[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we determined the potential anti-nociceptive activity of vitexin, a C-glycosylated flavone, by conducting some acute nociceptive tests in mice. Centrally mediated anti-nociceptive effect was evaluated by hot-plate and tail-clip tests, whereas peripherally mediated anti-nociception was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Rota-rod test was performed to evaluate the probable effect of vitexin on the motor coordination of mice. Vitexin administered orally at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg significantly increased the reaction times of animals in the hot-plate and tail-clip tests and reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhes and stretches in writhing tests, which clearly indicated the presence of the anti-nociceptive effect. This effect disappeared by pretreatment with naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, 5.48 mg/kg, i.p), which indicated the involvement of opioid mechanisms in anti-nociception. We evaluated the contribution of mu, delta, and kappa subtypes of opioid receptors to the anti-nociceptive activity by using naloxonazine (7 mg/kg, s.c), naltrindole (0.99 mg/kg, i.p), and nor-binaltorphimine (1.03 mg/kg, i.p), respectively. Pretreatment using these antagonists reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of vitexin in all the nociceptive tests, which indicated that mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors contributed to the anti-nociceptive effect of this flavonoid. Falling latencies of mice in the Rota-rod test did not change upon the administration of vitexin, which indicated that vitexin showed specific anti-nociceptive effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on centrally and peripherally mediated anti-nociceptive effect of vitexin via opioid-related mechanisms.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 04/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we synthesized eight novel 1-phenyl-2-(4-substituted-piperazin-1-yl)-propanol derivatives and evaluated their antidepressant-like activities. The chemical structures of the synthesised compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Potential antidepressant-like effects of the test compounds (20 mg kg(-1)) were investigated using the tail-suspension test and modified forced swimming test (MFST) in mice. Additionally, the spontaneous locomotor activity of the mice was assessed using the activity cage apparatus. Both the reference drug fluoxetine (20 mg kg(-1)) and the test compounds 3a-3e and 3g significantly shortened the immobility time of the mice in both the behavioural tests. These test compounds also increased the swimming time in MFST without any change in the climbing duration. Compounds 3c-3e and 3g were significantly more potent in inducing these effects than 3a and 3b. None of the compounds changed the locomotor activities of the animals, thus antidepressant-like effects of test compounds were specific. The findings support those of previous studies that reported antidepressant-like activities of aryl alkanol piperazine derivatives.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 04/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the putative effect of vitexin, a flavone C-glucoside present in some drugs, medicinal plants and nutraceuticals, on the central nervous system. Vitexin (10, 20, or 30mg/kg) did not show significant alterations in the behaviour of mice tested in hole-board, plus-maze or activity cage tests. However, immobility time of the mice significantly reduced by vitexin administrations in both the tail-suspension and modified forced swimming tests. The anti-immobility effect of vitexin in the tail-suspension test was reversed with α-methyl-para-tyrosine methyl ester (AMPT, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis, 100mg/kg, i.p.), yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1mg/kg, i.p.), NAN 190 (a 5-HT(1)(A) antagonist, 0.5mg/kg, i.p.), SCH 23390 (a dopamine D(1) antagonist, 0.05mg/kg, s.c.) and sulpiride (a dopamine D(2)/D(3) antagonist, 50mg/kg, i.p.). The same effect was not reversed, however, by p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis 100mg/kg, i.p., administered for 4 consecutive days), ketanserin (a 5-HT(2)(A/2C) antagonist, 1-4mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (a 5-HT(3) antagonist, 0.1-0.4mg/kg, i.p.), prazosin (an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1-4mg/kg, i.p.), or propranolol (a non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 5-20mg/kg, i.p.). These results suggest that the anti-depressant-like effect of vitexin is mediated through an increase in catecholamine levels in the synaptic cleft as well as through interactions with the serotonergic 5-HT(1)(A), noradrenergic α(2), and dopaminergic D(1), D(2), and D(3) receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show findings that indicate an anti-depressant-like effect of vitexin and its underlying mechanisms.
