of both pedal ganglia. The neurons 12 from the left and right pleural ganglia have no direct connections with one another; their synchronous operation in the locomotor cycle is determined by common inputs. (2) The electrical properties of an intact neuron 12 and one without a soma are about the same. In either case the neuron generates "plateau" potentials, i.e., it may persist for a long time in the depolarized state. Plateau potentials can be induced by a depolarizing current pulse or by an EPSP, and terminated by hyperpolarizing current or by an IPSP. The neuron input resistance drops about twofold during generation of the plateau potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1989; 78(2):398-406. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (1) Neurons of different groups (for group classification, see Arshavsky et al. 1988a) have been polarized through an intracellular recording microelectrode in Planorbis corneus buccal ganglia during feeding rhythm generation. Group 1 neurons, active in the quiescence (Q) and in the protractor (P) phases of the cycle, and also group 2 and 4 neurons, active in the retractor (R) phase, have proved to be "influential", i.e., altering the rhythm generator operation. (2) Injection of a depolarizing current into group 1 neurons caused an increase of the rate of depolarization that neurons of this group exhibit in the Q- and P-phases of the feeding cycle. As a result, Q-phase shortened, the P-phase became longer, and the feeding rhythm accelerated. Opposite effects occurred when a hyperpolarizing current was injected into group 1 neurons. In some of the experiments, the hyperpolarization of group 1 neurons resulted in cessation of both their activity and the activity of all other protractor neurons. As a result, the P-phase of the cycle disappeared, i.e., the rhythm generator transited from A mode of operation to B mode. (3) With hyperpolarization of individual group 2 or 4 neurons, excitation of the R-phase neurons was delayed and the feeding rhythm phase shifted. This delay was accompanied by the enhanced activity of protractor neurons. (4) A generator model is considered in which two groups (1 and 2) of endogeneously active neurons are coordinated by the excitatory effect of group 1 on group 2 and the inhibitory action of group 2 on group 1. (5) Evidence is given that the different modes of rhythm generator operation (A, B and C, see Arshavsky et al. 1988a) are determined by different tonic inflow to group 1 neurons.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1988; 70(2):332-41. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated buccal ganglia of Planorbis corneus are capable of generating a feeding rhythm. In the present work, "rhythmic" neurons of different groups (see Arshavsky et al. 1988a) have been extracted, by means of an intracellular microelectrode, from the buccal ganglia. (1) After extraction, efferent neurons of groups 3, 5, 7, 9 and most group 4 neurons generated repeated spikes at a frequency controlled by a polarizing current. Any periodic oscillations, similar to those during feeding rhythm generation, were absent in these isolated neurons. It is concluded, therefore, that these neurons are "followers", that is, their rhythmic activity before extraction is determined by synaptic inputs from other neurons of the ganglia. (2) Isolated interneurons of groups 1 and 2 generated slow periodic oscillations similar to those observed in these neurons before their extraction. Subgroup 1e neurons generated smoothly growing depolarization accompanied by increasing spike activity; this depolarization was periodically interrupted by abrupt hyperpolarization, after which a new cycle started. Subgroup 1d neurons periodically generated short series of spikes. Group 2 neurons periodically generated a rectangular wave of depolarization with spike-like oscillations on its top. These results suggest that feeding rhythm generation in Planorbis is based on the endogenous rhythmic activity of group 1 and 2 neurons. (3) A pulse of hyperpolarizing current injected into an isolated neuron of subgroup 1e stopped the growth of depolarization in the neuron and reinitiated the process. This property as well as the character of the synaptic interactions of the interneurons (group 1 neurons excite those of group 2, while those of group 2 inhibit group 1 neurons; Arshavsky et al. 1988b) determine the alternating activity of groups 1 and 2.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1988; 70(2):323-31. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (1) The buccal mass of the freshwater snail Planorbis corneus, dissected together with the buccal ganglia, performs rhythmic feeding movements. Radula movements and the electrical activity in various nerves of buccal ganglia were recorded in such a preparation. The cycle of radula movements consisted of three phases: quiescence (Q), protraction (P) and retraction (R). The activity in the radular nerve was observed mainly in the P-phase and that in the dorsobuccal nerve, largely in the R-phase. (2) Isolated buccal ganglia were capable of generating a feeding rhythm, the activity in buccal nerves being similar to that observed in the buccal mass-buccal ganglion preparation, i.e., a burst in the radular nerve preceded a burst in the dorsobuccal nerve. The activity of neurons in isolated buccal ganglia during generation of the feeding rhythm has been studied with intracellular microelectrodes. About 10% of ganglion neurons exhibited periodic activity related to the feeding rhythm ("rhythmic" neurons). (3) Rhythmic neurons have been divided into 7 groups according to the phase of their activity and to the characteristics of slow oscillations of the membrane potential during the feeding cycle. Group 1 neurons revealed a gradual increase of depolarization during the Q- and P-phases. In subgroup 1e neurons, spike discharges began in the Q-phase, while in subgroup 1d neurons activity started in the P-phase. During the R-phase, group 1 neurons were strongly hyperpolarized, and their discharges terminated. In group 2 neurons, small