P Carrara

Galliera Hospital, Genova, Liguria, Italy

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Publications (15)69.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex and heterogeneous autoimmune disorder with a multi-factorial pathogenesis. Like other autoimmune disorders, the possible role of specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms in predisposing to SSc has been hypothesized, but it remains controversial. CTLA-4 promoter (-318C/T) and exon 1 (+49 A/G) polymorphisms have been analysed in 43 Italian females with SSc and in 93 unrelated matched healthy controls by a newly designed tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR) method. No significant association has been found with either polymorphisms.Nevertheless, SSc patients without concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) were carrying both the -318T allele (P = 0.031) and the +49 G allele (P = 0.076) more frequently than SSc patients with HT [defined by positivity for anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (TGA) autoantibodies] than controls. Haplotype analysis confirms this association (P = 0.028), and suggests the predominant role of the -318T, whereas that of the +49 G, if any, seems weak. Thus, in Italian SSc patients the CTLA-4 -318C/T promoter polymorphism appears to be associated with the susceptibility to develop SSc without thyroid involvement. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and to clarify whether the -318C/T polymorphism is the functional responsible or whether it reflects the presence of another linked genetic element in the same chromosomal region.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 08/2007; 149(1):40-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-three consecutive patients with de novo and untreated non M3 AML aged 60 or less entered the study. The mean age of patients was 50 (range 15-60). The induction regimen (FLAG-Ida) included fludarabine (30 mg/sqm), Ara-C (2 g/sqm) on days 1-5, and idarubicin (10 mg/sqm) on days 1, 3, 5. G-CSF (300 mcg/day) was administered s.c. 12 hours before starting fludarabine and was continued for five days. HDT with stem cell rescue was planned for all patients in first CR after one course of high dose Ara-C (HDAC) consolidation and in good clinical conditions. Forty-two (98%) patients were evaluable for response. One patient died during induction (2%). CR was achieved in 35 patients (82%). Twenty-three patients, 66% of those achieving CR, underwent autologous (N = 17) or allogeneic (N = 6) transplantation. With a median follow up of 24 months, the average median duration of CR is 17 months (range 3-66) and the median survival is 20 months (range 1-83). Overall the 5 year projected disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 37% and 43%, respectively. Among patients who underwent stem cell transplantation DFS and OS were 53% and 69%, respectively. The median time to PMN recovery (> 0.5 x 10(9)/l) was 17 days (range 10-28) and 50 x 10(9)/l platelets were reached at a median of 17 days (12-38). In conclusion FLAG-Ida regimen is effective, low toxic and improves feasibility of stem cell transplant.
    Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR 12/2002; 21(4):481-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of PML-RAR alpha transcripts by RT-PCR is now established as a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Although the majority of patients in long-term clinical remission are negative by consecutive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, negative tests are still observed in patients who ultimately relapse. Conversion from negative to positive PCR has been observed after consolidation and found to be a much stronger predictor of relapse. This study reports on 47 APL patients to determine the correlation between minimal residual disease (MRD) status and clinical outcome in our cohort of patients. The presence of PML-RAR alpha t transcripts was investigated in 47 APL patients (37 adults and 10 children) using a semi-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the prognostic value of RT-PCR tests. All patients achieved complete clinical remission (CCR) following induction treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy (CHT) or ATRA alone. Patients were followed up between 2 and 117.6 months (median: 37 months). Relapses occurred in 11 patients (9 adults and 2 children) between 11.4 and 19 months after diagnosis (median: 15.1 months) while 36 patients (28 adults and 8 children) remained in CCR. Seventy-five percent of patients carried the PML-RAR alpha long isoform (bcr 1/2) which also predominated among the relapsed cases (9 of 11) but did not associate with any adverse outcome (p= 0.37). For the purpose of this analysis, minimal residual disease tests were clustered into four time-intervals: 0-2 months, 3-5 months, 6-9 months and 10-24 months. Children showed persisting disease for longer than adults during the first 2 months of treatment. At 2 months, 10 (50%) of 20 patients who remained in CCR and 4 (80%) of 5 patients who subsequently relapsed were positive. Patients who remained in CCR had repeatedly negative results beyond 5.5 months from diagnosis. A positive MRD test preceded relapse in 3 of 4 tested patients. The ability of a negative test to predict CCR (predictive negative value, PNV) was greater after 6 months (>83%), while the ability of a positive test to predict relapse (predictive positive value, PPV) was most valuable only beyond 10 months (100%). This study (i) highlights the prognostic value of RT-PCR monitoring after treatment of APL patients but only from the end of treatment, (ii) shows an association between conversion to a positive test and relapse and (iii) suggests that PCR assessments should be carried out at 3-month intervals to provide a more accurate prediction of hematologic relapses but only after the end of treatment.
