Ophir D Klein

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (98)535.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The continuously growing rodent incisor is an emerging model for the study of renewal of mineralized tissues by adult stem cells. Although the Fgf, Shh, Wnt, and Bmp pathways have been studied in this organ previously, relatively little is known about the role of Notch signaling during incisor renewal. Notch signaling components are expressed in enamel-forming ameloblasts and the underlying stratum intermedium (SI), which suggested distinct roles in incisor renewal and enamel mineralization. Here, we injected adult mice with inhibitory antibodies against several components of the Notch pathway. This blockade led to defects in the interaction between ameloblasts and the SI cells, which ultimately affected enamel formation. Furthermore, Notch signaling inhibition led to the down-regulation of desmosome-specific proteins such as PERP and desmoplakin, consistent with the importance of desmosomes in the integrity of ameloblast-SI attachment and enamel formation. Together, our data demonstrate that Notch signaling is critical for proper enamel formation during incisor renewal, in part by regulating desmosome-specific components, and that the mouse incisor provides a model system to dissect Jag-Notch signaling mechanisms in the context of mineralized tissue renewal. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2591 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The question of phenotypic convergence across a signalling pathway has important implications for both developmental and evolutionary biology. The ERK-MAPK cascade is known to play a central role in dental development, but the relative roles of its components remain unknown. Here we investigate the diversity of dental phenotypes in Spry2−/−, Spry4−/−, and Rsk2−/Y mice, including the incidence of extra teeth, which were lost in the mouse lineage 45 million years ago (Ma). In addition, Sprouty-specific anomalies mimic a phenotype that is absent in extant mice but present in mouse ancestors prior to 9 Ma. Although the mutant lines studied display convergent phenotypes, each gene has a specific role in tooth number determination and crown patterning. The similarities found between teeth in fossils and mutants highlight the pivotal role of the ERK-MAPK cascade during the evolution of the dentition in rodents.
    Scientific Reports 06/2015; 5(11658). DOI:10.1038/srep11658 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian dental morphology is under strong evolutionary pressure because of its importance for mastication and diet. While the mechanisms underlying tooth development have been widely studied in model organisms, the role of genetic regulatory elements in patterning the different elements of the occlusal surface and crown height across species is not well understood. Previous studies showed that Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) genes are important regulators of tooth development that influence morphological variation. We hypothesized that inter-specific variation in rodent dental morphology could be governed by nucleotide variation in genetic regulatory elements that modulate the spatial and temporal expression of the genes encoding FGF signaling molecules. In this study, we compared the variation in dental morphology across nine taxa of rodents to the variation in sequences of non-coding evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) of Fgf3, 4, 8, 9, and 10. We correlated the variation in molar tooth cusp shape and the evolution of high molar crowns (hypsodonty) to the patterns of sequence variation in two ECRs, Fgf10ECR3, and Fgf9ECR1, respectively. By conducting luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we determined that these ECRs could function as enhancers. These data suggest that emergence of hypsodonty and occlusal cusp patterning may have happened through the evolutionary changes in enhancers, such as Fgf9ECR1 and Fgf10ECR3, which affected the expression of major signaling molecules involved in tooth development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Evolution & Development 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/ede.12132 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) are a tissue culture model in which small intestine-like tissue is generated from pluripotent stem cells. By carrying out unsupervised hierarchical clustering of RNA-sequencing data, we demonstrate that HIOs most closely resemble human fetal intestine. We observed that genes involved in digestive tract development are enriched in both fetal intestine and HIOs compared to adult tissue, whereas genes related to digestive function and Paneth cell host defense are expressed at higher levels in adult intestine. Our study also revealed that the intestinal stem cell marker OLFM4 is expressed at very low levels in fetal intestine and in HIOs, but is robust in adult crypts. We validated our findings using in vivo transplantation to show that HIOs become more adult-like after transplantation. Our study emphasizes important maturation events that occur in the intestine during human development and demonstrates that HIOs can be used to model fetal-to-adult maturation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Stem Cell Reports 06/2015; 4(6). DOI:10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.04.010 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are common structural birth defects in humans. We used exome sequencing to study a patient with bilateral CL/P and identified a single nucleotide deletion in the patient and her similarly affected son - c.546_546delG, predicting p.Gln183Argfs*57 in