[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term prognosis of pediatric HTx patients treated with VAD before transplantation. The clinical data of six patients bridged to HTx with Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric device were analyzed retrospectively. Information about graft function, CA results, and EMB findings as well as appearance DSA was collected. Also, information about growth and cognitive function was analyzed. These findings were compared with age-, gender-, and diagnosis-matched HTx patients. During the median follow-up time of four and half yr after HTx, the prognosis including graft function, number of rejection episodes, and incidence of coronary artery vasculopathy, growth and cognitive development did not differ between VAD-bridged HTx patients compared with control patients. In both groups, one patient developed positive DSA titer after HTx. Our single-center experience suggests that the prognosis of pediatric HTx patients treated with VAD before transplantation is not inferior to that of other HTx patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a serious, haemodynamically compromising tachyarrhythmia associated with paediatric cardiac surgery, with a reported mortality up to 14%. The incidence, risk factors and outcome of this tachyarrhythmia were evaluated in this population-based, case-control patient cohort.
A total of 1001 children, who underwent open-heart surgery during a 5-year period, were retrospectively analysed. The patients with haemodynamically significant tachycardia were identified, and their postoperative electrocardiograms were analysed. Three controls matched with the same type of surgery were selected for each patient with JET.
JET was diagnosed in 51 patients (5.0%). These patients had longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (138 vs 119 min, p=0.002), higher body temperature (38.0 vs 37.4 °C, p=0.013) and higher level of postoperative troponin-T (3.7 vs 2.1 μg l(-1), p<0.001) compared with controls. They also needed longer ventilatory support (3 vs 2 days, p=0.004) and intensive care stay (7 vs 5 days, p<0.001) as well as use of noradrenaline (23/51 vs 35/130, p=0.019). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure was part of the surgery in 33/51 (64.7%) of these patients. The mortality was 8% in the JET group and 5% in the controls (p=0.066). In the logistic regression model, JET was not an independent risk factor for death (p=0.557).
The incidence of JET was 5.0% in this large paediatric open-heart surgery patient group. Compared with controls, these patients had longer cardiopulmonary bypass time and higher level of troponin-T, possibly reflecting the extent of surgical trauma. However, the tachycardia was not an independent risk factor for death.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2011; 39(1):75-80. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.04.002 · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the performance of risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1) score with paediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score in operative risk prediction after open-heart surgery in children. This was a retrospective analysis of a non-selected patient population from the paediatric intensive care unit of Helsinki University Hospital. All consecutive congenital open-heart surgery patients operated in Finland between the years 2000 and 2004, who were under 18 years of age, were included in this retrospective analysis. Predicted probability of mortality was calculated using the published algorithms for RACHS-1 and PRISM. Those were compared with observed mortality at day 30 postoperatively. Of the 1001 patients, 42 patients died (4.2%) within 30 days of open-heart surgery. The discrimination power, evaluated by AUC (area under curve) for RACHS-1 was moderate: 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.82). The AUC-value for PRISM was poor, namely 0.66 (95% CI 0.57-0.75). Both risk scoring systems overestimated the mortality with calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMR) of 0.48 for PRISM and 0.39 for RACHS-1. With only a moderate discriminating AUC, RACHS-1 failed to adequately predict death after paediatric open-heart surgery. The predictive power of PRISM in this patient group was poor. Both scores overestimated the actual mortality rate.
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 11/2007; 6(5):628-31. DOI:10.1510/icvts.2007.157917 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection is common in infancy, and symptoms are usually mild. However, encephalitis and other neurologic complications have been reported. Primary HHV-6 infection has been rarely confirmed in the central nervous system. We studied 21 children with suspected HHV-6 infection, drawn from a prospective, large-scale study of neurologic infections in Finland. Human herpesvirus-6 polymerase chain reaction was performed on cerebrospinal fluid samples, and antibody tests were performed on serum and cerebrospinal fluid. We identified nine children, aged 3 to 24 months, who had HHV-6-specific nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid. Primary infection was confirmed by seroconversion of specific antibodies in six, whereas one had a fourfold increase, and one had a fourfold decrease, in the antibody titer supporting recent infection. Generalized and prolonged seizures appeared in six children, four had a rash, four had ataxia, and four had gastroenteritis. All but two had a high fever. At follow-up, four children had evident neurologic sequelae, ataxia, and developmental disability, and needed special education. Primary HHV-6 infection may invade the central nervous system, and can cause neurologic symptoms and potentially permanent disability in children aged <or=2 years. The possibility of HHV-6 infection must be considered when treating acutely ill children, and especially those with convulsions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin T has been found to be accurate predictor of complications and adverse clinical events after pediatric cardiac surgery. Contrary to adult cardiac surgery, the relationship of troponin T to patient survival after pediatric heart surgery has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether troponin T could predict death after pediatric open cardiac surgery.