    Haematologica 06/2001; 86(6):577-85. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) evolving from a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or secondary to chemoradiotherapy frequently display unfavorable biologic characteristics. This may explain the lower remission rate obtained with conventional chemotherapy. Recently, the association of Fludarabine with intermediate dose Ara-C has produced interesting results particularly in high risk AML patients. Here, we report on 42 secondary AML patients treated with a combination of Fludarabine, intermediate dose Ara-C, G-CSF with or without an antracycline (FLANG, FLAG-IDA or FLAG). Overall, complete remissions (CR) were documented in 14 patients (33%) and partial responses (PR) in 12 (29%), while 10 patients proved resistant (24%). Six patients (14%) died early. The presence of a prognostically unfavorable karyotype had a negative impact on the CR rate (20% compared to 50% for patients with an intermediate prognosis karyotype, p 0.05). Patients treated with FLAG, FLANG and FLAG-IDA had similar CR rates. At the time of this analysis, after a mean follow-up of 12 months, the mean duration of CR is 16 months (range 3-66) and the mean survival is 11 months (range 1-67). The median time to granulocyte recovery (neutrophils > 0.5 x 10(9)/l) was 20 days (range 12-39) and 50 x 10(9)/l platelets were reached at a median of 26 days (range 9-56). Taken together, these Fludarabine containing regimens proved to be an effective and tolerable treatment for patients with secondary AML. Patients above 70 years of age may also benefit from this therapy, however the problem of treating patients with adverse chromosomal abnormalities still remains unresolved.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 01/2001; 40(3-4):305-13. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation, resulting in the fusion of the ETV6 and AML1 genes, occurs in 20-25% of paediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL). The identification of the fusion product has important prognostic and therapeutic implications as the translocation has been associated with a favourable clinical outcome. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to assess the frequency and clinical association of the fusion gene in patients with and without a cytogenetically detectable chromosome 12 and/or 21 abnormality or failed cytogenetic results, (ii) to characterize alternative forms of ETV6/AML1 transcripts, and (iii) to use ETV6/AML1 as a molecular marker for the investigation of minimal residual disease (MRD). ETV6/AML1 fusion was detected in 22 (39%) of 56 cases studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ETV6/AML1 fusion was found in nine out of 16 (56%) cases with a cytogenetically visible chromosome 12 abnormality, but also in nine out of 29 patients (31%) without a chromosome 12 abnormality or patients with failed cytogenetics (four out of 11 patients, 36%), making this the most common cytogenetic abnormality in childhood ALL. Alternatively spliced ETV6/AML1 forms were investigated in 14 of the positive patients. Exon 5 of ETV6 was fused in frame to all AML1 exons, except exon 4. Fusion to exon 6 of AML1 resulted in one amino acid change. The presence of ETV6/AML1 was associated with a lower white blood cell count (Student's t-test; P = 0.009) and common (c)ALL phenotype (chi(2) test; P > 0.001), but no better disease-free survival. Our study shows that (i) RT-PCR is the most effective approach for the detection of t(12;21) in childhood ALL, (ii) the association of ETV6/AML1 and chromosome 12 and/or 21, seen in 56% of our cases, further confirms existing data, (iii) overall survival of patients with t(12;21) was not better than other cytogenetics groups, and (d) MRD analysis using ETV6/AML1 fusion is specific, but not sensitive enough to avoid false negative results.