the Distal-less 4 (DLX4) gene. The sequence variant was absent from databases, predicted to be deleterious and was verified by Sanger sequencing. In mammals, there are three Dlx homeobox clusters with closely located gene pairs (Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx3/Dlx4, Dlx5/Dlx6). In-situ hybridization showed that Dlx4 was expressed in the mesenchyme of the murine palatal shelves at E12.5, prior to palate closure. Wildtype human DLX4, but not mutant DLX4_c.546delG, could activate two murine Dlx conserved regulatory elements, implying that the mutation caused haploinsufficiency. We showed that reduced DLX4 expression after short interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment in a human cell line resulted in significant upregulation of DLX3, DLX5 and DLX6, with reduced expression of DLX2 and significant upregulation of BMP4, although the increased BMP4 expression was demonstrated only in HeLa cells. We used antisense morpholinos (MOs) to target the orthologous Danio rerio gene, dlx4b, and found reduced cranial size and abnormal cartilaginous elements. We sequenced DLX4 in 155 patients with non-syndromic CL/P and CP, but observed no sequence variants. From the published literature, Dlx1/Dlx2 double homozygous null mice and Dlx5 homozygous null mice both have clefts of the secondary palate. This first finding of a DLX4 mutation in a family with CL/P establishes DLX4 as a potential cause of human clefts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Human Molecular Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddv167 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) was recently proposed as a clinically recognizable syndrome that results from deleterious alterations of the SATB2 gene in humans. Although interstitial deletions at 2q33 encompassing SATB2, either alone or contiguously with other genes, have been reported before, there is limited literature regarding intragenic mutations of this gene and the resulting phenotype. We describe five patients in whom whole exome sequencing identified five unique de novo mutations in the SATB2 gene (one splice site, one frameshift, and three nonsense mutations). The five patients had overlapping features that support the characteristic features of the SAS: intellectual disability with limited speech development and craniofacial abnormalities including cleft palate, dysmorphic features, and dental abnormalities. Furthermore, Patient 1 also had features not previously described that represent an expansion of the phenotype. Osteopenia was seen in two of the patients, suggesting that this finding could be added to the list of distinctive findings. We provide supporting evidence that analysis for deletions or point mutations in SATB2 should be considered in children with intellectual disability and severely impaired speech, cleft or high palate, teeth abnormalities, and osteopenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2015; 167(5):1026-1032. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36849 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which are thought to derive from interstitial cells of Cajal or their precursors, often harbor an oncogenic mutation of the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase. Sprouty homolog 4, a known negative regulator of ERK pathway, has been identified in the interstitial cells of Cajal in the KitK641E murine model of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Sprouty homolog 4 was upregulated both at the mRNA and protein level in these cells, suggesting that Sprouty homolog 4 is downstream of oncogenic KIT activation and potentially engaged in the negative feedback loop of ERK activation in this model. Here, we used KitK641E heterozygous and Sprouty homolog 4 knock out animals to quantify interstitial cells of Cajal in situ, using quantitative immunofluorescence for the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit and for phosphodiesterase 3a (PDE3A). In the antrum of Sprouty homolog 4 knock out mice, hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal was reminiscent of the KitK641E heterozygous mice antrum. Additionally, the density of interstitial cells of Cajal was higher in the colon of adult Sprouty homolog 4 knock out mice than in WT littermates, although hyperplasia seemed more severe in KitK641E heterozygous mice. Functional transit studies also show similarities between Sprouty homolog 4 knock out and KitK641E heterozygous mice, as the total transit time in 9 month old animals was significantly increased in both genotypes compared to WT littermates. We concluded that the lack of Sprouty homolog 4 expression leads to hyperplasia of the interstitial cells of Cajal and is functionally associated with a delayed transit time.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0124861. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124861 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fossil record is widely informative about evolution, but fossils are not systematically used to study the evolution of stem-cell-driven renewal. Here, we examined evolution of the continuous growth (hypselodonty) of rodent molar teeth, which is fuelled by the presence of dental stem cells. We studied occurrences of 3,500 North American rodent fossils, ranging from 50 million years ago (mya) to 2 mya. We examined changes in molar height to determine whether evolution of hypselodonty shows distinct patterns in the fossil record, and we found that hypselodont taxa emerged through intermediate forms of increasing crown height. Next, we designed a Markov simulation model, which replicated molar height increases throughout the Cenozoic and, moreover, evolution of hypselodonty. Thus, by extension, the retention of the adult stem cell niche appears to be a predictable quantitative rather than a stochastic qualitative process. Our analyses predict that hypselodonty will eventually become the dominant phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 04/2015; 11(5). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.064 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent breakthroughs in 3-dimensional (3D) organoid cultures for many organ systems have led to new physiologically complex in vitro models to study human development and disease. Here, we report the step-wise differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) (embryonic and induced) into lung organoids. By manipulating developmental signaling pathways hPSCs generate ventral-anterior foregut spheroids, which are then expanded into human lung organoids (HLOs). HLOs consist of epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the lung, organized with structural features similar to the native lung. HLOs possess upper airway-like epithelium with basal cells and immature ciliated cells surrounded by smooth muscle and myofibroblasts as well as an alveolar-like domain with appropriate cell types. Using RNA-sequencing, we show that HLOs are remarkably similar to human fetal lung based on global transcriptional profiles, suggesting that HLOs are an excellent model to study human lung development, maturation and disease.
    eLife Sciences 03/2015; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.05098 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proper organ homeostasis requires tight control of adult stem cells and differentiation through the integration of multiple inputs. In the mouse small intestine, Notch and Wnt signaling are required both for stem cell maintenance and for a proper balance of differentiation between secretory and absorptive cell lineages. In the absence of Notch signaling, stem cells preferentially generate secretory cells at the expense of absorptive cells. Here, we use function-blocking antibodies against Notch receptors to demonstrate that Notch blockade perturbs intestinal stem cell function by causing a derepression of the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to misexpression of prosecretory genes. Importantly, attenuation of the Wnt pathway rescued the phenotype associated with Notch blockade. These studies bring to light a negative regulatory mechanism that maintains stem cell activity and balanced differentiation, and we propose that the interaction between Wnt and Notch signaling described here represents a common theme in adult stem cell biology. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 03/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.007 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Continuously growing incisors are common to all rodents, which include the Microtus genus of voles. However, unlike many rodents, voles also possess continuously growing molars. Here, we report spontaneous molar defects in a population of Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). We identified bilateral protuberances on the ventral surface of the mandible in several voles in our colony. In some cases, the protuberances broke through the cortical bone. The mandibular molars became exposed and infected, and the maxillary molars entered the cranial vault. Visualisation upon soft tissue removal and microcomputed tomography (microCT) analyses confirmed that the protuberances were caused by the overgrowth of the apical ends of the molar teeth. We speculate that the unrestricted growth of the molars was due to the misregulation of the molar dental stem cell niche. Further study of this molar phenotype may yield additional insight into stem cell regulation and the evolution and development of continuously growing teeth.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 30 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.75.
    International Journal of Oral Science 01/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1038/ijos.2014.75 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Linda A Barlow · Ophir D Klein
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    ABSTRACT: Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Current Topics in Developmental Biology 01/2015; 111:401-19. DOI:10.1016/bs.ctdb.2014.11.012 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.
    09/2014; 2(5). DOI:10.1002/mgg3.84
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    ABSTRACT: The evolutionary relationships of extinct species are ascertained primarily through the analysis of morphological characters. Character inter-dependencies can have a substantial effect on evolutionary interpretations, but the developmental underpinnings of character inter-dependence remain obscure because experiments frequently do not provide detailed resolution of morphological characters. Here we show experimentally and computationally how gradual modification of development differentially affects characters in the mouse dentition. We found that intermediate phenotypes could be produced by gradually adding ectodysplasin A (EDA) protein in culture to tooth explants carrying a null mutation in the tooth-patterning gene Eda. By identifying development-based character inter-dependencies, we show how to predict morphological patterns of teeth among mammalian species. Finally, in vivo inhibition of sonic hedgehog signalling in Eda null teeth enabled us to reproduce characters deep in the rodent ancestry. Taken together, evolutionarily informative transitions can be experimentally reproduced, thereby providing development-based expectations for character-state transitions used in evolutionary studies.
