Nigel Graham

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (104)195.39 Total impact

  • Wenzheng Yu, Nigel. J.D. Graham
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes some results of mini-pilot-scale tests concerning the performance of potassium manganate (K2MnO4) as a pre-treatment chemical prior to ultrafiltration. Manganate is an intermediate in the commercial preparation of permanganate and in aqueous reactions MnO42− can act as both an oxidant and a coagulant/adsorbent arising from the formation of insoluble MnO2. In addition, the combination of ferrous sulfate and manganate (Fe/Mn), offers a potentially cheaper and effective combination of pre-oxidant and coagulant compared to the chemicals used currently in water treatment (e.g. ozone, chlorine, ferric sulfate). In comparative tests with conventional ferric sulfate and using simulated raw water, the results showed that Fe/Mn pre-treatment substantially reduced membrane fouling in terms of the rate of trans-membrane pressure development (arising from both external and internal fouling). Fe/Mn pre-treatment was effective in reducing bacterial activity, changing the characteristics of organic matter and decreasing the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by bacteria. The external fouling in this process was determined by the EPS concentration, and the internal fouling mainly determined by the adsorption of lower MW organic matter to the membrane pores. Fe/Mn pre-treatment reduced the amounts of both types of fouling material within the cake layer and membrane pores in comparison to conventional pre-treatment with ferrous sulfate, most likely through the formation of solid-phase Fe(III) and MnO2 and by MnO42− oxidation, thereby leading to a substantial increase in membrane run time.
    Journal of Membrane Science 01/2015; 473:283–291. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uncertainty regarding changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality has created interest in managing peatlands for their ecosystem services such as drinking water provision. The evidence base for such interventions is, however, sometimes contradictory. We performed a laboratory climate manipulation using a factorial design on two dominant peatland vegetation types (Calluna vulgaris and Sphagnum Spp.) and a peat soil collected from a drinking water catchment in Exmoor National Park, UK. Temperature and rainfall were set to represent baseline and future conditions under the UKCP09 2080s high emissions scenario for July and August. DOC leachate then underwent standard water treatment of coagulation/flocculation before chlorination. C. vulgaris leached more DOC than Sphagnum Spp. (7.17 versus 3.00 mg g−1) with higher specific ultraviolet (SUVA) values and a greater sensitivity to climate, leaching more DOC under simulated future conditions. The peat soil leached less DOC (0.37 mg g−1) than the vegetation and was less sensitive to climate. Differences in coagulation removal efficiency between the DOC sources appears to be driven by relative solubilisation of protein-like DOC, observed through the fluorescence peak C/T. Post-coagulation only differences between vegetation types were detected for the regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), suggesting climate change influence at this scale can be removed via coagulation. Our results suggest current biodiversity restoration programmes to encourage Sphagnum Spp. will result in lower DOC concentrations and SUVA values, particularly with warmer and drier summers.
    Water Research 12/2014; 67:66-76. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ozonation before chlorination is associated with enhanced formation of chloropicrin, a halonitromethane disinfection by-product (DBP), during drinking water treatment. In order to elucidate reasons for this, five natural organic matter (NOM) surrogates were treated using both chlorination and ozonation-chlorination under controlled laboratory conditions. Selected surrogates comprised two phenolic compounds, two free amino acids and one dipeptide; these were resorcinol, 3-aminophenol, L-aspartic acid, β-alanine and ala-ala, respectively. Quantified DBPs included chloropicrin, chloroform, dichloroacetonitrile and trichloroacetonitrile. Relative to chlorination alone, increases in the formation of chloropicrin from ozonation-chlorination varied from 138% for 3-aminophenol to 3740% for ala-ala for the four amine surrogates. This indicates that ozone is more effective than chlorine in mediating a rate-limiting oxidation step in chloropicrin formation, most plausibly involving conversion of an amine group to a nitro group. While both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surrogates acted as chloropicrin precursors, ala-ala was the most reactive precursor following ozonation-chlorination. Since peptides are far commoner in drinking water sources than free amino acids, further research into chemical oxidation of these species by ozone and chlorine is recommended. In contrast, oxidation with ozone prior to chlorination reduced chloroform formation moderately for the two phenolic compounds.