This was a retrospective cohort study in which data from 1001 consecutive children having cardiac surgery during a 5-year period were studied. Perioperative variables that could influence death at 30 postoperative days were evaluated.
Multivariate analysis, using a forward stepwise logistic regression, showed that troponin T measured on the first postoperative day was a strong independent predictor of death at 30 days. Level of troponin T greater than 5.9 microg/L on the first postoperative day predicted death (odds ratio, 10.7; 95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 22.1) as did admission lactate level greater than 5.2 mmol/L (odds ratio, 22.2; 95% confidence interval: 9.7 to 50.8) No other variable, including postoperative creatine kinase-MB mass concentration, age, diagnosis, surgical procedure, presence of cyanosis, chromosomal anomaly or ventriculotomy, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, or aortic cross-clamp, had any independent effect on 30-day survival.
Cardiac troponin T level on the first postoperative day is a powerful independent risk marker of death in pediatric cardiac surgery.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2006; 82(5):1643-8. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.05.014 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unfractioned heparin-infusion is traditionally used for anticoagulation during mechanical circulatory support. We evaluated initial experience of subcutaneous enoxaparine during mechanical circulatory support in children. Nine consecutive children treated with Berlin Heart mechanical support were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Of these, 3/9 were anticoagulated with enoxaparine, 6/9 anticoagulated with unfractioned heparin served as historical controls. Unfractioned heparin-group was divided in two (early/late) according to patients chronological order. All enoxaparine-treated children survived and had no significant bleeding or thromboembolic disorders. Four of the 6 children anticoagulated with unfractioned heparin died. The mean daily substitution of platelets, red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and anti-thrombin III-concentrate was lower in the enoxaparine group compared to both early and late unfractioned heparin-groups. Enoxaparine as anticoagulant for mechanical circulatory support in children seems promising with significantly less bleeding disorders and blood product consumption.
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 09/2006; 5(4):499-501. DOI:10.1510/icvts.2006.130476 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare directly measured intraabdominal pressure with the pressure measured indirectly via urinary catheter using different bladder-filling volumes in children.
Prospective observational study in pediatric intensive care unit at a university children's hospital. Three simultaneous measurements of intraabdominal pressure were performed in 14 children, mean age 1.6 months (range, 0.2-56), after cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass directly via an intraperitoneal dialysis catheter and indirectly via indwelling urinary catheter with bladder volumes of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mL/kg of physiological saline. Of the 14 patients, 9 were mechanically ventilated at the time of the intraabdominal pressure measurements.
Directly measured intraabdominal pressure ranged between 0 and 10 mm Hg and showed the highest correlation (r = 0.971, P < .0001) with the pressure measured via urinary catheter using bladder-filling volume of 1 mL/kg. The higher the bladder-filling volume, the higher was the overestimation of the intraabdominal pressure and the weaker was the correlation with the direct measurement. Overestimation of intraabdominal pressure was 1.3, 2.0, and 2.9 mm Hg, with bladder volume of 1, 2, and 3 mL/kg, respectively.
These data suggest that intravesical pressure closely correlates with intraabdominal pressure in children. A bladder-filling volume of 1 mL/kg is recommended for the measurement of intraabdominal pressure in children with a risk of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 09/2006; 41(8):1381-5. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2006.04.030 · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of amrinone and its metabolites in neonates and infants after reconstructive surgery for congenital heart disease.
Pediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital.
Fifteen neonates aged less than 1 month with transposition of the great arteries and 14 infants aged 2 to 6 months with complete atrioventricular septal defect.
Amrinone, loading dose of 2 mg/kg, was administered before weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by a maintenance infusion of 7.5 microg/kg/min.
Blood samples to determine plasma concentrations of amrinone, N-acetylamrinone, and N-glycolylamrinone were drawn before amrinone administration, frequently after the loading dose, every 6 hours during the maintenance infusion, and until 48 hours after the end of the infusion. Amrinone clearance was 2.4 +/- 0.9 mL/kg/min in neonates and 3.2 +/- 1.2 mL/kg/min in infants (p < 0.05). The volume of distribution at steady-state was smaller (p < 0.05) in neonates than in infants. The elimination half-life of amrinone was 10.7 +/- 6.7 hours in neonates and 6.1 +/- 1.4 hours in infants (p < 0.05). There was a linear correlation between the clearance of amrinone and the body surface area (r = 0.67; p < 0.05). The ratio of the plasma concentration of N-acetylamrinone to that of amrinone did not differ between neonates and infants.
