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Publications (3)14.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the intestinal mucosa, several adaptations of TLR signalling have evolved to avoid chronic inflammatory responses to the presence of commensal microbes. Here we investigated whether polarized monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells might regulate inflammatory responses by secreting IL-8 in a vectorial fashion (i.e. apical versus basolateral) depending on the location of the TLR stimulus. In the Caco-2 BBE model of polarized villus-like epithelium, apical stimulation with TLR2 and TLR5 ligands resulted in the apical secretion of IL-8. The CXCR1 receptor for IL-8 was expressed only on the apical membrane of Caco-2 BBE cells and differentiated epithelial cells in the human small intestine and colon. Transcriptome analyses revealed that Caco-2 BBE cells respond to stimulation with IL-8 supporting the hypothesis that IL-8 induces G protein-coupled receptor signalling. These results show that IL-8 induces autocrine signalling via an apical CXCR1 in Caco-2 BBE intestinal epithelial cells and that this receptor is also expressed on the apical surface of differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, suggesting an autocrine function for IL-8 secreted in the lumen.
    BMC Research Notes 10/2013; 6(1):431.
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    ABSTRACT: To peacefully coexist with the microbial inhabitants of the intestine, mammals have evolved elaborate and interconnected regulatory mechanisms to maintain immune homeostasis in the face of potential infection and tissue damage by pathogenic microorganisms. Physical barriers, antimicrobial factors and secretory antibodies act in concert to keep microbes at a distance from the epithelium and initiate repair mechanisms in the event of damage. Commensal bacteria are not ignored but dynamically controlled via many complex overlapping and intertwined mechanisms involving intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and signals from the microbiota. Polarized IECs play a decisive role in homeostasis by regulating the expression and activity of the pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), in different compartments of the intestine. The differential signaling and expression of receptors on apical and basal membranes of the epithelium also plays its part in distinguishing commensals from harmful invaders. In steady state conditions macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the lamina propria (LP) are conditioned by environmental factors to induce immune tolerance. The distinction between pathogen and non-pathogen is linked to the ability of pathogens to invade and cause damage to the host cells and tissues. This induces local inflammatory responses and the attraction of capillary leukocytes by chemokines released from colonized and invaded epithelial cells. This bypasses the tolerogenic mechanisms controlling the responses of resident DCs and macrophages leading to pathogen killing and adaptive immune responses. Research on this topic has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat or prevent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), inflammation-related cancer and other gut-related diseases and disorders.
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology 12/2011; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of how intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recognize commensals and how they maintain host-bacterial symbiosis. Endocrine, goblet cells, and enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium express a range of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to sense the presence of microbes. The best characterized are the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLR), which play a key role in pathogen recognition and the induction of innate effectors and inflammation. Several adaptations of PRR signaling have evolved in the gut to avoid uncontrolled and potentially destructive inflammatory responses toward the resident microbiota. PRR signaling in IEC serve to maintain the barrier functions of the epithelium, including the production of secretory IgA (sIgA). Additionally, IECs play a cardinal role in setting the immunosuppressive tone of the mucosa to inhibit overreaction against innocuous luminal antigens. This includes regulation of dendritic cells (DC), macrophage and lymphocyte functions by epithelial secreted cytokines. These immune mechanisms depend heavily on IEC recognition of microbes and are consistent with several studies in knockout mice that demonstrate TLR signaling in the epithelium has a profoundly beneficial role in maintaining homeostasis.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2011; 108 Suppl 1:4607-14. · 9.81 Impact Factor