[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of combined oral contraceptives has been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Whether these drugs alter cardiac autonomic nervous system control is not completely determined.
To evaluate the effect of a contraceptive containing 20mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 3mg of drospirenone on the heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and blood pressure of healthy women.
Prospective controlled trial with 69 healthy women allocated in two groups: 36 volunteers under oral combined contraceptive use and 33 volunteers using of non-hormonal contraceptive methods. Subjects were tested before the introduction of the contraceptive method and 6 months after its use. For data acquisition, we used continuous non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure curve recordings. Multiple ANOVA was used to determine differences between groups and moments and p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
At baseline, there were no differences in demographic and autonomic parameters between groups. Comparing cardiac sympatho-vagal modulation, baroreceptor sensitivity and blood pressure measurements between baseline and after 6 months, no significant difference was detected in each group or between groups.
A contraceptive containing 20mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 3mg of drospirenone causes no significant changes in clinical, hemodynamic and autonomic parameters of normal women.
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 01/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Extended-cycle and continuous use combined oral contraceptives (COC) have been widely investigated; however, gynecologists' prescribing habits are largely unknown. This study evaluated the opinions and prescribing habits of Brazilian gynecologists regarding extended/continuous COC. Gynecologists caring for reproductive-age women and used to prescribing COC were recruited to an online survey. Overall, 1097 physicians were included. Of these, 93.0% stated that patients requested extended/continuous COC, with 93.9% of the physicians having already prescribed these regimens at least once. Only 67 physicians reported never having prescribed extended/continuous COC. The most common reasons for prescribing extended/continuous COC were "dysmenorrhea", "endometriosis" and "convenience of menstrual suppression". Physicians reported prescribing extended/continuous regimens for 20.7 ± 17.2% of their patients with an indication for COC, postgraduate degree holders being more likely to prescribe extended/continuous regimens than physicians without postgraduate degree (23.6 ± 19.1% versus 20.0 ± 16.7%; p = 0.014). In conclusion, the vast majority of gynecologists prescribe extended/continuous COC. Women often request information from their doctors on the subject. "Convenience of menstrual suppression" is a common reason given for prescribing extended/continuous COC. According to the physicians, the great majority of extended/continuous COC users are satisfied or very satisfied with the regimen prescribed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This prospective interventional study was designed to determine the impact of providing standardized information on different methods of combined hormonal contraception on women's selection of which method to use. A total of 952 Brazilian gynecologists were randomly selected. Each gynecologist recruited 15 consecutive patients for whom combined hormonal contraception was indicated. Each patient was asked which contraceptive method she would prefer (pill, patch, vaginal ring or injectable) before and after receiving a standardized explanation on each of these methods provided by her doctor. A total of 9507 women were included in the study. Prior to counseling, 66.5% of the women stated that they would prefer the pill, 17.9% the injectable, 8.9% the patch and 6.7% the vaginal ring. After counseling, 53.7% of the women stated that they would prefer the pill, 16.3% the injectable, 14% the patch and 16% the ring. In conclusion, the combined pill remains the most popular contraceptive method among Brazilian women; however, after receiving information on the various contraceptive methods available, the proportion of women choosing the vaginal ring or patch increased, while preference for the combined pill decreased.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although acceptability of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is widespread, patients are often unaware of the noncontraceptive benefits. STUDY DESIGN: An opinion survey through telephone interview was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of 500 Brazilian women 15-45 years of age who were current users or had recently used COCs. Data were obtained on their knowledge of adverse events, the effects of COCs on health- and menstrual-related symptoms, noncontraceptive benefits and aspects related to sexual response. RESULTS: Most of the women interviewed learned about the pill from doctors or the Internet. Other than the pill, the best-known contraceptive methods were the condom and intrauterine device. The majority of women believe that COCs do not change the risk of gynecological cancers. Most believed that they had no significant effect on sexual response. CONCLUSIONS: COCs users in Brazil lack precise information on aspects related to general health, particularly menstrual-related symptoms and noncontraceptive health benefits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) may lead to a rise in cardiovascular disease risk, possibly associated with changes in blood pressure and endothelial function.
The objective was to evaluate the impact of COC containing 20 mcg of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3 mg of drospirenone (DRSP) on the arterial endothelial function, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP , respectively), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) of healthy young women. Of the 71 women in the study, 43 were evaluated before the introduction of COC and after 6 months of its use (case group) and 28, COC nonusers, were assessed for the same parameters at the same time interval (control group).
No significant changes in endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent functions or in measures of SBP, DBP, HR, CO and TPR caused by COC use were observed in the case group (p>.05 for all variables) or in the control group.
These data suggest COC with 20 mcg EE and 3 mg DRSP does not alter arterial endothelial function or hemodynamic parameters in healthy young women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the scarce information available in Brazil in relation to the number of women who initiated the use of combined oral contraceptives and prematurely discontinued, the objective was to assess the reasons for discontinuation of the use of several combined oral contraceptives among Brazilian women living in urban areas.
A cross-sectional study with 400 gynecologists registered withy the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Each physician interviewed 10 non-pregnant, not breastfeeding, not amenorrheic women aged 18 to 39 years who consulted requesting combined oral contraceptive (COC) with a questionnaire at the beginning of use and at six months later. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, type of COC chosen or prescribed and reasons for discontinuation when it occurred during follow-up. The strategy of selection allowed the inclusion of women from different socioeconomic strata, however, only those attended at private or insurance offices. The sample size was estimated at 1,427 women.
A total of 3,465 interviews were conducted at the first visit and 1,699 six months later. The women were 20 to 29 years old, 57.3% were single and an equal proportion of 45.0% attended high school or college. Most (60.7%) were nulligravidas and among those who had used some contraceptive before, 71.8% had used a COC. Among the more prescribed or chosen COC the most prevalent were monophasic with ethynil estradiol (20 µg) and regarding progestin the most prevalent was with gestodene (36.5%) followed by a COC with drosperinone (22.0%). At six months 63.5% still used COC. Among those who discontinued the main reasons were wishing to become pregnant (36.5%) and side effects (57.3%) and the most prevalent were headache (37.6%), weight gain (16.6%) and irregular bleeding (23.6%).
The continuation rate of COC was low at six months and this study could contribute to a better counseling on the part of physicians of patients who initiate COC about side-events that are rare, minimal and temporary and about the benefits of COC use.
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 06/2011; 33(6):303-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, they may not be suitable for some women. COC use is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular events and is not recommended in nonbreastfeeding women in the immediate postpartum period or in breastfeeding women during the initial 6 months of breastfeeding. Moreover, estrogen-related adverse effects, such as headache, are common. Estrogen-free progestin-only pills (POPs) are a valuable option in women who prefer to take an oral hormonal contraceptive, but are ineligible for, or choose not to use, COCs. Although some POPs have been associated with lower contraceptive effectiveness than COCs, the POP containing desogestrel has shown similar contraceptive effectiveness to COCs. The most commonly reported complaints in women using all POPs are bleeding problems. Counseling women interested in using POPs about the variable bleeding patterns associated with this method may improve compliance and acceptance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare bleeding patterns of women using a contraceptive combination of 30 mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3 mg drospirenone (DRSP) continuously or cyclically. Menstrual-related symptoms were also evaluated.
This open, prospective, randomized study evaluated 78 women using the EE/DRSP combination continuously for 168 days or for six 28-day cycles, each followed by a 7-day hormone-free interval. A diary with pre-established scales was used to assess the frequency and intensity of bleeding and menstrual-related symptoms.
Amenorrhea increased with continuous use; 62.2% of women with continuous use were amenorrheic at the end of treatment (95% CI: 46.6-77.8%). Dysmenorrhea, headache, acne, nausea, edema and increased appetite improved significantly in the continuous-use group, and mastalgia and edema in the cyclic-use group (p<.05). Six subjects in the continuous-use group (15.4%) and three in the cyclic-use group (7.7%) discontinued due to adverse events.
Continuous use was associated with amenorrhea and fewer menstrual-related symptoms compared to cyclic use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a contraceptive pill containing ethinylestradiol (30 mcg) and drospirenone (3 mg) in a continuous regimen on lipid, carbohydrate and coagulation parameters.
This open, prospective, randomized study included 78 participants (mean age 27.8 years) who were randomized into two groups to use the pill continuously for 168 days or for six 28-day cycles with a 7-day hormone-free interval between cycles. Markers of lipid, carbohydrate and coagulation profiles were measured prior to initiation and after the 6 months of pill use.
No statistically significant differences were found between the two contraceptive regimens with respect to carbohydrate or lipid profiles or in the parameters related to coagulation.
The contraceptive combination of ethinylestradiol and drospirenone used in a continuous regimen was associated with metabolic alterations similar to those found during the traditional cyclic regimen of oral contraceptive use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular surgery has presented a high evolution since 1960 with Charles Dotter, who changed the concept of catheter utilization as a mean to diagnose and introduce therapeutic in interventionist vascular environment. The first reports of bleeding control of gastrointestinal and transluminal angioplasty input the development of new techniques for endovascular access, and new materials use, such as microcatheters and embolic agents, become this procedure effective and viable for treatment of several pathologies. The embolization of several organs of human body is a procedure carried out for more than 30 years all over the world showing safety, efficacy and of simple execution. In obstetrics and gynecology, particularly, the first reports refer to pelvic hemorrhage control of varied etiology, including pelvic trauma, bladder and gynecology neoplasia, anteriovenous fistulas and puerperal hemorrhages. The embolization of uterine myoma appears in the 1990’s as an alternative for treat of uterine leiomyoma, and a number of studies try to clarify the risks and benefits of this procedure. It is a multidisciplinary technique, with diagnostic and indication performed by gynecologist and the procedure done by interventional vascular radiologist. This review is a critical analysis of interventionist vascular radiologic methods and its main therapeutic indications in gynecology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A possible increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolic events has been reported among users of third generation oral contraceptives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low dose oral contraceptive (15 microg ethinyl estradiol/60 microg gestodene) on the venous endothelial function of healthy young women.
Prospective case control study using the dorsal hand vein technique. Venous endothelial function was evaluated at baseline and after 4 months in the oral contraceptive users group (11 women) and in a control group (9 women). After preconstriction of the vein with phenylephrine, dose-response curves for acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were constructed.
In the contraceptive users group, a reduction occurred in the maximum venodilation response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside after 4 months of oral contraceptive use, but this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). No significant changes were detected in maximum venodilation responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside at the 4-month time point in the control group.
This study found no significant impairment of endothelium-dependent or independent venodilation in healthy young women following oral contraceptive use. Further studies are necessary using the same methodology in a larger sample over a longer follow-up period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials conducted during the past few years resulted in critical re-evaluation of the overall health benefits of hormone therapy (HT) in women during the menopausal transition and thereafter. These data stimulated vigorous debate among experts and produced several position papers by North American and European authorities providing guidance on the use of HT. It is well known that cultural, geographic and ethnic differences influence the acceptance and risk perception of HT. Therefore, it was considered essential to present a position specifically relevant to Latin American countries.
A Latin American Expert Panel, convening in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, obtained consensus on recommendations for HT that incorporated the findings of the most recently published reports. The panelists' opinions were surveyed by means of the Likert scale along five categories ranging from complete agreement to complete disagreement.
The Panel presented 13 recommendations and considered three additional issues relevant to HT use. There was consensus that HT during the perimenopause and thereafter is warranted in Latin American women in particular for the management of vasomotor symptoms. HT may also be an option for osteoporosis prevention in women at significant risk, after evaluation of risks/benefits and after consideration of alternative therapies. HT should be individualized and prescribed at the lowest effective dose.
The Panel concluded that HT remains a safe and effective treatment option for peri- and postmenopausal Latin American women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared two regimens of a monthly injectable contraceptive containing dihydroxyprogesterone acetophenide 150 mg and estradiol enanthate 10 mg (Perlutan) over 12 cycles of use.
Three hundred sixty-five adolescents were randomized into two groups. The patients in Group 1 received an initial injection of Perlutan on the 1st-5th day of their menstrual cycle and subsequent injections every 30 +/- 3 days, whereas those in Group 2 followed the traditional schedule of administration in which the first injection is administered between Days 7 and 10 of their menstrual cycle and subsequent injections 7-10 days after Day 1 of withdrawal bleeding. This schedule may result in an irregularity in the timing of injections.
No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding tolerability or pregnancy (two in Group 1 and three in Group 2).
Monthly administration limits the annual number of injections to a maximum of 12, thus frequently reducing the total annual dose while maintaining efficacy and tolerability similar to those obtained with the traditional regimen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from both animal and human research indicate that psychological stress is associated with altered menstrual function. A number of studies have examined the relationship be- tween more common stressors (job strain, financial worries, daily hassles) and menstrual cycle characteristics, such as cycle length and quality of bleeding, as well as amenorrhea. Numerous investigators have suggested that functional reproductive deficits result prima- rily from direct actions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical, probably modulated by a CRH-stimulated increase in the opioid beta-endorphin. The characterization of the psychic envolvement in these conditions represents basic element for the adequate the- rapeutical approach.
Revista De Psiquiatria Clinica - REV PSIQUIATR CLIN. 01/2006; 33(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from both animal and human research indicate that psychological stress is associated with altered menstrual function. A number of studies have examined the relationship between more common stressors (job strain, financial worries, daily hassles) and menstrual cycle characteristics, such as cycle length and quality of bleeding, as well as amenorrhea. Numerous investigators have suggested that functional reproductive deficits result primarily from direct actions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical, probably modulated by a CRH-stimulated increase in the opioid beta-endorphin. The characterization of the psychic envolvement in these conditions represents basic element for the adequate therapeutical approach.
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica 12/2005; 33(2):55-59. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study on gynecologists in Brazil, with particular emphasis on knowledge, interpretation of the study and attitude regarding hormone therapy (HT).
A total of 806 gynecologists were evaluated through questionnaires. For the evaluation, questions regarding his/her degree of knowledge and interpretation of the WHI study, number of prescriptions written for HT and opinion regarding the ideal form of HT following the WHI study were analyzed.
Physicians were found to have a good knowledge of the study (97.6%). The most common interpretation of the results of the WHI study referred to the single HT regimen used in the trial in patients with specific characteristics, this being the response of 66.3% of physicians. There was a reduction of 21.7% in the intention to prescribe HT, with 32.5% of gynecologists reporting changing to a different therapeutic regimen. After the WHI study, the gynecologists showed a preference for low doses of estrogens and progestogens.
The WHI study had a relevant impact on the attitude of doctors in Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This open-label, randomized, Phase III study compared the efficacy and tolerability of and compliance with NuvaRing, a combined contraceptive vaginal ring releasing 15 microg of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 120 microg of etonogestrel daily, with those of and with a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 150 microg of levonorgestrel (LNG) and 30 microg of EE. Subjects received NuvaRing or a COC for 13 cycles (3 weeks of ring/pill treatment followed by a 1-week ring-/pill-free period). A total of 1030 subjects (NuvaRing, n=512; COC, n=518) was randomized and started treatment (intent-to-treat [ITT] population). The percentage of women in the ITT population who completed the trial was 70.9% for the NuvaRing group and 71.2% for the COC group. Five in-treatment pregnancies occurred in each group, giving Pearl indices of 1.23 for NuvaRing and 1.19 for the COC. Compliance with both treatments was excellent and both were well tolerated. In conclusion, NuvaRing has comparable efficacy and tolerability with a COC containing 150 microg of LNG and 30 microg of EE and does not require daily dosing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This trial was conducted to compare cycle control with vaginal ring a combined contraceptive vaginal ring, and a combined oral contraceptive (COC) delivering 30 mug ethinylestradiol (EE) and 150 mug levonorgestrel.
This open-label, randomized, multi-centre, Phase III study involved adult women from 11 countries. Subjects were treated with either vaginal ring or a COC for 13 cycles (12 months).
A total of 1030 subjects (vaginal ring, n=512; COC, n=518) comprised the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. The percentage of women in the ITT population who completed the trial was 70.9% for vaginal ring and 71.2% for the COC group. The incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting over cycles 2-13, the primary efficacy parameter, was lower with vaginal ring (range 2.0-6.4%) than the COC (range 3.5-12.6%), and for cycles 2 and 9 the lower incidence with vaginal ring was confirmed as statistically significant (P=0.003 and P=0.002 respectively). The incidence of intended bleeding was significantly higher over all cycles with vaginal ring (58.8-72.8%) than with the COC (43.4-57.9%).
Cycle control with vaginal ring was excellent and superior to that of a COC containing 30 mug EE.
Human Reproduction 02/2005; 20(2):557-62. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This open-label study evaluated the effects on body fat of the use of a low-dose oral contraceptive (gestodene75/EE20) in a group of 61 women (OC-U group) as compared to a nonuser group (OC-N group) of 51 women who did not receive an oral contraceptive. Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-over-hip ratio and body composition data, obtained by bioelectrical impedance [percentages of body fat (%FAT), water (%TBW) and lean mass (%FFM)], were assessed before and after six treatment cycles. Baseline OC-U group weight, BMI, %FAT, %TBW and %FFM did not differ from the OC-N group, either at baseline or at the end of the study, and did not significantly change within each group during the study. Also, there was no modification of fat distribution in either group. Among women in the OC-U group, there was a slight increase in total cholesterol levels and a trend towards higher triglycerides levels. No changes were detected in blood pressure. In conclusion, this low-dose oral contraceptive did not affect weight or body composition. Thus, our data suggest that gestodene75/EE20 represents an appropriate OC choice and may enhance compliance of women who mistakenly believe that the use of oral contraceptives always leads to weight gain.