European journal of pharmacology 10/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In this study, benzothiazole-piperazine compounds were synthesized by condensing the functional groups of donepezil (DNP), FK-960, and sabeluzole, which are known to have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer's disease, with the aim of obtaining new and potent anti-Alzheimer agents. Methods: Initially, acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition activities of the synthesized test compounds were investigated by Ellman's method. Effects of the compounds on a streptozotocin (STZ) model of Alzheimer's disease (SMAD) were investigated in rats. SMAD was established by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of STZ (3 mg/kg), bilaterally. The elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, and active avoidance tests were used to examine the effects of test compounds (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) on learning and memory parameters of icv STZ-injected rats. Effects of the test compounds on spontaneous locomotor activities of rats were examined with the activity cage test. Results: The compounds B2-B5 and DNP exhibited significant selective inhibitory potencies against acetylcholinesterase. Compounds B2 and B3 at 10 mg/kg doses and compounds B4 and B5 at 5 and 10 mg/kg doses, as well as the reference drug DNP (1 and 3 mg/kg), significantly improved the learning and memory parameters of animals in all cognition tests. None of the test compounds changed spontaneous locomotor activities. Conclusion: Results of the present study revealed that compounds B2-B5 repaired the parameters related to the learning and memory deficits of icv STZ-injected rats. Potencies of these test compounds were comparable to the activity of DNP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel thiadiazole derivatives bearing hydrazone moieties were synthesized through the reaction of 2-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)thio)]acetohydrazide with aldehydes/ketones. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS-FAB spectral data, and elemental analyses. Behavioral effects of the test compounds in mice were examined by hole-board, activity cage, tail suspension and modified forced swimming tests (MFST). Antinociceptive activities were evaluated using the hot-plate and tail-clip methods. Results of the experiments indicated that the test compounds did not significantly change the exploratory behaviors or locomotor activities of animals in the hole-board and activity cage tests, respectively. Administration of the reference drug fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and compounds 3a, 3b, 3c, 3j, 3k, and 3l significantly shortened the immobility times of animals in the tail suspension and MFST tests, indicating the antidepressant-like effects of these derivatives. Morphine (10 mg/kg) and compounds 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3j, 3k, and 3l increased the reaction times of mice in both the hot-plate and tail-clip tests, indicating the antinociceptive effects of these compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of central nervous system activities of chemical compounds carrying thiadiazole and hydrazone moieties together on their structures.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 03/2012; 35(4):659-69. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of Matricaria recutita L. essential oil (MEO) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice was investigated using some behavioral methods. Chemical profiling both by GC and GC-MS analyses of the hydrodistilled essential oil of M. recutita revealed α-bisabolol oxide A (28%), α-bisabolol oxide B (17.1%), (Z)-β-Farnesene (15.9%) and α-bisabolol (6.8%) as the main components. Changes induced by MEO (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and reference drug caffeine (25 mg/kg) in spontaneous locomotor activities and motor coordinations of mice were investigated by activity cage measurements and Rota-Rod tests, respectively. Open field, social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests were applied to assess the emotional state of the animals. Further, tail-suspension test was performed for evaluating the effect of MEO on depression levels of mice. As a result, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, MEO significantly increased the numbers of spontaneous locomotor activities, exhibited anxiogenic effect in the open field, elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests and decreased the immobility times of animals in tail suspension tests. The falling latencies in Rota-Rod tests did not change. This activity profile of MEO was similar to the typical psychostimulant caffeine. The exact mechanism of action underlying this stimulant-like effect should be clarified with further detailed studies.
Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 11/2011; 19(3-4):306-10. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of St. John's Wort (SJW) extract treatment on behavioral changes arising in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Plus-maze, activity cage, modified forced swimming, and active avoidance tests were performed for evaluating exploratory behaviors, spontaneous locomotor activities, depression levels, and learning parameters of animals, respectively. Obtained data exhibited a diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced increase in anxiety and depression levels, decrease in spontaneous locomotor activities, and impairment of learning parameters in rats even in the early stages of the disease. Daily insulin replacement (2 IU/kg/day) could not restore these impaired parameters completely, indicating the need of novel therapeutic approaches. SJW extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) treatments for seven days provided significant improvement in all of the impaired parameters observed in this study, probably due to its antidiabetic and central nervous system (CNS)-related effects. Based on the findings of the present study, it may be suggested that SJW extracts may be of help to diabetic patients suffering from depressive moods, sleeping disturbances, and cognitive deficits and may provide a new potential alternative for the treatment of psychiatric complications of diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate possible antidepressant-like effects of the extract prepared from the flowers of Hypericum montbretti Spach. (Guttiferae, Clusiaceae). Phytochemical constituents of the methanolic extract were analysed by HPLC method. The main flavonoid component was detected as rutin, and another highly concentrated phenolic compound was quercitrin. Antidepressant activity of the extract was examined by tail suspension and modified forced swimming tests, whereas the motor coordination of the animals was tested by the Rota-Rod apparatus. Reboxetine at a dose of 20 mg kg⁻¹ was used as a reference drug. Dose-dependent antidepressant activity was observed in both tests following the administration of extract at 100 and 250 mg kg⁻¹ doses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the antidepressant activity of H. montbretti extract. Additionally, the results of this work support previous papers reporting the antidepressant activity of rutin.
Natural product research 01/2011; 25(15):1469-72. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some triazolo-pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized to investigate their potential antidepressant activities. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by IR, NMR and FAB(+)-MS spectral data and elemental analyses. Antidepressant-like activities of the test compounds (100 mg/kg) were screened using both modified forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Rota-Rod test was performed for the examination of probable neurological deficits due to the test compounds, which may interfere with the test results. The test compounds in the series exhibited different levels of antidepressant activities when compared to reference drug fluoxetine. None of the test compounds changed motor coordination of animals when assessed in the Rota-Rod test. Therefore, experimental results in this study were not interfered with motor abnormalities.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 09/2010; 45(9):4383-7. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigating potential central nervous system (CNS) activities of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae), hawthorn, fruit extracts. Objective: Evaluating CNS effects and analgesic activities of hawthorn fruit extracts based on the traditional uses of the plant for neurosedative and pain killer actions.
Effects of hawthorn pulp (HPE) and seed extracts (HSE) at the dose range of 1-1000 mg/kg were examined on anxiety level, spontaneous locomotor activity, motor coordination, and nociceptive perception of mice. Morphine was used as a reference drug.
HPE (100-1000 mg/kg) and HSE (10-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased not only the exploratory behaviors in hole-board experiments, but also the spontaneous locomotor activities in activity cage tests. The same doses of extracts were found to be ineffective in Rota-Rod tests of mice. In tail-clip, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests, quite potent and dose-dependent analgesic activities were seen at 100-1000 mg/kg doses of HPE and 10-1000 mg/kg doses of HSE. Analgesic effects observed in all analgesia tests were antagonized by naloxone. Discussion: Significant and dose-dependent decreases in spontaneous locomotor activities and exploratory behaviors of animals suggested CNS depressant activities of both extracts. Complete naloxone antagonism in all applied analgesia tests indicated opioid-related analgesic activities of both extracts.
These findings seem to support the traditional use of this plant to treat stress, nervousness, sleep disorders, and pain control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was examining the effects of some 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazoline derivatives on depression, anxiety and spontaneous locomotor activity parameters of mice. None of the compounds was effective at 50 mg/kg dose whereas at 100 and 200 mg/kg, pyrazoline-benzoxazole derivative test compound 4a and pyrazoline-benzimidazole derivative test compound 4d in the series were exhibited significant antidepressant effects in modified forced swimming tests. These two pyrazolines decreased the immobility and increased the swimming times of mice without any change in climbing durations suggesting the antidepressant-like effects of the test compounds. In spite of significant antidepressant effect, none of the compounds changed the exploratory parameters in hole-board tests or total numbers of spontaneous locomotor activities in activity cage measurements at any of the applied doses. In other words, neither anxiolytic nor sedative effects induced by the test compounds. The results obtained from this study supported the previous findings reporting the antidepressant activities of pyrazoline derivative compounds. Exact mechanism of the antidepressant action exhibited in the present study need to be clarified with further detailed investigations.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2009; 32(9):1293-9. · 1.54 Impact Factor