    British Journal of Haematology 12/2000; 111(4):1071-9. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation, resulting in the fusion of the ETV6 and AML1 genes, occurs in 20–25% of paediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL). The identification of the fusion product has important prognostic and therapeutic implications as the translocation has been associated with a favourable clinical outcome. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to assess the frequency and clinical association of the fusion gene in patients with and without a cytogenetically detectable chromosome 12 and/or 21 abnormality or failed cytogenetic results, (ii) to characterize alternative forms of ETV6/AML1 transcripts, and (iii) to use ETV6/AML1 as a molecular marker for the investigation of minimal residual disease (MRD). ETV6/AML1 fusion was detected in 22 (39%) of 56 cases studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ETV6/AML1 fusion was found in nine out of 16 (56%) cases with a cytogenetically visible chromosome 12 abnormality, but also in nine out of 29 patients (31%) without a chromosome 12 abnormality or patients with failed cytogenetics (four out of 11 patients, 36%), making this the most common cytogenetic abnormality in childhood ALL. Alternatively spliced ETV6/AML1 forms were investigated in 14 of the positive patients. Exon 5 of ETV6 was fused in frame to all AML1 exons, except exon 4. Fusion to exon 6 of AML1 resulted in one amino acid change. The presence of ETV6/AML1 was associated with a lower white blood cell count (Student's t-test; P = 0·009) and common (c)ALL phenotype (χ2 test; P > 0·001), but no better disease-free survival. Our study shows that (i) RT-PCR is the most effective approach for the detection of t(12;21) in childhood ALL, (ii) the association of ETV6/AML1 and chromosome 12 and/or 21, seen in 56% of our cases, further confirms existing data, (iii) overall survival of patients with t(12;21) was not better than other cytogenetics groups, and (d) MRD analysis using ETV6/AML1 fusion is specific, but not sensitive enough to avoid false negative results.
    British Journal of Haematology 11/2000; 111(4):1071 - 1079. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two distinct regions of minimal deletion (RMD) have been identified at 6q25-q27 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RMD-1), and at 6q21-q23 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; RMD-2) by loss of heterozygosity and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. In this study, 30 overlapping yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), 1 expressed sequence tag, and 11 novel YAC ends were identified using bidirectional YAC walks between markers D6S447 (proximal) and D6S246 (distal) in RMD-2. The genes AF6q21, human homologue of the Drosophila tailless (HTLX), CD24 antigen, the Kruppel-like zinc finger BLIMP1, and cyclin C (CCNC), previously mapped to 6q21, were accurately positioned in a telomere-to-centromere orientation. Approximately 3.5 Mb were found to separate the BLIMP1 (adjacent to D6S447) and AF6q21 genes (telomeric to D6S246). Deletions of 6q were investigated in 21 cases of ALL using the newly characterized YAC clones in dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. A region centromeric to D6S447 (containing marker D6S283) and a region telomeric to marker CHLC.GGAT16CO2 (and containing marker D6S268) were identified as distinct and nonoverlapping regions of deletion in ALL.