    Chemosphere 09/2014; 111C:218-224. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the impact of the dynamic hydraulic conditions on the kinetics of chlorine decay in water supply systems. A simulation framework has been developed for the scale-adaptive hydraulic and chlorine decay modelling under steady- and unsteady-state flows. An unsteady decay coefficient is defined which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. By coupling novel instrumentation technologies for continuous hydraulic monitoring and water quality sensors for in-pipe water quality sensing a pioneering experimental and analytical investigation was carried out in a water transmission main. The results were used to model monochloramine decay and these demonstrate that the dynamic hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on water quality deterioration. The spatial and temporal resolution of experimental data provides new insights for the near real-time modelling and management of water quality as well as highlighting the uncertainty and challenges of accurately modelling the loss of disinfectant in water supply networks.
    Journal of Hydroinformatics 07/2014; 16(3):690-709. · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Wenzheng Yu, Lei Xu, Jiuhui Qu, Nigel Graham
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-coagulation by alum before ultrafiltration without (CUF) and with (CAUF) powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition was investigated to explore the influence of PAC on membrane fouling. It was found that the continuous addition of a low dosage of PAC reduced membrane fouling for operational run periods <20 days, both for reversible and for irreversible components of fouling. The presence of PAC increased the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM), particularly proteinaceous substances, and some fractions of humic-type substances. For a longer operation time (>20 days) an increase in mainly reversible fouling was evident and was attributed to microorganism growth in the cake layer, as indicated by the enhanced concentrations of extracellular polymeric substances, such as polysaccharides and proteins. A process of crystallization of the coagulant floc in the cake layer with increasing operation time was believed to cause desorption of DOM from primary coagulation particles and a decrease in their size, and consequently a higher density of cake layer. PAC absorption of desorbed DOM within the cake layer, and residual DOM after coagulation, reduced DOM reaching the membrane surface and the extent of subsequent internal membrane fouling.
    Journal of Membrane Science 06/2014; 459:157–168. · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • L J Xu, W Chu, Nigel Graham
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of sonolysis (US), photolysis (UV), and sonophotolysis (USUV) for the degradation of atrazine (ATZ) was investigated. An untypical kinetics analysis was found useful to describe the combined process, which is compatible to pseudo first-order kinetics. The heterogeneous environments of two different ultrasounds (20 and 400kHz) were evaluated. The heterogeneous distribution of ATZ in the ultrasonic solution was found critical in determining the reaction rates at different frequencies. The presence of NaCl would promote/inhibit the rates by the growth and decline of "salting out" effect and surface tension. The benefits of combining these two processes were for the first time investigated from the aspect of promoting the intermediates degradation which were resistant in individual processes. UV caused a rapid transformation of ATZ to 2-hydroxyatrazine (OIET), which was insensitive to UV irradiation; however, US and USUV were able to degrade OIET and other intermediates through •OH attack. On the other hand, UV irradiation also could promote radical generation via H2O2 decomposition, thereby resulting in less accumulation of more hydrophilic intermediates, which are difficult to degradation in the US process. Reaction pathways for ATZ degradation by all three processes are proposed. USUV achieved the greatest degree of ATZ mineralization with more than 60% TOC removed, contributed solely by the oxidation of side chains. Ammeline was found to be the only end-product in both US and USUV processes.
    Journal of hazardous materials. 05/2014; 275C:166-174.