    Nature 07/2014; 512(7512). DOI:10.1038/nature13613 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.
    Development 07/2014; 141(15). DOI:10.1242/dev.107631 · 6.27 Impact Factor
  • Adrien Naveau · Kerstin Seidel · Ophir D. Klein
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    ABSTRACT: The vertebrate ectoderm gives rise to organs that produce mineralized or keratinized substances, including teeth, hair, and claws. Most of these ectodermal derivatives grow continuously throughout the animal's life and have active pools of adult stem cells that generate all the necessary cell types. These organs provide powerful systems for understanding the mechanisms that enable stem cells to regenerate or renew ectodermally derived tissues, and remarkable progress in our understanding of these systems has been made in recent years using mouse models. We briefly compare what is known about stem cells and their niches in incisors, hair follicles, and claws, and we examine expression of Gli1 as a potential example of a shared stem cell marker. We summarize some of the features, structures, and functions of the stem cell niches in these ectodermal derivatives; definition of the basic elements of the stem cell niches in these organs will provide guiding principles for identification and characterization of the niche in similar systems.
    Experimental Cell Research 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.02.003 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transition between the proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells is a key step in organogenesis, and alterations in this process can lead to developmental disorders. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) signaling pathway is one of the most intensively studied signaling mechanisms that regulates both proliferation and differentiation. How a single molecule (e.g. ERK) can regulate two opposing cellular outcomes is still a mystery. Using both chick and mouse models, we shed light on the mechanism responsible for the switch from proliferation to differentiation of head muscle progenitors and implicate ERK subcellular localization. Manipulation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-ERK signaling pathway in chick embryos in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that blockage of this pathway accelerated myogenic differentiation, whereas its activation diminished it. We next examined whether the spatial subcellular localization of ERK could act as a switch between proliferation (nuclear ERK) and differentiation (cytoplasmic ERK) of muscle progenitors. A myristoylated peptide that blocks importin 7-mediated ERK nuclear translocation induced robust myogenic differentiation of muscle progenitor/stem cells in both head and trunk. In the mouse, analysis of Sprouty mutant embryos revealed that increased ERK signaling suppressed both head and trunk myogenesis. Our findings, corroborated by mathematical modeling, suggest that ERK shuttling between the nucleus and the cytoplasm provides a switch-like transition between proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitors.
    Development 06/2014; 141(13). DOI:10.1242/dev.107078 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Costello syndrome (CS) is a RASopathy characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological, and developmental abnormalities. The RASopathies are defined as a group of syndromes caused by activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Specifically, CS is caused by activating mutations in HRAS. Although receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, which is upstream of Ras/MAPK, is known to play a critical role in craniofacial and dental development, the craniofacial and dental features of CS have not been systematically defined in a large group of individuals. In order to address this gap in our understanding and fully characterize the CS phenotype, we evaluated the craniofacial and dental phenotype in a large cohort (n = 41) of CS individuals. We confirmed that the craniofacial features common in CS include macrocephaly, bitemporal narrowing, convex facial profile, full cheeks, and large mouth. Additionally, CS patients have a characteristic dental phenotype that includes malocclusion with anterior open bite and posterior crossbite, enamel hypo-mineralization, delayed tooth development and eruption, gingival hyperplasia, thickening of the alveolar ridge, and high palate. Comparison of the craniofacial and dental phenotype in CS with other RASopathies, such as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), provides insight into the complexities of Ras/MAPK signaling in human craniofacial and dental development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2014; 164(6). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36475 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest(1-4), and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 05/2014; DOI:10.3791/51266 · 1.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
535.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2015
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Orofacial Sciences
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Institute for Human Genetics
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Medical Genetics
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Baylor College of Dentistry
      • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      Port Arthur, Texas, United States