Amrinone is eliminated at a slower rate in neonates than in infants. The rate of acetylation of amrinone appears to be similar; the differences in the elimination capacity of amrinone are mainly due to the immature renal function in neonates.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 09/2000; 14(4):378-82. DOI:10.1053/jcan.2000.7922 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 23-month-old girl died after 2 days' illness with rash, fever, and convulsions. Neuropathologic findings were consistent with viral hemorrhagic encephalitis in pontine tegmentum and medial thalamic areas. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) DNA was detected in pontine nuclei by in situ hybridization. In addition, polymerase chain reaction for HHV-6 of serum and paraffin-embedded pontine tissue was positive, and serology indicated an acute primary infection. This is the first case showing HHV-6 DNA in the brain cells of an immunocompetent patient with acute encephalitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy and safety of amrinone and a combination of dopamine and nitroglycerin in neonates after reconstructive surgery for transposition of the great arteries.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.
Pediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital.
Thirty-five neonates with transposition of the great arteries.
A loading dose of amrinone, 2 mg/kg, followed by a maintenance infusion of 7.5 microg/kg/min, were administered to 16 neonates before separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. The remaining 19 patients were administered a combination of dopamine, 5 microg/kg/min, and nitroglycerin, 1 microg/kg/min. An open-label epinephrine infusion was administered in both groups as required.
The circulatory state of the patients was evaluated from 4 to 18 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. The systemic blood flow index, calculated using the Fick principle, was higher in the amrinone group (1.7+/-0.5 L/min/m2 [mean +/- SD]) compared with the dopamine-nitroglycerin group (1.4+/-0.4 L/min/m2; p < 0.04). The systemic vascular resistance in the amrinone group was lower (26+/-8 Wood units x m2) than in the dopamine-nitroglycerin group (35+/-12 Wood units x m2; p < 0.02). The oxygen extraction ratio was higher in the dopamine-nitroglycerin group (0.34+/-0.08) compared with the amrinone group (0.28+/-0.06; p < 0.02). Lower platelet counts were observed in the amrinone group, but no difference in hemorrhagic complications was seen between the groups.
With the dosage regimen used, supplemented with epinephrine, amrinone provides a higher cardiac output and more favorable oxygen dynamics than a combination of dopamine and nitroglycerin.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 04/1999; 13(2):186-90. DOI:10.1016/S1053-0770(99)90085-X · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness and safety of amrinone and a combination of dopamine and nitroglycerin in infants after reconstructive surgery for congenital heart disease.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.
Pediatric intensive care unit in a university hospital.
Thirty-two infants with complete atrioventricular septal defect.
Amrinone loading dose, 2 mg/kg, followed by a maintenance infusion, 7.5 micrograms/kg/min, was given to 17 infants before separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. The remaining 15 patients received a combination of dopamine, 5 micrograms/kg/min, and nitroglycerin, 1 microgram/kg/min.
The circulatory state of the patients was evaluated from 4 to 18 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. The systemic blood flow index, calculated using the Fick principle, was higher in the amrinone group (2.5 +/- 0.7 L/min/m2) compared with the dopamine-nitroglycerin group (2.0 +/- 0.6 L/min/m2, mean +/- SD). The pulmonary blood flow index in the amrinone group was higher (2.9 +/- 0.6 L/min/m2) than in the dopamine-nitroglycerin group (2.2 +/- 0.6 L/min/m2); no significant difference was noted in the mean pulmonary artery pressure. The oxygen extraction ratio was higher in the dopamine-nitroglycerin group (0.41 +/- 0.07) compared with the amrinone group (0.34 +/- 0.08). Despite lower platelet counts in the amrinone group, no hemorrhagic complications were seen in any patient.
With this dosage regimen, amrinone provides a higher cardiac output, more favorable oxygen dynamics, and lower pulmonary vascular resistance than dopamine and nitroglycerin.
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 01/1998; 11(7):870-4. DOI:10.1016/S1053-0770(97)90123-3 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia was given 2 mg vecuronium bromide intramuscularly in utero 40 min before vaginal delivery at 40 weeks gestation. At birth the infant had complete muscle relaxation, which facilitated decompression of the bowel and surgical correction. Prenatal muscle relaxation may improve the care of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.