    Cancer Research 07/2000; 60(11):2775-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GM-IVA is a short and effective induction therapy of non M3 de novo AML including GM-CSF (300 mcg 12 hrs before starting therapy), Ara-C (250 mg/sqm c.i. x 3 days), VP16 (100 mg/sqm x 3 days) and idarubicin (12 mg/sqm x 3 days); it was followed by a fludarabine containing salvage protocol (FLANG). Patients <60 years of age achieving CR received 2 courses of FLANG and autologous or allogeneic BMT when possible. Patients >60 years of age in CR received a second course of GM-IVA. Twenty-one consecutive patients (mean age 64, range 29-85) entered the study. Three patients (14%) died during induction therapy. After one course of GM-IVA, CR was achieved in 12 patients (57%). Two further patients were salvaged with FLANG therapy so that the final CR rate was 14/21 (67%). In elderly patients the final CR rate (62%) is noteworthy, considering that 6 patients were >70 years of age and 3 were >80. All three patients >80 achieved CR (lasting 5 to 7 months). The median time of granulocyte and platelet recovery was 15 days. Our scheme was well tolerated. In the group of elderly patients 3 out of 14 died during induction (21%) and 4 life-threatening infections were observed (28%). The short duration of cytotoxic therapy and perhaps the use of G-CSF contributed to a reduction of the hospitalization period (median of 22 days), thus providing major savings on induction costs and allowing for better utilization of beds as well as significantly improving patients' quality of life.
    Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR 04/1999; 18(1):55-60. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-three consecutive cases of adult CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) have been analyzed. Thirty-six were classified as Hodgkin's disease like variety (HL) (67%) and seventeen as so-called common type (CT) (33%). All cases strongly expressed the CD30/Ki-1 antigen; the neoplastic cells expressed CD15, CD45 and EMA in 60%, 44% and 33% of cases, respectively; T. B and null phenotypes were found in 37%, 17% and 46% of cases. Bulky mediastinal, B symptoms, and extranodal disease at diagnosis were present in 36%, 49% and 25% of cases. EBV encoded latent membrane protein (LMP-1) was found in 10 cases. Of the 13 tested cases only 4 expressed a weak positivity of the CD40 molecule, in a fraction of the tumor cells; in the same cases CD21 was never found. Patients were treated with various protocols; of the 50 evaluable patients, 39 (78%) obtained a complete remission (CR), 3 (6%) a partial remission (PR) and 8 (16%) did not respond. The projected overall disease free survival (DFS) at 36 months is 70%. Only patients with advanced disease stage (III-IV) showed a statistically decreased DFS and survival. Only symptomatic and extranodal disease significantly appeared to influence survival. This study confirms the good outcome of this group of lymphomas and differs from other reports for some clinical (lower percentage of advanced stage, extranodal disease and skin infiltration) and pathological (HL/CT ratio and immunophenotype) features.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 08/1996; 22(3-4):319-27. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirteen consecutive adult patients with primary refractory (n = 5) or relapsed (n = 8) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated by an induction schedule (FLAG) consisting of Fludarabine (30 mg/sqm/d) plus high dose Cytarabine (HD-ara-C: 2 g/sqm/d) (d 1-5) and G-CSF (from d O to polymorphonuclear recovery). Patients achieving complete remission (CR) were administered a second FLAG course as consolidation and were then submitted to an individualized program of post-remission therapy, depending on the patient's age and performance status. CR was achieved in 8/12 evaluable cases (67%). The median CR duration was 22.5 w. CR attainment was significantly related to the co-expression of lymphoid and myeloid antigens. ALL/My+ patients achieved CR in 6/6 evaluable cases vs. 2/6 for ALL/My+. In vitro 3H ara-C incorporation into cellular DNA resulted significantly increased by Fludarabine (in 7/9 tested cases) and, furthermore, by the association of Fludarabine G-CSF in 5 evaluable ALL/My+ cases; in contrast, no effect of G-CSF addition to Fludarabine was observed in 4 ALL/My. Myelosuppression was observed in all patients: the median time to neutrophils > 0.5 x 10(9)/1 was 16.3 d (range 13-22) and 16.2 d (range 9-29) to platelets > 20 x 10(9)/1. Nonhematological toxicity was minimal. In conclusion, FLAG is an active and tolerable combination in refractory ALL, particularly in cases with myeloid antigen expression where G-CSF appears to improve efficacy, probably increasing ara-C incorporation into the DNA of leukemic cells.
