[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group on outcomes research in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The working group sought to provide guidance on research priorities in outcomes research related to CVD. For the purposes of this document, "outcomes research" is defined as investigative endeavors that generate knowledge to improve clinical decision making and healthcare delivery to optimize patient outcomes. The working group identified the following priority areas: (1) national surveillance projects for high-prevalence CV conditions; (2) patient-centered care; (3) translation of the best science into clinical practice; and (4) studies that place the cost of interventions in the context of their real-world effectiveness. Within each of these topics, the working group described examples of initiatives that could serve the Institute and the public. In addition, the group identified the following areas that are important to the field: (1) promotion of the use of existing data; (2) facilitation of collaborations with other federal agencies; (3) investigations into the basic science of outcomes research, with an emphasis on methodological advances; (4) strengthening of appropriate study sections with individuals who have expertise in outcomes research; and (5) expansion of opportunities to train new outcomes research investigators. The working group concluded that a dedicated investment in CV outcomes research could directly improve the care delivered in the United States.