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    ABSTRACT: Climate change in the UK is expected to cause increases in temperatures, altered precipitation patterns and more frequent and extreme weather events. In this review we discuss climate effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM), how altered DOM and water physico-chemical properties will affect treatment processes and assess the utility of techniques used to remove DOM and monitor water quality. A critical analysis of the literature has been undertaken with a focus on catchment drivers of DOM character, removal of DOM via coagulation and the formation of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). We suggest that: (1) upland catchments recovering from acidification will continue to produce more DOM with a greater hydrophobic fraction as solubility controls decrease; (2) greater seasonality in DOM export is likely in future due to altered precipitation patterns; (3) changes in species diversity and water properties could encourage algal blooms; and (4) that land management and vegetative changes may have significant effects on DOM export and treatability but require further research. Increases in DBPs may occur where catchments have high influence from peatlands or where algal blooms become an issue. To increase resilience to variable DOM quantity and character we suggest that one or more of the following steps are undertaken at the treatment works: a) 'enhanced coagulation' optimised for DOM removal; b) switching from aluminium to ferric coagulants and/or incorporating coagulant aids; c) use of magnetic ion-exchange (MIEX) pre-coagulation; and d) activated carbon filtration post-coagulation. Fluorescence and UV absorbance techniques are highlighted as potential methods for low-cost, rapid on-line process optimisation to improve DOM removal and minimise DBPs.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; 473-474C:714-730. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • L.J. Xu, W. Chu, Nigel Graham
    Journal of Hazardous Materials. 01/2014; 275:166–174.
  • Wenzheng Yu, Lei Xu, Nigel Graham, Jiuhui Qu
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial effects are believed to be a major contributor to membrane fouling in drinking water treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is commonly applied in membrane cleaning, but its potential use as a pretreatment for controlling operational fouling has received little attention. In this study, the effect of adding a continuous low dose of NaClO (1 mg/l as active Cl) in combination with alum, before ultrafiltration, was compared with only alum as pretreatment. The results showed that the addition of NaClO substantially reduced membrane fouling both in terms of the rate of TMP development and the properties of the membrane cake layer. Although the size of nano-scale primary coagulant flocs changed little by the addition of NaClO, the cake layer on the membrane had a greater porosity and a substantially reduced thickness. NaClO was found to inactivate bacteria in the influent flow, which reduced both microbial proliferation and the production of proteins and polysaccharides in the cake layer and contributed significantly to improving the overall ultrafiltration performance. NaClO dosing had no adverse impact on the formation of currently regulated disinfection by-product compounds (THMs and HAAs).
    Scientific reports. 01/2014; 4:6513.
  • Tom Bond, Jin Huang, Nigel J D Graham, Michael R Templeton
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    ABSTRACT: During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA.
    Science of The Total Environment 10/2013; 470-471C:469-479. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • L J Xu, W Chu, Nigel Graham
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    ABSTRACT: The merits of the combined process of high-frequency ultrasound (US) and catalyst-free ultraviolet irradiation (UV) have been evaluated in this study by investigating the sonophotolytic degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP). A 400 kHz ultrasonic system and a photolytic system at 253.7 nm were employed individually, sequentially and simultaneously to examine the details of the processes. High UV intensities and low pH conditions enhanced the sonophotolytic degradation of DMP and a clear synergy was evident from the combination of the US and UV irradiation with a synergetic index of 2.6. The role of ultrasonically generated hydrogen peroxide was examined qualitatively and quantitatively, and its generation and photo-decomposition were found to be the principal reason for the process synergy. A novel inverted S-curve model was developed and found to successfully describe the process of sonophotolysis and DMP degradation.
    Water Research 01/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Catchments draining peat soils provide the majority of drinking water in the UK. Over the past decades, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have increased in surface waters. Residual DOC can cause harmful carcinogenic disinfection by-products to form during water treatment processes. Increased frequency and severity of droughts combined with and increased temperatures expected as the climate changes, have potentials to change water quality. We used a novel approach to investigate links between climate change, DOC release and subsequent effects on drinking water treatment. We designed a climate manipulation experiment to simulate projected climate changes and monitored releases from peat soil and litter, then simulated coagulation used in water treatment. We showed that the 'drought' simulation was the dominant factor altering DOC release and affected the ability to remove DOC. Our results imply that future short-term drought events could have a greater impact than increased temperature on DOC treatability.