    European Journal Of Haematology 06/1996; 56(5):308-12. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thirteen consecutive adult patients with primary refractory (n = 5) or relapsed (n = 8) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated by an induction schedule (FLAG) consisting of Fludarabine (30 mg/sqm/d) plus high dose Cytarabine (HD-ara-C: 2 g/sqm/d) (d 1–5) and G-CSF (from d 0 to polymorphonuclear recovery). Patients achieving complete remission (CR) were administered a second FLAG course as consolidation and were then submitted to an individualized program of post-remission therapy, depending on the patient's age and performance status. CR was achieved in 8/12 evaluable cases (67%). The median CR duration was 22.5 w. CR attainment was significantly related to the co-expression of lymphoid and myeloid antigens. ALL/My+ patients achieved CR in 6/6 evaluable cases vs. 2/6 for ALL/My-. In vitro3H ara-C incorporation into cellular DNA resulted significantly increased by Fludarabine (in 7/9 tested cases) and, furthermore, by the association of Fludarabine-G-CSF in 5 evaluable ALL/My+ cases; in contrast, no effect of G-CSF addition to Fludarabine was observed in 4 ALL/My–. Myelosuppression was observed in all patients: the median time to neutrophils >0.5 × 109/l was 16.3 d (range 13–22) and 16.2 d (range 9–29) to platelets>20 × 109/l. Nonhematological toxicity was minimal. In conclusion, FLAG is an active and tolerable combination in refractory ALL, particularly in cases with myeloid antigen expression where G-CSF appears to improve efficacy, probably increasing ara-C incorporation into the DNA of leukemic cells.
    European Journal Of Haematology 04/1996; 56(5):308 - 312. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-eight patients with poor prognosis acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received therapy with two courses of fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day + ara-C 2 g/m2/day (days 1-5) and G-CSF 5 mg/kg/day (FLAG) (from day 0 to polymorphonuclear recovery). Eighteen patients were considered 'refractory' (eight primarily resistant, five relapsing within 6 months of initial remission, or at a second relapse; five relapsing after an autologous bone marrow transplantation procedure. Ten cases were defined 'secondary' AML (diagnosis of AML made after a preexisting diagnosis of: myelodysplastic syndrome: five cases; myelodysplastic syndrome after therapy for breast cancer: one case; previously untreated, and concomitant, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: two cases; Hodgkin's disease treated with chemoradiotherapy: one case). Overall, 15 patients (58%) achieved a complete remission (CR). Two patients died of infection during induction, and 11 had resistant disease. Analyzing the data in relation to selected host and disease characteristics, the response varied widely. The highest CR rates (89%) were obtained in secondary AML; in particular, two cases of 'second-primary' (concomitant with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) AML obtained CR for both diseases. Refractory AML differed widely for response: high CR rate (75%), although with short mean CR duration for primary resistance AML, and very poor response (11% CR) for relapsed (early, second, after ABMT) cases. Interestingly, a slow kinetic of leukemic growth in vivo before FLAG administration was significantly related to the response and outcome (p = 0.0002). Hematological and nonhematological toxicities were acceptable. In conclusion, the FLAG regimen has significant antileukemic activity and acceptable toxicity especially in secondary AML, both with and without coexisting lymphoid malignancy.