depolarization gradually increased during the Q- and P-phases. Then, in the R-phase, a large (20-50 mV) rectangular wave of depolarization arose with superimposed high-frequency oscillations. Group 3 neurons exhibited an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in the P-phase and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) in the R-phase. The neurons of group 4 revealed two EPSPs: a small one in the P-phase and a larger one in the R-phase. Group 5 neurons exhibited an EPSP in the P-phase, those of group 7 - an IPSP in the R-phase, and those of group 9 - IPSPs in the P- and R-phases. Neurons within each of the groups 1, 2 and 4 were electrically coupled, and in addition, there were also electrical connections between neurons of groups 2 and 4. (4) Data are presented showing that neurons of groups 1 and 2 are the main source of postsynaptic potentials in rhythmic neurons in the P-phase and in the R-phase of the cycle, respectively.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1988; 70(2):310-22. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the pteropodial mollusc Clione limacina, the rhythmic locomotor wing movements are controlled by the pedal ganglia. The locomotor rhythm is generated by two groups of interneurons (groups 7 and 8) which drive efferent neurons. In the present paper, the activity of isolated neurons, which were extracted from the pedal ganglia by means of an intracellular electrode, is described. The following results have been obtained: Isolated type 7 and 8 interneurons preserved the capability for generation of prolonged (100-200 ms) action potentials. The frequency of these spontaneous discharges was usually within the limit of locomotor frequencies (0.5-5 Hz). By de- or hyperpolarizing a cell, one could usually cover the whole range of locomotor frequencies. This finding demonstrates that the locomotor rhythm is indeed determined by the endogenous rhythmic activity of type 7 and 8 interneurons. Type 1 and 2 efferent neurons, before isolation, could generate single spikes as well as high-frequency bursts of spikes. These two modes of activity were also observed after isolating the cells. Thus, the bursting activity of type 1 and 2 neurons, demonstrated during locomotion, is determined by their own properties. Type 3 and 4 efferent neurons generated only repeated single spikes both before and after isolation. The activity of the isolated axons of type 1 and 2 neurons did not differ meaningfully from the activity of the whole cells. Furthermore, in the isolated pedal commissure, we found units whose activity (rhythmically repeating prolonged action potentials) resembled the activity of type 7 and 8 interneurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1986; 63(1):106-12. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The marine mollusc Clione limacina swims by making rhythmic movements (with a frequency of 1-5 Hz) of its two wings. Filming demonstrated that the wings perform oscillatory movements in the frontal plane of the animal. During both the upward and downward movements of the wing, its posterior edge lagged behind the anterior one, i.e. the wing plane was inclined in relation to the longitudinal axis of an animal. As a result of this inclination, the wing oscillations in the frontal plane produce a force directed forwards. In restrained animals with the body cavity opened (a whole-animal preparation), the wing position, electrical activity in the wing nerve and activity of two identified efferent neurons (1A and 2A) were recorded during locomotory wing movements. There were two bursts of activity in the wing nerve during the locomotory cycle, the first one corresponding to the excitation of efferent neurons controlling the wing elevation, and the second one, to the excitation of efferent neurons controlling the lowering of the wing. Neurons 1A and 2A fired reciprocally at the beginning of the phase of elevating and lowering the wing, respectively. During excitation of one of the neurons, an IPSP appeared in its antagonist. A pair of isolated pedal ganglia of Clione was capable of generating the locomotory rhythm ("fictitious swimming"). In fictitious swimming, as in actual swimming, there were two bursts of activity in the wing nerve per locomotory cycle, and the 1A and 2A neurons fired reciprocally. Homologous neurons from the left and right ganglia fired inphase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1985; 58(2):255-62. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Arshavsky YuI, G N Orlovsky, Panchin YuV
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    ABSTRACT: Efferent neurons in isolated pedal ganglia of the pteropodial mollusc Clione limacina were filled with Lucifer Yellow through the wing nerves. Then the ganglia were illuminated with intense blue light which resulted in the complete inactivation of these neurons. After inactivation of efferent neurons, interneurons of the pedal ganglia continued to generate the locomotor rhythm.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1985; 59(1):203-5. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 12 interneurons in pedal ganglia of Clione limacina exerted a strong influence upon the locomotor generator during "intense" swimming. These neurons generated "plateau" potentials, i.e. their membrane potential had two stable states: the "upper" one when a neuron was depolarized, and the "down" one, separated by 30-40 mV. The interneurons could remain in each state for a long time. Short depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current pulses, as well as excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, could transfer the interneurons from one state to another. When the pedal ganglia generated the locomotory rhythm, type 12 neurons received an EPSP and passed to the "upper" state in the V2-phase of a locomotor cycle. They remained at this state until the beginning of the D1-phase when they received an IPSP and passed to the "down" state. The EPSP in type 12 neurons was produced by type 8d neurons, and the IPSP by type 7 neurons. Type 12 neurons exerted inhibitory influences upon many neurons active in the V1 and V2 phases, and excitatory influences upon the D-phase interneurons (type 7). The functional role of type 12 neurons was to limit the activity of neurons discharging in the V-phase of a locomotory cycle. In addition, they enhanced the excitation of the D-phase neurons and promoted, thus, the transition from the V-phase to the D-phase.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1985; 58(2):285-93. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activity from neurons in isolated pedal ganglia of Clione limacina was recorded intracellularly during generation of rhythmic swimming. To map the distribution of cells in a ganglion, one of two microelectrodes was used to monitor activity of the identified neuron (1A or 2A), while the second electrode was used to penetrate successively all the visible neurons within a definite area of the ganglion. In addition, pairs of neurons of various types were recorded in different combinations with each other. Intracellular staining of neurons was also performed. Each ganglion contained about 400 neurons, of which about 60 neurons exhibited rhythmic activity related to a swim cycle. These rhythmic neurons were divided into 9 groups (types) according to axonal projections, electrical properties and the phase of activity in a swim cycle. Three types of interneurons and six types of efferent neurons were distinguished. Type 7 and 8 interneurons generated only one spike of long (50-150 ms) duration per swim cycle. Type 7 interneurons discharged in the phase of the cycle that corresponded (in actual swimming) to the dorsal movement of wings (D-phase). Type 8 interneurons discharged in the opposite phase corresponding to the ventral movement of wings (V-phase). With excitation of type 7 interneurons, an IPSP appeared in the type 8 interneurons, and vice versa. Neuropilar branching of these neurons was observed in the ipsilateral ganglion. In addition, they sent an axon to the contralateral ganglion across the pedal commissure. Efferent neurons (i.e. the cells sending axons into the wing nerve) generated spikes of 1-5 ms duration. Type 1 and 3 neurons were excited in the D-phase of a swim cycle and were inhibited in the V-phase. Type 2 and 4 neurons were excited in the V-phase and inhibited in the D-phase. Type 10 neurons received only an excitatory input in the V-phase, while type 6 neurons received only an inhibitory input in the D-phase. Type 12 interneurons were non-spiking cells, they generated a stable depolarization ("plateau") throughout most of the V-phase. Neurons of the same type from one ganglion (except for type 6) were electrically coupled to each other. There were also electrical connections between most neurons firing in the same phase of the cycle, i.e. between types 3 and 7, as well as between types 2, 4 and 8. Type 7 interneurons from the left and right ganglia were electrically coupled, the same was true for type 8 interneurons.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1985; 58(2):263-72. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurons from the isolated pedal ganglia of the marine mollusc Clione limacina were recorded from intracellularly during generation of the locomotory rhythm. Polarization of single type 7 or type 8 interneurons (which discharge in the D- and V-phases of a swim cycle, respectively) strongly affected activity of the rhythm generator. Injection of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current usually resulted in shortening and lengthening of a swim cycle, respectively. A short pulse of hyperpolarizing current shifted the phase of the rhythmic generator. The same effect could be evoked by polarization of efferent neurons of types 2, 3 and 4 which are electrically coupled to interneurons. On the contrary, polarization of types 1, 6 and 10 efferent neurons, having no electrical connections with interneurons, did not affect the locomotory rhythm. A number of observations indicate that type 7 and 8 interneurons constitute the main source of postsynaptic potentials that were observed in all the "rhythmic" neurons of the pedal ganglia. Type 7 interneurons excited the D-phase neurons and inhibited the V-phase neurons; type 8 interneurons produced opposite effects. Tetrodotoxin eliminated spike generation in all efferent neurons of the pedal ganglia, while in interneurons spike generation persisted. After blocking the spike discharges in all the efferent neurons, type 7 and 8 interneurons were capable of generating alternating activity. One may conclude that these interneurons determine the main features of the swim pattern, i.e., the rhythmic alternating activity of two (D and V) populations of neurons. Both type 7 and type 8 interneurons were capable of endogenous rhythmic discharges with a period like that in normal swimming. This was demonstrated in experiments in which one of the two populations of "rhythmic" neurons (D or V) was inhibited by means of strong electrical hyperpolarization, as well as in experiments in which interaction between the two populations, mediated by chemical synapses, was blocked by Co2+ ions. Type 7 and 8 interneurons were capable of "rebound", i.e. they had a tendency to discharge after termination of inhibition. V-phase neurons exerted not only inhibitory but also excitatory action upon D-phase neurons, the excitatory action being longer than the inhibitory one. The main experimental findings correspond well to the model of rhythm generator consisting of two half-centres possessing endogenous rhythmic activity. The half-centres exert strong, short duration inhibitory and weak long duration excitatory actions upon one another. The behaviour of such a model is considered and compared with that of the locomotor generator of Clione.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/1985; 58(2):273-84. · 2.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

372 Citations
38.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–1989
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Problems of Information Transmission
      Moscow, Moscow, Russia