    Environmental Pollution 01/2013; 173:270-277. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • L J Xu, W Chu, Nigel Graham
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive study of the sonochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was carried out using high-frequency ultrasonic processes. The effects of various operating parameters were investigated, including ultrasonic frequency, power density, initial DMP concentration, solution pH and the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In general, a frequency of 400kHz was the optimum for achieving the highest DMP degradation rate. The degradation rate was directly proportional to the power density and inversely related to the initial DMP concentration. It was interesting to find that faster removal rate was observed under weakly acidic condition, while hydrolysis effect dominated in extreme-basic condition. The addition of hydrogen peroxide can increase the radical generation to some extent. Furthermore, both hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and oxidation of the aliphatic chain appear to be the major mechanism of DMP degradation by sonolysis based on LC/ESI-MS analysis. Among the principle reaction intermediates identified, tri- and tetra-hydroxylated derivatives of DMP, as well as hydroxylated monomethyl phthalates and hydroxylated phthalic acid were reported for the first time in this study. Reaction pathways for DMP sonolysis are proposed based on the detected intermediates.
    Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 11/2012; · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • B. Delanghe, C. I. Mekras, N. J.D. Graham
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    ABSTRACT: The aqueous ozonation reactions of surfactants have been reviewed, including the degree of reaction and ozonation byproduct identity. Compounds are classified into three groups: anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants. Experimental conditions for each study reviewed are summarized. Much work has been carried out under conditions unlikely to occur during drinking water treatment. Thus, most of the findings of the papers reviewed cannot be directly applied to potable water treatment. However this review can serve to indicate the likely reactivity of the individual surfactants towards ozone and the possible byproducts formed. This reactivity depends mainly upon the chemical structure of the surfactants. The removal of surfactants is pH dependent, with the best results being obtained in alkaline media. High ozone doses usually do not cause complete disruption of the surfactants, while smaller doses are sufficient to enhance their biodegradation.
    Ozone: Science & Engineering: The Journal of the International Ozone Association. 10/2012; 13(6):639-673.
  • Steven D. Lambert, Nigel J.D. Graham, Brian T. Croll
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    ABSTRACT: This research note investigates the efficiency of ozone for the degradation of threeherbicides, imazapyr[2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-S-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)-nicotinic acid], triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) and diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] under controlled laboratory conditions. Experiments were conducted at pH 7.5, in a bubble contactor column, with a raw lowland surface water spiked with initial active ingredient concentrations of 2 μgL−1. The ozone doses applied and consumed were 4.79 and 2.9 mg O3L−1 respectively, and resulted in removals of 53%, 48% and 90% of imazapyr, triclopyr and diuron, respectively.
    Ozone: Science & Engineering: The Journal of the International Ozone Association. 10/2012; 15(5):457-464.
  • Tom Bond, Michael R Templeton, Nigel Graham
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years research into the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water - including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAcAms), cyanogen halides (CNX) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) - has proliferated. This is partly due to their high reported toxicity of N-DBPs. In this review paper information about the formation yields of N-DBPs from model precursors, and about environmental precursor occurrence, has been employed to assess the amount of N-DBP formation that is attributable to known precursors. It was calculated that for HANs and HAcAms, the concentrations of known precursors - mainly free amino acids are insufficient to account for the observed concentrations of these N-DBP groups. However, at least in some waters, a significant proportion of CNX and NDMA formation can be explained by known precursors. Identified N-DBP precursors tend to be of low molecular weight and low electrostatic charge relative to bulk natural organic matter (NOM). This makes them recalcitrant to removal by water treatment processes, notably coagulation, as confirmed by a number of bench-scale studies. However, amino acids have been found to be easier to remove during water treatment than would be suggested by the known molecular properties of the individual free amino acids.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2012; 235-236:1-16. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    Angeliki Aisopou, Ivan Stoianov, Nigel J D Graham
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the pipe and increased mixing, and the need for further experimental research to investigate these interactions; (ii) important advances in sensor technologies which provide unique opportunities to study both the dynamic hydraulic conditions and water quality changes in operational systems. The research in these two areas is critical to better understand and manage the water quality deterioration in ageing water transmission and distribution systems.
    Water Research 11/2011; 46(1):235-46. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of using sludge based activated carbons (SBACs) for catalysing the wet air oxidation (WAO) of phenol, o-cresol, o-chlorophenol and p-nitrophenol was assessed in both a batch slurry reactor and a continuous trickle-bed reactor. In the batch reactor, the activity of two powdered carbons prepared from, respectively, dewatered raw (DRAW) sludge and dewatered, mesophilic anaerobically digested (DMAD) sludge was tested at 160 °C and 4.2 bar of oxygen partial pressure. Continuous, trickle-bed reactor experiments of up to 72 h were conducted at similar operating conditions to study the durability and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) performance of three economically promising steam activated SBACs. Due to their low mechanical strength, the two DRAW derived SBACs tested were produced using two different attrition resistance enhancement techniques. A commercial activated carbon (Chemviron, AP4-X) was employed as the reference catalyst for all of the tests. In the batch runs, the SBACs and AP4-X achieved high levels of pollutant conversion in the case of phenol, o-cresol and o-chlorophenol. However, irrespective of the carbon tested, p-nitrophenol was resistant to oxidation. When employed in the trickle-bed reactor, the DRAW derived SBAC pelletised using a lignosulphonate binder was found to be the most stable carbon. With this carbon the order of compound reactivity was as observed in the batch experiments.
    Applied Catalysis B Environmental 11/2011; 110(1):81 - 89. · 5.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs), including nitrosamines, cyanogen halides, haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides and halonitromethanes, in drinking water is of concern due to their high genotoxicity and cytotoxicity compared with regulated DBPs. Occurrence of N-DBPs is likely to increase if water sources become impacted by wastewater and algae. Moreover, a shift from chlorination to chloramination, an option for water providers wanting to reduce regulated DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), can also increase certain N-DBPs. This paper provides a critical review of the occurrence and control of N-DBPs. Data collated from surveys undertaken in the United States and Scotland were used to calculate that the sum of analysed halonitromethanes represented 3-4% of the mass of THMs on a median basis; with Pearson product moment correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.83 between formation of dihaloacetonitriles and that of THMs and HAAs respectively. The impact of water treatment processes on N-DBP formation is complex and variable. While coagulation and filtration are of moderate efficacy for the removal of N-DBP precursors, such as amino acids and amines, biofiltration, if used prior to disinfection, is particularly successful at removing cyanogen halide precursors. Oxidation before final disinfection can increase halonitromethane formation and decrease N-nitrosodimethylamine, and chloramination is likely to increase cyanogen halides and NDMA relative to chlorination.
    Water Research 06/2011; 45(15):4341-54. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the use of novel CWAO catalysts, namely potentially low cost, sewage sludge derived activated carbons was explored. Two types of municipal sludge were used: dewatered raw filter cake and dewatered mesophilic anaerobically digested sludge. The carbons were produced by: carbonisation; physical activation (steam or CO2) and chemical activation (K2CO3). Hydrochloric acid washing of some of the carbons was also investigated. The carbons were characterised in terms of their surface area, contact pH, propensity towards metal leaching, surface chemistry (via FTIR), ash content and inorganic elemental composition. Their CWAO performance was assessed at 160°C and a partial oxygen pressure of 4.2 bar (25bar of air) within a stirred batch reactor containing a 5 g/L phenol solution. All the carbons exhibited catalytic activity, with the K2CO3 activated and HCl washed carbons attaining a phenol and TOC removal that matched the performance of an activated carbon specifically manufactured for oxidative wastewater treatment applications. A strong correlation was found between surface area and phenol or TOC conversion, suggesting that surface area is a primary requisite for their performance in the first batch cycle. Thus, the oxidation of phenol is thought to proceed via a free radical driven mechanism. The active sites necessary to facilitate this mechanism, whether present as surface functional groups or active metals (e.g., Fe), were detected on all of the sludge based activated carbons. However, no clear correlation between phenol conversion and these active sites could be established.
    Applied Catalysis B Environmental 01/2011; 101(3 - 4):306 - 316. · 5.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
195.39 Total Impact Points


  • 1986–2014
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2013
    • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
      • • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      • • Research Centre for Environmental Technology & Management
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2010
    • Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques
      • Laboratoire de Genier Chimique (LGC)
      Toulouse, Midi-Pyrenees, France
  • 2007
    • King Juan Carlos University
      Madrid, Spain
  • 1999
    • Harbin University of Civil Engineering & Architecture
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China