    Leukemia 12/1994; 8(11):1842-6. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that fludarabine (FLU) is superior to conventional treatment in B-CLL for rate and quality of response, leading to CR even at the molecular level. In this paper we report our preliminary results with this drug in B-CLL patients. Twenty-seven B-CLL patients (16 refractory to previous therapy, 7 responsive and treated for subsequent disease reexpansion, 4 untreated with active disease) were administered FLU at a dose of 25 mg/sqm for 5 days every 4 weeks. Twenty-five patients were evaluable and 14 of them (56%) were responsive. All four untreated patients responded: 1 CR (PCR analysis showed the persistence of clonal VDJ rearrangement) and 3 PR, while 67% of the previously responsive group again showed a reaction: 2 PR (33%) and 2 nodular PR (33%). Among the refractory patients we recorded 6 responses (39%): 1 CR (6%) and 5 PR (33%). Besides 2 cases of lethal myelotoxicity, we observed 2 cases of encephalopathy and 2 cases of heart failure. Four deaths may have been related to FLU therapy (15%). We confirm the effectiveness of FLU and the improved outcome, in terms of toxicity and response rate, it provides in untreated B-CLL patients. Further studies are needed to explore the possible negative effects of FLU on neuronal and heart function, and the impact of this drug on survival in selected groups of patients.
    Haematologica 79(3):218-24. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 64-year-old man suffering from non Hodgkin's lymphoma in progression and resistant to conventional chemotherapy was treated with alpha interferon. In a few days he developed an unusual adverse reaction characterized by severe dermatological and neuromuscular toxicity. We describe the case and suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism for this rare event.
    Haematologica 78(6):411-3. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) those refractory to induction chemotherapy and those with so-called secondary leukemia have unfavorable prognoses and require innovative therapeutic approaches. Fludarabine allows an increased accumulation of Ara-CTP in leukemic cells and inhibits DNA repair mechanisms; therefore its association with Ara-C and mitoxantrone results in a synergistic effect. From May 1993 to February 1996, fludarabine-containing regimens (FLAG and FLANG) were employed as induction therapy in 51 high-risk AML patients. Diagnosis of AML in 22 patients was preceded by a myelodysplastic syndrome lasting more than six months; 8 of the 29 de novo AML cases (28%) were refractory to previous chemotherapy, 9 (31%) were treated for early relapse, 12 (41%) presented poor prognostic factors at diagnosis. The median age was 64 (range 33-76) years and the FAB subtypes were the following: M0 3, M1 5, M2 28, M4 7, M5 8. Forty-eight per cent of patients showed poor prognosis chromosomal abnormalities. FLAG (24 patients) consisted of both fludarabine 30 mg/sqm over 30 minutes followed 4 hours later by Ara-C 2 g/sqm over 4 hours (for 5 days) and G-CSF 300 micrograms/day administered 12 hours before fludarabine, for a total of 5 doses. FLANG (27 patients) had a shorter duration (3 days), reduced Ara-C dosage (1 g/sqm) and administration of mitoxantrone (10 mg/sqm) at the end of Ara-C infusion. Recovery of both neutrophils (PMN > 0.5 x 10(9)/L) and platelets (Plt > 20 x 10(9)/L) required a median of 16 days from the end of therapy. Overall, 30 patients (59%) achieved CR, 6 (11%) PR and 10 (20%) were refractory; 5 (10%) experienced early death (cerebral hemorrhage or infection). The length of complete response ranged from 2 to 26 months with a median follow-up of 8 months. De novo and secondary AML registered 62 and 54% CR rates, respectively. Eight out of 10 patients refractory to conventional schemes achieved CR (80%) but only 3 out of 10 treated for relapse obtained CR (30%). FLAG and FLANG showed similar activity and toxicity while proving to be highly effective and relatively well-tolerated treatments for high-risk de novo AML. Secondary leukemias seemed to be responsive as well, but the presence of an unfavorable karyotype alteration lowered the response rate.
    Haematologica 81(6):513-20. · 5.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

292 Citations
69.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007
    • Galliera Hospital
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
  • 2002
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino di Genova
      • Department of Surgical Oncology
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
  • 2001
    • University of Geneva
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 1996–2001
    • Università degli Studi di Genova
      • Dipartimento di Medicina sperimentale (DIMES)
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
  • 1994
    • University of Bologna
      • Institute of Haematology
      Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy